Themes in World Regional Geography - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Themes in World Regional Geography

Description:

Themes in World Regional Geography Geo100 - Fall 2003 Julie Hwang Lecture #2 Outlines Environmental Geography Population Geography Cultural Geography Political ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:453
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 47
Provided by: 6649324
Learn more at: https://gis.depaul.edu
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Themes in World Regional Geography


1
Themes in World Regional Geography
  • Geo100 - Fall 2003
  • Julie Hwang
  • Lecture 2

2
Outlines
  • Environmental Geography
  • Population Geography
  • Cultural Geography
  • Political Geography
  • Economic Geography

3
Population and Settlement
4
World Population
  • 6 billion humans on Earth

5
Population growth change in the world regions
  • Rapid growth in the developing world
  • Stabilized in developed countries
  • Population growth/change is caused by
  • natural growth (by birth offset by death)
  • Migration (by in out-migration)

6
Demographic indicators
  • RNI (Rate of Natural Increase)
  • Annual growth rate for a country
  • (birth death) / total population
  • Migration is not considered
  • TFR (Total Fertility Rate)
  • Average number of children borne by a
    statistically average woman

7
Demographic indicators
  • population under 15
  • Indicates rapid population growth
  • Need for nutrition, health care
  • higher in less-developed countries
  • population over 65
  • Need for social welfare services
  • higher in more-developed countries

8
Demographic indicators
  • Population pyramids

9
Demographic Transition Model
  • How population growth rates change over time?
  • Phase1 Preindustrial
  • high birth death rate
  • Phase2 Transitional
  • death rate ? (lt- onset of public health measure)
  • Phase3 Transitional
  • birth rate ? (lt- aware of advantages of smaller
    families)
  • Phase4 Industrial
  • low birth death rate

10
Demographic Transition Model
11
Migration Patterns
  • Increase in international migration due to
    globalized economy
  • Move from rural to urban environments due to
    urbanization
  • What contributes to migration?
  • Push factor civil strife, political refugee
  • Pull factor better economic opportunity
  • Informational networks

12
World Urbanization
  • Currently 46 of worlds population in cities

13
Cities over 10 million
  • Rapid growth in the developing world
  • Slow growth in the developed world

14
Conceptualizing the City
  • Urban primacy
  • Dominates economic, political, and cultural
    activities within the country
  • Overurbanization
  • urban population grows more quickly than support
    services such as housing, transportation, waste
    disposal, and water supply
  • Squatter settlements
  • illegal developments of makeshift housing on land
    neither owned nor rented by their inhabitants

15
Example of squatter settlements
16
Cultural Coherence and Diversity
17
Culture
  • Learned, and not innate, behavior
  • Shared, and not individual, behavior
  • Way of life
  • Dynamic rather than static
  • Process, not a condition

18
Spectrum of cultural groups
  • Folk culture
  • shared by self-sufficient rural group
  • Ethnic culture
  • Common ancestry, race, religion, or language
  • Popular culture
  • Primarily urban-based, superficial relationships
    between people, weaker family structure
  • World culture
  • subset of popular culture, indeterminate
    nationality, mixed cultural value

19
Membership of cultural groups
  • Common to have association with multiple cultural
    groups
  • eg. Amish young people interacts with popular
    culture while talking their primary identity from
    their folk culture

20
Cultural Collision
  • Cultural imperialism
  • Promotes one cultural system at the expense of
    another (eg. European colonialism)
  • Cultural nationalism
  • As the reaction against cultural imperialism
    defends cultural system against diluting forces
    promotes national and local cultural values
  • Cultural syncretism or hybridization
  • Blending of forces to form a new, synergistic
    form of culture

21
World Languages
Based on language families
22
World Religions
  • Universalizing religions
  • Appeal to all peoples regardless of location or
    culture (eg. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism)
  • Ethnic religions
  • Identified closely with a specific ethnic,
    tribal, or national group (eg. Judaism, Hinduism)

23
World Religions
  • Christianity 2 billion Europe, Africa, Latin
    America, and North America
  • Islam 1.2 billion Arabian Peninsula, Some
    Southeast Asia
  • Buddhism 300-900 million Asia Rather mixed

24
Geopolitical framework
25
Geopolitics
  • Describes the link between geography and
    political activity

26
State Nation
  • State
  • political entity with territorial boundaries
  • Nation
  • a large group of people who share cultural
    elements such as language, religion, tradition,
    cultural identity

27
Nation-state congruence
  • Nation-state
  • Relatively homogenous cultural group with its own
    political territory
  • Ideal political model relatively rare (eg.
    Japan)
  • Multinational state
  • A country that contains different cultural and
    ethnic groups
  • More common than nation-state (eg. US)
  • Nation without a state
  • Nations lacking recognized, self-governed
    territory (eg. Palestinians, Kurds, Basques,
    Catalans)

28
Example of nation without a state
Not all nations or large cultural groups control
their own political territories or states
29
Centrifugal Centripetal forces
  • Centrifugal forces
  • Forces that weaken or divide a state
  • eg. Quebec, Basque
  • Centripetal forces
  • Forces that unite or reinforce a state
  • eg. Germany in the 1990s

30
Example of Centrifugal Centripetal forces
Cold War
31
Boundaries
  • Ethnographic boundaries
  • Political boundaries that follow cultural traits
    such as language or religion (eg. European
    boundaries after WWI)
  • Geometric boundaries
  • Drawn without regard for physical or cultural
    features (eg. Africa in a colonial era)

32
Example of ethnographic boundaries
WWI
After WWI, empires were largely replaced by
nation-states.
33
Example of geometric boundaries
  • The lack of congruence between ethnic boundaries
    and political borders often results in civil war

34
Colonialism Decolonialization
  • Colonialism
  • Formal establishment of rule over a foreign
    population
  • Decolonialization
  • Process of a colonys gaining(regaining) control
    over its territory and establishing a independent
    government
  • They are fundamental forces in the shaping of the
    modern world system

35
The Colonial World, 1914
36
Consequences of Colonialism
  • In general, disadvantaged because of a
    much-reduced resource base, but varies from place
    to place
  • Continuing exchange of human networks
  • Economic ties between certain imperial powers and
    their former colonies are still found

37
International Supranational organizations
  • International organizations
  • links together two or more states for some
    specific purpose, but does not affect the
    sovereignty of each state (eg. UN, OPEC, NATO,
    ASEAN, NAFTA)
  • Supranational organizations
  • organization of nation-states linked together
    with a common goal, but which requires each to
    give up some sovereignty (eg. EU, Arab League)

38
Economic/Social development
39
Core-periphery model
  • As a way of understanding increasing uneven
    development between more/less-developed countries
  • Developed core achieved its wealth primarily by
    exploiting the periphery, either through more
    recent economic imperialism
  • Dependence may be structure through the relations
    of exchange, production between core and periphery

40
World Economic Core Areas
  • Economic activity is clustered around these core
    areas while outlying areas are underdeveloped

41
Indicators of economic development
  • GNI
  • the value of all final goods and services
    produced within a country plus net income from
    abroad
  • Measures the size of economy
  • GNI per capita (at market exchange rate)
  • GNI divided by countrys population
  • GNI per capita at purchasing power parity
  • GNI adjusted for differences in prices and
    exchange rates
  • Living standards with the local currency

42
  • GNI per capita at MER
  • What a nation can buy outside the nation
  • GNI per capital at PPP
  • What a nation can buy inside the nation

43
Indicators of social development
  • Life expectancy
  • average length of life expected at birth for a
    hypothetical male or female, as based on national
    death statistics
  • Under age 5 mortality
  • measure of the number of children who die per
    1,000 persons

44
Indicators of social development
  • Adult illiteracy rates
  • percentage of a societys males and females who
    cannot read
  • Female labor force participation
  • percentage of a nations labor force that is
    female

45
  • Give insights into the social conditions such as
    health care, sanitation, homocide rate,
    prevalence of disease

46
Sustainable development
  • Concept on limits to development
  • Development that meets the needs of the present
    without compromising the ability of future
    generations
  • Intergenerational equity
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com