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LECTURE 8 Amare Michael Desta

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Title: Knowledge Management: Organizational and Systems perspectives Author: E Yu Last modified by: mas01md Created Date: 11/10/2003 1:19:12 AM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LECTURE 8 Amare Michael Desta


1
LECTURE 8 Amare Michael Desta
Decision Support Executive Information Systems
2
Managing knowledge in knowledge work How
operations are organized in traditional work
e.g. in manufacturing sector
  • Different operations follow each others in
    logical order until the task is completed

3
Managing knowledge in knowledge work - (Contd.)
  • Could the same happen in knowledge
  • work or is it chaotic or less
  • organized by its nature?
  • What is the difference between the logistics of
  • physical components
  • information / knowledge components?

4
Knowledge flow (logistic) and utilization of
knowledge resources
Knowledge acquisition -defining the
requirements -localizing knowledge -accessing
knowledge -absorptive capacity
Knowledge creation reuse -skills
competencies -tools methods
5
Knowledge Management, (KM) - the need and the
reality
  • The move from an industrially-based economy to
    a knowledge or information-based one in the 21st
    Century demands a top-notch KM System to secure a
    competitive edge and a capacity for learning.

6
Knowledge Management the importance
  • The new source of wealth is K, and not labor,
    land, or financial capital. It is the intangible,
    intellectual assets that must be managed.
  • The key challenge of the Knowledge -based economy
    is to foster innovation

7
The Knowledge Economy
  • For several decades the world's best-known
  • forecasters of societal change have predicted
  • the emergence of a new economy in which
  • brainpower, not machine power, is the critical
  • resource.
  • But the future has already turned into the
  • present, and the era of K has arrived.
  • "The Learning Organization," Economist
    Intelligence Unit
  • But do you all agree?

8
The Knowledge Economy rest on THREE pillars
  • The role that K plays in transactions it is what
    is being bought and sold both the raw material
    and the finished goods
  • The concurrent rise in importance of K assets,
    which transform and add value to knowledge
    products
  • The emergence of ways to manage these materials
    and assets, or KM

9
Two Kinds of Knowledge
  • K is intangible, dynamic, difficult to measure,
  • BUT without it no organization can survive.
  • Tacit or unarticulated K is more personal,
    experiential, context specific, and hard to
    formalize is difficult to communicate or share
    with others and is generally embedded in the
    heads of individuals and teams.
  • Explicit K can easily be written down and
    codified.

10
The main issues are how to
  • Design and install techniques and processes to
    create, protect, and use known K.
  • Design and create environments and activities to
    discover and release K that is not known, or
    tacit K.
  • Articulate the purpose and nature of managing K
    as a resource embodying it in other initiatives
    and programs.

11
Do we really need KM System?
  • Competitive success will be based on how
    strategically intellectual capital is managed
  • Capturing the knowledge residing in the minds of
    employees so that it can be easily shared across
    the enterprise
  • Leveraging organizational knowledge is emerging
    as the solution to an increasingly fragmented and
    globally-dispersed workplace

12
Do we really need KM System? (Contd)
  • Instead of constantly reengineering and
    downsizing talented people are assets to be
    developed for a global 21st Century
  • The reuse of knowledge saves work, reduces
    communications costs, and allows a company to
    take on more projects.

13
The Successful Managing of Knowledge
  • Focus on FIVE tasks
  • Generating knowledge
  • Accessing knowledge
  • Representing and embedding knowledge
  • Facilitating knowledge
  • Transferring knowledge
  • It is a process of instilling the culture and
  • helping the people in it find ways to share and
  • utilize their collective knowledge.

14
KM the enablers
  • Leadership
  • Knowledge champions, such as CKOs
  • Culture
  • Access
  • Technology
  • Learning Culture

15
More on the importance of Corporate Culture
  • Changing the culture is imperative.
  • To create a climate in which employees volunteer
    their creativity and expertise, managers need to
    look beyond the traditional tools at their
    disposal finding ways to build trust and develop
    fair process.
  • That means getting the gatekeepers to facilitate
    the flow of information rather than hoard it.
  • And offering rewards and incentives

16
The technological divide
  • Generating organizational K invariably means
    converting the tacit K of the individual into
    explicit K accessible by all.
  • IT is most effective when it enables this
  • social process.
  • Organizations must think through their
    technological systems.
  • Technology such as Intranets and advanced
    collaborative software have made KM possible.

17
Organizational Changes
  • Lines between departments and operating divisions
    blur
  • KM even completely collapses boundaries
  • A KM system cannot work through hierarchies
  • Individual and team learning process must become
    the true driver of organizational learning

18
Organizational Knowledge - Why is it Important?
  • Knowledge can be embedded in processes, products,
    systems, and controls
  • Knowledge can be accessed as it is needed from
    sources inside or outside the firm
  • It is versatile and can be transferred formally,
    through training, or informally, by way of
    workplace socialization
  • It is the essence of the competitive edge!

19
Why KM? Whats the big deal?
  • By instituting a learning organization
    (KM-intensive), there is an increase in employee
    satisfaction due to greater personal development
    and empowerment.
  • Keep your employees longer and thereby, reduce
    the loss of intellectual capital from people
    leaving the company.
  • Save money by not reinventing the wheel for each
    new project

20
Why KM? Whats the big deal? (Contd.)
  • Reduce costs by decreasing and achieving
    economies of scale in obtaining information from
    external providers.
  • Increase productivity by making K available more
    quickly and easily.
  • Provides workers with a more democratic place to
    work by allowing everyone access to K

21
Why KM? Whats the big deal? (Contd.)
  • Learning Faster With KM
  • Learning fast to stay competitive
  • KM software and technological infrastructures
    allow for global access to an organizations K,
    at a keystroke

22
Successful KM programs the indications
  • Information is widely disseminated throughout the
    organization
  • Accessible at a fast rate of speed.
  • Virtual communities of practice share what is
    known in a global fashion, independent of time
    zones and other geographic limitations.
  • Business without boundaries broad, often virtual
    in nature.
  • Collaboration to support continuous innovation
    and new K creation.

23
KM and future scenarios
  • Where are we going? What are we here for?
  • People need awareness of the whole in what
    direction is the organization going?
  • To have a goal to reach in the future can provide
    great incentive for a KM initiative.
  • Effective leveraging lies within an
    organizations capacity for rethinking and
    recreating. Scenario thinking can help us see the
    blind spots, and help us create the future we
    want!!!

24
Sustainability of a KM endeavor
  • There are three fundamental processes that
  • sustain profound changes such as the
  • introduction of a KM system
  • - developing networks of committed people
  • - improving business results
  • - enhancing personal results
  • To achieve sustainability, there must be a
  • focus on learning and learning how to harness
  • the learning capabilities that lead to
    innovation.

25
Sustainability of a KM Endeavor (Contd.)
  • For significant change to lead to sustainability,
    hierarchical control must be put aside.
  • The emergence and development of informal
    networks must be supported so that people can
    share their tacit knowledge and help one another.
  • Managers need to surrender control.
  • And mental models need to be examined.

26
KM Software Tools
  • Globalserve
  • Knowcorp
  • Hyperknowledge
  • MicroStrategy
  • The Molloy Group
  • KnowledgeX Inc.
  • WebFarming.com
  • Softlab Enabling Tools
  • Imagination
  • Excalibur Technologies
  • Imaging Solutions
  • Grapevine Technologies
  • Intraspect Software
  • Milagro The Power of Imagination

27
Knowledge Management - the essence
  • Is understanding and valuing intangible assets
    over tangible.
  • Understanding that human and intellectual capital
    are the greatest resources
  • Managing the skills and competencies that lie
    within an organization, and allowing them to
    blossom
  • Allowing people to be the best that they can be
    optimizing performance.

28
KM Systems the main focus
  • Key questions Id like to raise
  • What is the relationship between KM systems?
  • Can knowledge serve as a unifying concept for
    understanding organizations and systems?
  • Can there be design principles and techniques
    based on KM concepts, for designing organizations
    and their systems?

29
KM as a management concept / approach
  • A parade of management ideas
  • Classical administrative theories 1940s
  • Scientific management (e.g. Taylor) 1950s
  • Human relations approach
  • TQM 1980s
  • BPR 1990s
  • KM !! 2000
  • ??
  • Is KM one among many approaches?
  • Shouldnt knowledge be a fundamental concept for
    understanding and managing organizations?

30
Knowledge in Computing IS
  • The trend is toward (increasingly explicit)
  • knowledge representation in systems
  • Programs 1960s-
  • Database schemas (data independence from
    programs)1970s-
  • Conceptual data modeling (domains, enterprises)
    1980s-
  • Knowledge-based systems (knowledge about world
    separate from inference engine) 1980s-
  • Knowledge sharing among systems (ontologies)
    1990s-
  • Software agents 1990s-
  • Semantic web 2000s-
  • The Question is What is the role of knowledge in
    IS? Shouldnt
  • knowledge be a fundamental concept in IS?

31
What is the role of knowledge in IS, and IS
development?
  • There is knowledge in
  • User organization
  • Developer organization
  • Various artifacts
  • Where is the knowledge?
  • What kinds of knowledge?
  • Whose knowledge?
  • How does knowledge get into the systems?
  • What is change effected?

32
Knowledge in organizations and systems
  • Management is about achieving effectiveness
    through K and action
  • Info systems (development) is about converting
    (organizational) K into (automated) action.
  • Can there be a theory of K and action to help
    understand, analyze, and design organizations and
    their systems?
  • Broader perspective
  • K as unifying concept
  • How to design effective organizations and systems?
  • Limited KM perspective
  • How to manage the knowledge in organizations and
    systems

33
KM systems as specialized classes of systems or
applications e.g., Alavi Leidner 01
Marwick 01 Smith Farquhar 00
  • Groupware
  • Data mining
  • Learning tools
  • E-bulletin boards
  • Knowledge repositories and databases, FAQs
  • Discussion forums
  • Knowledge directories
  • Expert systems
  • Workflow systems
  • Taxonomies
  • Document classification
  • Portals metadata
  • Text search
  • Summarization
  • Relationships discovery
  • Visualization

Contrasted with more conventional information
systems
34
Five Paradigms of IT Support - a rough typology
Processing
Repository
Agent
Medium
Tool
35
1. the processing paradigm
Here, the focus is on the processing (usually
fixed a priori) E.g. sales orders processing,
bank account statements, teller machine
processing...
  • Qualities emphasized
  • speed
  • accuracy
  • correctness
  • ...

Info. structures data items lists
arrays trees ...
  • Info. operations
  • calculate
  • transform
  • ...

Processing
36
2. the repository paradigm
Here, the focus is on the storage and
retrieval E.g. document management systems,
online catalogues, databases...
  • Qualities emphasized
  • persistence
  • accessibility
  • integrity
  • security
  • ...

Info. structures records links/ relationships
indexes catalogues ...
  • Info. operations
  • create/read/ update/delete
  • lookup
  • navigate
  • integrate
  • ...

Repository
37
3. the tool paradigm
The focus is on enabling the user E.g.
spreadsheet, word processing...
  • Qualities emphasized
  • usability
  • flexibility
  • extensibility
  • ...
  • Info. operations
  • manipulation of users information
    representations
  • ...

Info. structures conceptual information
structures e.g., cells in spreadsheets ...
Tool
38
4. the medium paradigm
Here the focus is on communication E.g. email,
teleconferencing, groupware
  • Qualities emphasized
  • presence
  • fidelity
  • authenticity
  • privacy
  • ...

Info. structures message conversation conference
...
  • Info. operations
  • send/receive
  • share
  • ...

Medium
39
5. the agent paradigm
Here the focus is on assisting the user E.g.
mail filters, web crawlers, knowledge discovery...
  • Qualities emphasized
  • ability
  • intelligence
  • trustworthiness
  • ...
  • Info. operations
  • planning goal achievement
  • understanding
  • delegation
  • ...

Info. structures Goals tasks/plans conceptual
structures interdependencies among agents...
Agent
40
How much domain knowledge is embedded in the
system?
Medium
Tool
Least Embedded knowledge
Repository
Processing
Agent
Most Embedded knowledge
  • Knowledge Media? A provocative concept Suggests
    that we need to span the full range

41
Major design questions for organizational
information systems
  • The term K Media suggests that an
    organizations IS
  • would be a mix of systems with more/less embedded
    K
  • Major design questions
  • - Who needs what K to achieve what objectives /
    responsibilities?
  • - How much to embed in machines?
  • - Where in the organization?
  • - How to make tradeoffs benefits vs. risks
    vulnerabilities?
  • E.g. speed, accuracy, economy vs. inflexibility,
    privacy
  • risks, loss of control,

42
What design methods and techniques are available?
  • Most conventional IS analysis and design
    techniques are focused on data processing
  • HCI research has strengthened design methods
    especially for media and tool
  • The Key Question is
  • How to bring in knowledge concepts for designing
    organizations and systems?

43
Modelling Strategic Actor Relationships and
Rationales - modeling framework
One possible approach...
Strategic Actors
  • have goals, beliefs, abilities, commitments
  • are semi-autonomous
  • freedom of action, constrained by relationships
    with others
  • not fully knowable or controllable
  • has knowledge to guide action, but only partially
    explicit
  • depend on each other
  • for goals to be achieved, tasks to be performed,
    resources to be furnished

44
Modelling systems organizations in terms of
Strategic Dependencies among actors
(Patient Health Service provider)
45
Strategic Dependency Relationship
I want
Actor A
46
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47
Strategic Rationales about alternative
configurations of relationships with other actors
Why? How? How else?
Yu AOSE01
48
Analysis and Design Support
  • opportunities and vulnerabilities
  • ability, workability, viability, believability
  • insurance, assurance, enforceability
  • node and loop analysis
  • design support
  • raising issues
  • exploring alternatives
  • evaluating, making tradeoffs
  • justifying, settling
  • based on qualitative reasoning

49
Compare
conventional systems modeling
modeling
agents implicit knowledge
  • 2. goals (limited) explicit knowledge

50
Premises, key concepts
  • Actors are semi-autonomous, partially knowable
  • Strategic actors, intentional dependencies
  • have choice, reasons about alternate means to
    ends

wants and abilities
Intentionality Autonomy Sociality Identity
Boundaries Strategic Reflectivity Rational
Self-Interest
51
In conclusion Question for you
  • In the context of KM and systems
  • - What is organizational knowledge?
  • Org. knowledge is in people and machines
  • - How is it collected, structured, and managed?
  • Includes human automated processes
  • - How does this impact an organization?
  • Systems need to be designed in organizational
    context, with attention to K action of
    strategic actors

52
In conclusion Contd.
  • In the context of KM and systems
  • - What tools do AI KM provide to do the above?
  • Various technologies offer different capabilities
    with limitations risks need analysis design
    tradeoffs
  • Conventional systems analysis and design
    techniques are ill-equipped for analyzing
    knowledge action of strategic actors
  • AI and KM offer ideas for new frameworks
  • How are the issues of KM related to DSS?

53
References
  • R. Smith A. Farquhar. The Road Ahead for
    Knowledge management An AI perspective. AI
    Magazine. Winter 2000.
  • A.D. Marwick. Knowledge Management Technology.
    IBM Systems Journal. 40(4)814-830. 2001.
  • M. Alavi D.E. Leidner. Knowledge Management
    Knowledge Management Systems Conceptual
    Foundations and Research Issues. MIS Quarterly.
    25(1)107-136. 2001.
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