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Super Computers ---Parallel Computers


... molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins. ... His selection of people for his projects also reflected fundamentals. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Super Computers ---Parallel Computers

Super Computers ---Parallel Computers
CS147 Lecture 20
  • Prof. Sin-Min Lee
  • Department of Computer Science

By 1960, at the age of 34, Seymour had
established his reputation for genius in
designing high performance computers. He had
completed the design of the Control Data 1604,
the first computer to be fully transistorized and
had begun the design of the first system that
earned the title of supercomputer, the CDC 6600
which was also the first major system to employ
three-dimensional packaging and an instruction
set that was later to be referred to as RISC.
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Even as a child, Seymour was a problem solver.
His sister tells the story about when Seymour was
a young boy, he rigged a Morse Code connection
between his bedroom and his sister's so that they
could communicate after lights out. His father
became aware of the late night clicking and told
Seymour to shut down the system because it was
bothering the rest of the household. Seymour's
solution was to convert the clickers to lights
and to continue to communicate with his sister.
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Robert Frost's, "The Road Not Taken" "I shall be
telling this with a sighSomewhere ages and ages
henceTwo roads diverged in a wood, and I--I
took the one less traveled by,And that has made
all the difference."
Seymour liked to work with fundamental and simple
tools. Generally only a piece of paper and a
pencil. But he admitted that some of his work
required more sophisticated tools. Once when told
that Apple Computer bought a CRAY to simulate
their next Apple computer design, Seymour
remarked, "Funny, I am using an Apple to simulate
the CRAY-3." His selection of people for his
projects also reflected fundamentals. Once asked
why he often hires new graduates to help him with
early RD work, he replied, "Because they don't
know that what I'm asking them to do is
impossible, so they try."
Since the first supercomputer, the Cray-1, was
installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in
1976, computational speed has leaped 500,000
times. The Cray-1 was capable of 80 megaflops
(80 million operations a second). The Blue Gene/L
machine that will be completed next year will be
five million times faster.
1 Earth Simulator Center, Japan 2 Intel
Itanium2 Tiger4 1.4GHz, Quadrics 3 ASCI Q -
AlphaServer SC45, 1.25 GHz 4 Blue Gene/L DD1
Prototype (0.5GHz PowerPC 440 w/Custom) 5
PowerEdge 1750, P4 Xeon 3.06 GHz, Myrinet 6
eServer pSeries 690 (1.9 GHz Power4) 7 Riken
Super Combined Cluster 8 Blue Gene/L DD2
Prototype (0.7 GHz PowerPC 440) 9 Integrity
rx2600 Itanium2 1.5 GHz, Quadrics 10 Dawning
4000A, Opteron 2.2 GHz, Myrinet
Its peak theoretical performance is expected to
be 360 teraflops, and will fit into 64 full
racks. It will also cut down on the amount of
heat generated by the massive power, a big
problem for supercomputers. The final machine
will help scientists work out the safety,
security and reliability requirements for the
US's nuclear weapons stockpile, without the need
for underground nuclear testing. IBM's senior
vice president of technology and manufacturing,
Nick Donofrio, believes that by 2006, Blue Gene
will be capable of petaflop computing. This
means it would be capable of doing 1,000 trillion
operations a second.
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NASA to build 10,000-processor Linux computer IDG
News Service 7/28/04The National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA) has given the
green light to a project that will build the
largest ever supercomputer based on Silicon
Graphics Inc.'s (SGI) 512-processor Altix
computers. Called Project Columbia, the
10,240-processor system will be used by
researchers at the Advanced Supercomputing
Facility at NASA's Ames Research Center in
Moffett Field, California. . "
Scientists will use Columbia to design equipment,
simulate future space missions and model weather
patterns. A portion of the US160 million system
will also be made available to other government
agencies and educational facilities, said Bill
Thigpen, manager of Project Columbia. "We need to
look at working with other agencies to provide
them with access to this system because it is a
unique system," he said. What makes Project
Columbia unique is the size of the multiprocessor
Linux systems, or nodes, that it clusters
together. It is common for supercomputers to be
built of thousands of two-processor nodes, but
the Ames system uses SGI's NUMAlink switching
technology and ProPack Linux operating system
enhancements to connect 512-processor nodes, each
of which will have more than 1,000G bytes of
"We use a very large single-system image," said
Jeff Greenwald, senior director of server product
marketing with SGI. "The other guys come with a
very thin node cluster, and try to screw them all
together." The Altix nodes will use Intel Corp.'s
Itanium 2 microprocessors, and the entire 20-node
system is expected to be fully assembled by
year's end, he said. SGI has used this large-node
technology to build a number of smaller Altix
systems with between 3,000 and 6,000 processors,
but Project Columbia will be the largest to date,
Greenwald said
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The Earth Simulator has held on to the top spot
since June 2002. It is dedicated to climate
modelling and simulating seismic activity
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SINGAPORE (CNN) -- A group of researchers from
Singapore has created a computer chip that has
the power of 100 standard computers. The group of
five, all working at Ngee Ann Polytechnic, will
commercialize their development by January and
sell it to the pharmaceutical industry, where
they say the invention will save time and
money. Lead researcher Darran Nathan, 24,
explains that unlike standard computer chips,
which function using software, his is based on a
computer's hardware.
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"An ordinary computer chip will interpret
instructions from the software and execute a
command," he says. "Our chip is a reconfigurable
chip, which means it downloads an actual file to
the chip and rewires it according to subsequent
processing done in the hardware." Nathan says the
process is highly technical but, put simply, is a
computer chip that works at a speed of 100
standard computers combined. He says the super
chip was originally created with the
telecommunications industry in mind, but soon
after work on the project began two years ago,
they realized the benefits would be much more
useful to life sciences.
"It is 100 times quicker than your standard
computer. Most people do not need such a powerful
computer, but in the area of designing and
developing drugs, it is hugely important," says
Nathan. "It basically means getting essential
drugs on the street quicker, at a cheaper
cost." Nathan says the device will cost between
US30,000 and US61,000, and its key point of
difference between other supercomputers is its
small size. The team, which calls itself Project
Proteus, after the shape-shifting Greek god, are
aged between 24 and 27. Last week they showcased
their chip at the Global Entrepolis convention in
Singapore where Mr Nathan says they received a
lot of positive feedback.
A Supercomputer at 5.2 million
Virginia Tech 1,100 node Macs. G5 supercomputer
The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University has built a supercomputer comprised of
a cluster of 1,100 dual-processor Macintosh G5
computers. Based on preliminary benchmarks, Big
Mac is capable of 8.1 teraflops per second. The
Mac supercomputer still is being fine tuned, and
the full extent of its computing power will not
be known until November. But the 8.1 teraflops
figure would make the Big Mac the world's fourth
fastest supercomputer
Big Mac's cost relative to similar machines is as
noteworthy as its performance. The Apple
supercomputer was constructed for just over US5
million, and the cluster was assembled in about
four weeks. In contrast, the world's leading
supercomputers cost well over 100 million to
build and require several years to construct. The
Earth Simulator, which clocked in at 38.5
teraflops in 2002, reportedly cost up to 250
October 28Time 730pm - 900pmLocation Santa
Clara Ballroom
Srinidhi Varadarajan, Ph.D.Dr. Srinidhi
Varadarajan is an Assistant Professor of Computer
Science at Virginia Tech. He was honored with the
NSF Career Award in 2002 for "Weaving a Code
Tapestry A Compiler Directed Framework for
Scalable Network Emulation." He has focused his
research on building a distributed network
emulation system that can scale to emulate
hundreds of thousands of virtual nodes.
Parallel Computers
  • Two common types
  • Cluster
  • Multi-Processor

Cluster Computers
Clusters on the Rise Using clusters of small
machines to build a supercomputer is not a new
concept. Another of the world's top machines,
housed at the Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, was constructed from 2,304 Xeon
processors. The machine was build by Utah-based
Linux Networx. Clustering technology has meant
that traditional big-iron leaders like Cray
(Nasdaq CRAY) and IBM have new competition
from makers of smaller machines. Dell (Nasdaq
DELL) , among other companies, has sold
high-powered computing clusters to research
Cluster Computers
  • Each computer in a cluster is a complete computer
    by itself
  • CPU
  • Memory
  • Disk
  • etc
  • Computers communicate with each other via some
    interconnection bus

Cluster Computers
  • Typically used where one computer does not have
    enough capacity to do the expected work
  • Large Servers
  • Cheaper than building one GIANT computer

Although not new, supercomputing clustering
technology still is impressive. It works by
farming out chunks of data to individual
machines, adding that clustering works better for
some types of computing problems than others.
For example, a cluster would not be ideal to
compete against IBM's Deep Blue supercomputer in
a chess match in this case, all the data must be
available to one processor at the same moment --
the machine operates much in the same way as the
human brain handles tasks. However, a cluster
would be ideal for the processing of seismic data
for oil exploration, because that computing job
can be divided into many smaller tasks.
Cluster Computers
  • Need to break up work among the computers in the
  • Example Search Engine
  • 6 computers running SQL Server
  • Each has a copy of the MS Knowledge Base
  • Search requests come to one computer
  • Sends request to one of the 6
  • Attempts to keep all 6 busy

The Virginia Tech Mac supercomputer should be
fully functional and in use by January 2004. It
will be used for research into nanoscale
electronics, quantum chemistry, computational
chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics,
computational acoustics and the molecular
modeling of proteins.
I/O Port
  • Systems designed to have 2 to 8 CPUs
  • The CPUs all share the other parts of the
  • Memory
  • Disk
  • System Bus
  • etc
  • CPUs communicate via Memory and the System Bus

  • Each CPU shares memory, disks, etc
  • Cheaper than clusters
  • Not as good performance as clusters
  • Often used for
  • Small Servers
  • High-end Workstations

  • OS automatically shares work among available CPUs
  • On a workstation
  • One CPU can be running an engineering design
  • Another CPU can be doing complex graphics

Specialized Processors
  • Vector Processors
  • Massively Parallel Computers

Vector Processors
For (I0IltnI) array1I array2I
This is an array (vector) operation
Vector Processors
  • Special instructions to operate on vectors
  • Vector instruction specifies
  • Starting addresses of all 3 arrays
  • Loop count
  • Saves For Loop overhead
  • Can more efficiently access memory
  • Also Known as SIMD Computers
  • Single Instruction Multiple Data

Vector Processors
  • Until the 1990s, the worlds fastest
    supercomputers were implemented as vector
  • Now, Vector Processors are typically special
    peripheral devices that can be installed on a
    regular computer

Massively Parallel Computers
  • IBM ASCI Purple
  • Cluster of 196 computers
  • Each computer has
  • 64 CPUs
  • 256 Gigabytes of RAM
  • 10,000 GB of Disk

Massively Parallel Computer
  • How will ASCI Purple be used?
  • Simulation of molecular dynamics
  • Research into repairing damaged DNA
  • Analysis of seismic waves
  • Earthquake research
  • Simulation of star evolution
  • Simulation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

According to the article, the supercomputer,
powered by 2,200 IBM G5 processors, has been
initially rated at computing 7.41 trillion
operations per second. The final number could be
much higher, according to school officials, but
if not, it would rank as the 4 fastest
supercomputing cluster in the world.
Japan's US250M Earth Simulator, which is
currently the world's fastest computer Lawrence
Livermore's US10-15M cluster system, which is
made up of 2,304 Intel Xeon processors. IBM
recently installed "Pacific Blue" at the Lawrence
Livermore Laboratories for 94 million
"We are demonstrating that you can build a very
high performance machine for a fifth to a tenth
of the cost of what supercomputers now cost,"
said Hassan Aref, the dean of the School of
Engineering at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg
1998 a group called linked
thousands of computers of all kinds around the
world via the Internet, and cracked a 56-bit
DES-II code in 40 days. It had previously been
thought that such heavyweight ciphers would take
hundreds of years to crack even on fast
computers. One version of the
program ran as a screen saver that kicked in, and
began cracking code, whenever the machine was
idle for more than a few minutes. bills itself as the "Fastest
Computer on Earth", even though their hardware
bill is effectively zero.
The idea is straightforward. You set up an
arbitrary number of PCs, network them, typically
using fast Ethernet, and then send them problems
that can be divided up among the machines'
processors. One machine acts as a server that
syncs up all the rest, called clients. Beowulf
specs software like the Message Passing Interface
written under the Linux operating system, that
allows the machines to communicate while working
on the problem. And since Linux, brainchild of
computer science student Linus Torvalds, is free,
it keeps the cost down
Modeling the trajectories of tens of millions
of charged particles, each interacting with the
others through electro-magnetic forces, requires
heavy-duty number crunching. To harness
supercomputing power at a desktop price, UCLAs
Dr. Viktor K. Decyk and his colleagues have
created their own super-fast, parallel processing
supercomputer using a cluster of Power
Macintosh computers.

SYDNEY - 22 January 2001
World's fastest" Macintosh cluster Tuesday, May
15, 2001 _at_ 845am Researchers at the Grupo de
Lasers e Plasmas (GoLP) in Portugal have created
what they bill as the world's fastest
Macintosh-based cluster. Consisting of 16
dual-processor Power Mac G4/450s, the cluster
delivers more than 50 GigaFlops of peak power and
took just one day to set up.
Apple Computer purchased a big Cray supercomputer
in the mid-1980s. In fact, Steve Jobs was Cray's
first and only walk-in customer. He arrived
unannounced (so the story goes) at Cray
headquarters in Mendota Heights, Minnesota and
asked to speak to someone about buying a Cray.
They nearly threw him out. It's only slightly
less eccentric than someone walking into NASA
Johnson Space Center and inquiring how to
purchase a shuttle orbiter. Later, Cray president
John Rollwagen phoned Seymour and told him that
Apple had just purchased a Cray that would be
used in designing the next Macintosh. Seymour
thought for a bit, and replied that that seemed
reasonable, since he was using a Macintosh to
design the next Cray!
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The machines can help scientists understand one
of the greatest challenges of the 21st Century
protein folding. "Health is one of the most
important problems, not just mapping the human
genome, but also protein structures. "We are a
great believer in simulation. It gives you
another tool," he said. Once the structures of
proteins are understood fully, then drugs can be
tailor-made to fight diseases more effectively.