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MR. LIPMAN

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MR. LIPMAN S APUS POWERPOINT FOR CHAPTER 12 The war of 1812 and the Push Towards Nationalism Themes of the Chapter War of 1812 Hartford Convention Nationalism / Era ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MR. LIPMAN


1
MR. LIPMANS APUS POWERPOINT FOR CHAPTER 12
  • The war of 1812 and the Push Towards Nationalism

2
Themes of the Chapter
  • War of 1812
  • Hartford Convention
  • Nationalism / Era of Good Feelings
  • American System
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Supreme Court expands power of Fed Govt
  • U.S. Land Expansion Monroe Doctrine

3
(No Transcript)
4
War On to Canada. The Three U.S. Invasions of
1812 all fail
5
  • US Navy during the war of 1812
  • US had fewer, but better ships
  • US had several important ships (especially the
    Constitution Old Ironsides) with thick sides
    and better guns than Britain
  • Admiral Perry will secure control of the Great
    Lakes in 1813 battle on Lake Erie. We have met
    the enemy and they are ours

6
  • In 1814 Napoleon losses in Europe thus allowing
    Britain to concentrate on the American War.
  • Britain sets up a naval blockade over the entire
    eastern Atlantic Coast which proves quite
    effective.
  • English forces march down from Canada to attack
    New York but are stopped thus preventing possible
    secession hoped for by Federalists

7
  • August 1814 British march on Washington
  • DC was burned (including the Capitol and the
    White House)
  • In Sept. British naval forces attack Fort McHenry
    (Baltimore) but Americans refuse to surrender,
    despite heavy bombardment by British ships
  • During battle Francis Scott Key writes The Star
    Spangled Banner as he watches battle as prisoner
    on British ship

8
The War in 1814
9
  • BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS CHANGES EVERYTHING
  • January 8, 1815 British made mistake of a
    frontal assault on entrenched US troops
  • Lost 2,000 men in 1/2 an hour (compared to 70 for
    the US)
  • Battle fought 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent
    had been signed, ending the war
  • Effects of the battle
  • Jackson became national hero
  • US nationalism and pride increased by victory
    over the British who are worlds leading power

10
  • December 24, 1814 Treaty of Ghent (negotiated
    in Belgium)?
  • Neither side had defeated the other neither side
    could impose its will on the other but agree to
    stop fighting
  • Nothing done about US grievances for which war
    had been fought, including
  • British arming of the Indians
  • British violations on sea (seizing US ships,
    impressments of US soldiers)

11
  • December 15, 1814 January 5, 1815 the
    Hartford Convention takes place in secret
  • Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New
    Hampshire, Vermont sent representatives (the last
    of the Federalist strongholds)
  • A few radicals talked of secession, but actual
    demands were moderate
  • Demands (end 3/5ths, outlaw embargoes) sent to
    Washington but arrive same time as Ghent Treaty
    and thus go no where.
  • Last gasp by the Federalists

12
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
Contemplate Abandoning the Union and Leaping into
the Waiting Arms of George III
13
Results of the War of 1812
  • Indians are deserted by the British and forced to
    make peace and give up huge tracts of land north
    of the Ohio River
  • Harrison and Jackson become famous as warriors
    and will become Presidents
  • Increased nationalism and decreased sectionalism
  • Foreign nations begin to respect U.S.

14
  • Continued conflict on the US-Canadian border
  • Canadians expected the US to attempt invasion
    again
  • Led to a small naval arms race on the Great Lakes
    after war
  • Ended with the Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) which
    limited naval warships on the Great Lakes
  • Better relations with Canada led to a long
    demilitarized border by 1870s

15
The Birth of Nationalism
  • America emerged from war as 1 nation and begins
    to develop its national culture
  • 1820s internationally recognized authors, using
    American settings and themes
  • School textbooks had been British now they were
    written in America
  • Painters painted American landscapes

16
  • Government and nationalism
  • Bank of the United States was re-chartered in
    1816 (after being disbanded in 1811)
  • Washington, DC was rebuilt
  • The army was expanded to 10,000 men
  • 1815 Navy beats pirates in Mediterranean
  • Tariff of 1816 passed which put a 20 25 rate
    on imports
  • Development of American System (Henry Clay)
  • Transportation, Tariffs, Banking (TNT)

17
Erie Canal Paid for by State Funds not National
Funds Finished 1825
18
Cumberland (National) Road and Main Connections
Bring People West
19
  • 1819 an economic panic brought deflation,
    bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, and
    debtors prisons (resulting in their being
    abolished)
  • First panic since Washington had taken office
  • Why the panic occurred
  • Largest cause was over speculation in land in
    west
  • The Bank of the US had helped cause this through
    easy lending and speculating itself

20
  • Impact of the depression
  • Nationalism declined and West hurt the most
  • Bank of the US forced western banks (built on
    speculation) to pay debts owed to the Bank of the
    US
  • The West came to see the Bank of the US as evil
  • Poor people eventually became part of Andrew
    Jacksons constituency

21
  • The West weak politically so it had to ally
    itself with other sections (North and South)
  • Demanded cheap land, cheap transportation, cheap
    money
  • The Land Act of 1820 authorized buying 80 acres
    at 1.25 per acre (15.05 in 2005 dollars)
  • Cheap money issued by local (wildcat) banks
    westerners fought the power of the Bank of the US
    for cheap money

22
Slavery becomes an issue
  • 1819 Missouri requested admission as a slave
    state
  • North and South both had 11 states allowing for
    equality in the Senate
  • South could stop Northern effort to stop
    expansion of slavery (example Tallmadge
    Amendment)

23
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • 3 compromises worked out (primarily by Henry
    Clay, representative from Kentucky)
  • Admit Missouri as a slave state
  • Maine (which had been part of Massachusetts)
    admitted as a free state
  • Slavery prohibited North of the 36 30 line
    except for Missouri

24
The Missouri Compromise, 18201821
25
Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Attempt by Maryland to tax a branch of the Bank
    of the US
  • Marshall ruled a state could not tax an agency of
    the federal government (the Bank)
  • the power to tax involves the power to destroy
  • Marshall declared bank constitutional, using the
    doctrine of implied powers

26
  • Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
  • The Supreme Court upheld Cohens state conviction
    for illegal lottery ticket sales
  • Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to
    review decisions of state supreme courts in
    questions involving powers of federal government
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
  • Marshall ruled only Congress could regulate
    interstate commerce
  • Struck down the New York monopoly, opening
    commerce to other companies

27
  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
  • The Georgia granted 35 million acres in
    Mississippi area to speculators then cancelled
    the transaction
  • Marshall ruled grant was a contract and
    Constitution forbid state laws that would
  • impair contracts
  • the Supreme Court has power to invalidate state
    laws conflicting with the Constitution
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
  • College granted a charter by King George in 1769
  • The New Hampshire legislature changes charter
  • Marshall ruled that the original charter stands
    because Constitution protected contracts against
    infringement by states

28
  • John Marshall
  • Increased power of federal government
  • Created a stable, nationally uniform environment
    where business could do well
  • Decreased power of elected state legislatures, in
    spite of the national mood in favor of greater
    democracy

29
America Seeks to Expand
  • Treaty of 1818 with Britain
  • Northern limits of Louisiana Purchase set at the
    49th parallel
  • 10-year joint occupation of Oregon country under
    this agreement, Britain and the US did not give
    up their claims to Oregon
  • 1818 Jackson marched into Florida on pretext of
    looking for slaves hidden by Indians. He then
    deposed the Spanish governor

30
  • Jackson escapes punishment for disobeying orders
    and Spains weakness is revealed
  • The Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819
  • Spain ceded Florida to the US and gave up claims
    to Oregon
  • US gave up claims to Texas
  • The line between Mexico and Louisiana was drawn
    up to the 42nd parallel, and then to the Pacific
    Ocean, dividing Oregon from Mexico

31
U.S.-British Boundary Settlement, 1818
32
The Southeast, 1810-1819
33
The West and Northwest, 1819-1824
34
  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • What Europe held in South American they could
    keep, but they could not take more
  • Also directed against Russian expansion
  • Non-intervention
  • Warned Europe to not interfere with new Latin
    American republics
  • The US would not intervene in war Greece was
    fighting against Turkey
  • Deepened the illusion of isolationism from Europe

35
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