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MR. LIPMAN S APUS POWERPOINT FOR CHAPTER 12 The war of 1812 and the Push Towards Nationalism Themes of the Chapter War of 1812 Hartford Convention Nationalism / Era ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • The war of 1812 and the Push Towards Nationalism

Themes of the Chapter
  • War of 1812
  • Hartford Convention
  • Nationalism / Era of Good Feelings
  • American System
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Supreme Court expands power of Fed Govt
  • U.S. Land Expansion Monroe Doctrine

(No Transcript)
War On to Canada. The Three U.S. Invasions of
1812 all fail
  • US Navy during the war of 1812
  • US had fewer, but better ships
  • US had several important ships (especially the
    Constitution Old Ironsides) with thick sides
    and better guns than Britain
  • Admiral Perry will secure control of the Great
    Lakes in 1813 battle on Lake Erie. We have met
    the enemy and they are ours

  • In 1814 Napoleon losses in Europe thus allowing
    Britain to concentrate on the American War.
  • Britain sets up a naval blockade over the entire
    eastern Atlantic Coast which proves quite
  • English forces march down from Canada to attack
    New York but are stopped thus preventing possible
    secession hoped for by Federalists

  • August 1814 British march on Washington
  • DC was burned (including the Capitol and the
    White House)
  • In Sept. British naval forces attack Fort McHenry
    (Baltimore) but Americans refuse to surrender,
    despite heavy bombardment by British ships
  • During battle Francis Scott Key writes The Star
    Spangled Banner as he watches battle as prisoner
    on British ship

The War in 1814
  • January 8, 1815 British made mistake of a
    frontal assault on entrenched US troops
  • Lost 2,000 men in 1/2 an hour (compared to 70 for
    the US)
  • Battle fought 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent
    had been signed, ending the war
  • Effects of the battle
  • Jackson became national hero
  • US nationalism and pride increased by victory
    over the British who are worlds leading power

  • December 24, 1814 Treaty of Ghent (negotiated
    in Belgium)?
  • Neither side had defeated the other neither side
    could impose its will on the other but agree to
    stop fighting
  • Nothing done about US grievances for which war
    had been fought, including
  • British arming of the Indians
  • British violations on sea (seizing US ships,
    impressments of US soldiers)

  • December 15, 1814 January 5, 1815 the
    Hartford Convention takes place in secret
  • Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New
    Hampshire, Vermont sent representatives (the last
    of the Federalist strongholds)
  • A few radicals talked of secession, but actual
    demands were moderate
  • Demands (end 3/5ths, outlaw embargoes) sent to
    Washington but arrive same time as Ghent Treaty
    and thus go no where.
  • Last gasp by the Federalists

Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
Contemplate Abandoning the Union and Leaping into
the Waiting Arms of George III
Results of the War of 1812
  • Indians are deserted by the British and forced to
    make peace and give up huge tracts of land north
    of the Ohio River
  • Harrison and Jackson become famous as warriors
    and will become Presidents
  • Increased nationalism and decreased sectionalism
  • Foreign nations begin to respect U.S.

  • Continued conflict on the US-Canadian border
  • Canadians expected the US to attempt invasion
  • Led to a small naval arms race on the Great Lakes
    after war
  • Ended with the Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) which
    limited naval warships on the Great Lakes
  • Better relations with Canada led to a long
    demilitarized border by 1870s

The Birth of Nationalism
  • America emerged from war as 1 nation and begins
    to develop its national culture
  • 1820s internationally recognized authors, using
    American settings and themes
  • School textbooks had been British now they were
    written in America
  • Painters painted American landscapes

  • Government and nationalism
  • Bank of the United States was re-chartered in
    1816 (after being disbanded in 1811)
  • Washington, DC was rebuilt
  • The army was expanded to 10,000 men
  • 1815 Navy beats pirates in Mediterranean
  • Tariff of 1816 passed which put a 20 25 rate
    on imports
  • Development of American System (Henry Clay)
  • Transportation, Tariffs, Banking (TNT)

Erie Canal Paid for by State Funds not National
Funds Finished 1825
Cumberland (National) Road and Main Connections
Bring People West
  • 1819 an economic panic brought deflation,
    bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, and
    debtors prisons (resulting in their being
  • First panic since Washington had taken office
  • Why the panic occurred
  • Largest cause was over speculation in land in
  • The Bank of the US had helped cause this through
    easy lending and speculating itself

  • Impact of the depression
  • Nationalism declined and West hurt the most
  • Bank of the US forced western banks (built on
    speculation) to pay debts owed to the Bank of the
  • The West came to see the Bank of the US as evil
  • Poor people eventually became part of Andrew
    Jacksons constituency

  • The West weak politically so it had to ally
    itself with other sections (North and South)
  • Demanded cheap land, cheap transportation, cheap
  • The Land Act of 1820 authorized buying 80 acres
    at 1.25 per acre (15.05 in 2005 dollars)
  • Cheap money issued by local (wildcat) banks
    westerners fought the power of the Bank of the US
    for cheap money

Slavery becomes an issue
  • 1819 Missouri requested admission as a slave
  • North and South both had 11 states allowing for
    equality in the Senate
  • South could stop Northern effort to stop
    expansion of slavery (example Tallmadge

The Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • 3 compromises worked out (primarily by Henry
    Clay, representative from Kentucky)
  • Admit Missouri as a slave state
  • Maine (which had been part of Massachusetts)
    admitted as a free state
  • Slavery prohibited North of the 36 30 line
    except for Missouri

The Missouri Compromise, 18201821
Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Attempt by Maryland to tax a branch of the Bank
    of the US
  • Marshall ruled a state could not tax an agency of
    the federal government (the Bank)
  • the power to tax involves the power to destroy
  • Marshall declared bank constitutional, using the
    doctrine of implied powers

  • Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
  • The Supreme Court upheld Cohens state conviction
    for illegal lottery ticket sales
  • Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to
    review decisions of state supreme courts in
    questions involving powers of federal government
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
  • Marshall ruled only Congress could regulate
    interstate commerce
  • Struck down the New York monopoly, opening
    commerce to other companies

  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
  • The Georgia granted 35 million acres in
    Mississippi area to speculators then cancelled
    the transaction
  • Marshall ruled grant was a contract and
    Constitution forbid state laws that would
  • impair contracts
  • the Supreme Court has power to invalidate state
    laws conflicting with the Constitution
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
  • College granted a charter by King George in 1769
  • The New Hampshire legislature changes charter
  • Marshall ruled that the original charter stands
    because Constitution protected contracts against
    infringement by states

  • John Marshall
  • Increased power of federal government
  • Created a stable, nationally uniform environment
    where business could do well
  • Decreased power of elected state legislatures, in
    spite of the national mood in favor of greater

America Seeks to Expand
  • Treaty of 1818 with Britain
  • Northern limits of Louisiana Purchase set at the
    49th parallel
  • 10-year joint occupation of Oregon country under
    this agreement, Britain and the US did not give
    up their claims to Oregon
  • 1818 Jackson marched into Florida on pretext of
    looking for slaves hidden by Indians. He then
    deposed the Spanish governor

  • Jackson escapes punishment for disobeying orders
    and Spains weakness is revealed
  • The Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819
  • Spain ceded Florida to the US and gave up claims
    to Oregon
  • US gave up claims to Texas
  • The line between Mexico and Louisiana was drawn
    up to the 42nd parallel, and then to the Pacific
    Ocean, dividing Oregon from Mexico

U.S.-British Boundary Settlement, 1818
The Southeast, 1810-1819
The West and Northwest, 1819-1824
  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • What Europe held in South American they could
    keep, but they could not take more
  • Also directed against Russian expansion
  • Non-intervention
  • Warned Europe to not interfere with new Latin
    American republics
  • The US would not intervene in war Greece was
    fighting against Turkey
  • Deepened the illusion of isolationism from Europe

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