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Educational Psychology 302


Educational Psychology 302 Session 12 Student Assessment Assessment Purposes Formative During instructional phase Gauging understanding Informal Summative After ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Educational Psychology 302

Educational Psychology302
  • Session 12
  • Student Assessment

Contrasts Assessment Grades Formative Su
mmative Diagnostic Final Non-Judgmenta
l Evaluative Private Administrative Oft
en Anonymous Identified Partial Integrative
Specific Holistic Ma
inly Subtext Mostly Text
Suggestive Rigorous Goal-Dir
ected Content-Driven
Assessment Purposes
  • Formative
  • During instructional phase
  • Gauging understanding
  • Informal
  • Summative
  • After instruction
  • Evaluating understanding and comprehension
  • Evaluating mastery
  • Higher stakes
  • Formal

Constructing Assessments
  • Target the specific behaviors and thought
    processes you want them to learn
  • Be difficult enough that students must expend
    energy to succeed.
  • Show students where and why their answers might
    have been wrong, and how they might improve on
    their answers.
  • Demonstrate, where appropriate, how several paths
    to the right answer might be taken.

Characteristics of Good Classroom Assessment
  • Reliabilityconsistency of results
  • Standardizationconsistency in content, format
    and scoring
  • Validitythe assessment measures what it is
    supposed to measure
  • PracticalityThe feasibility of the assessment in
    terms of development time, administration time,
    cost, etc.

Informal vs. Formal
  • Form Observations, questioning
  • Very practical, usually spontaneous
  • Good for assessing students interest in a
  • Flexible to spur of the moment changes and
  • Will rarely, if ever, be standardized
  • Focus on assessing understanding within a
    specific content domain
  • Very much planned in advance
  • Closely tied to guiding instructional objectives
  • Bases results on samples of content

Paper-pencil vs. Performance
  • Suitable for both recall and recognition tasks
  • Easily standardized
  • Can sample knowledge on many topics in a short
  • Students should understand scoring process
  • Portray the assessment as an opportunity to
    improve skills
  • Efficiently uses class time
  • Formatively oriented
  • Helps reduce the evaluative climate
  • Difficult to achieve standardization and
  • Often time-consuming to administer and score

Criterion vs. NormReferenced
  • Tells us what the students have achieved in
    relation to specific instructional objectives
  • Oriented to achieving mastery
  • Diagnoses weaknesses very well
  • Compares a students performance on a task with
    the performance of other students
  • Frequently used in standardized tests
  • Can undermine the sense of community and create
    undo competitive situation

Criterion or Norm Referenced?
  • Ivy is taking an achievement test in English.
    Her score will let her know how her performance
    compares with that of her classmates.
  • Leon is taking a Spanish test that will determine
    whether he should be placed in an advanced
    section of Spanish II designed for students who
    have achieved a an especially high level in
    Spanish I.

Criterion or Norm Referenced?
  • Mr. Jones asks his physical education students to
    do as many chin-ups and push-ups as they can. He
    requires at least 4 chi-ups and 20 push-ups from
    each student.
  • Mr. Duchesne grades students essays on the
    causes of the American Revolution, giving the
    five best essays an A, the next five best a B,
    and so on.

  • DefinitionA systematic collection of student
    work assembled over time
  • Integrates instruction and assessment
  • Can be useful in promoting students
  • Can illustrate the complex nature of students
  • Often have low reliability and validity
  • Almost impossible to standardize

Objective Tests
  • Multiple Choice Stemalternatives. Recognition
    task. Can measure a variety of learning levels,
    easy to grade.
  • True/False Statements a student judges as
    correct or incorrect. Easy to write and grade,
    tests recognition with a high probability of
  • Matching Identify relationships. Asks students
    to apply discrimination skills. Tests a large
    amount of information in a short space.

Multiple-Choice Example
  • An advantage of knowing some skills to a level of
    automaticity is that skills learned to
  • a.  require less working memory capacity
  • b.  promote the development of retrieval cues
  • c.   make meaningful learning of those skills
  • d. enhance the reconstructive nature of

Constructed Response Tests
  • Tests high-level cognitive skills, but,
    time-consuming to grade and difficult to ensure
  • Short answer Requires a single word, set of
    words, or sentence or complete.
  • Essay Requires learners to organize and express
    their thoughts over several or more paragraphs.
  • Problem-solving Presents situation for the
    learner to diagnose and solve.

Problem-Solving Examples
  • One worker can build five benches in one day.
    For a particular job 20 benches are needed in one
    days time. How many workers need to be assigned
    to the job? Show all your work and circle the
    final answer.
  • You are given a beaker that contains one of five
    chemical solutions used in previous laboratory
    exercises. Describe a procedure that you would
    use to positively identify the particular
    solution and rule out the other alternatives.
    (be sure to list each major step in you solution).
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