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Workshop on direct brain/computer interface

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Workshop on direct brain/computer interface & control Febo Cincotti Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS Brussels, August 2, 2006 BCI: logical scheme (yet another!) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Workshop on direct brain/computer interface


1
Workshop on direct brain/computer interface
control
  • Febo Cincotti
  • Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS
  • Brussels, August 2, 2006

2
BCI logical scheme (yet another!)
Increase of performance
appropriate feature extraction
Modification of Brain Signals
Signal Features
computer training
user training
Psychological Effort (Intention)
Classification Of Intent
Environment
appropriate feedback strategy
3
Multiple aims
  • Study of brain functions
  • Rehabilitation
  • through substitution
  • through restoration
  • Enhancement of brain-environment pathways
  • Cyborg-like applications

4
Technical Requirements depend on the User
  • End user
  • Clinical researchers, Neuroscientists
  • Technical operators, Therapists
  • Gamers, entertainers
  • Cost/benefit of requirements vary over User Level

5
Technical Requirements
  • Targeting to the disabled-user, others will be
    adequately addressed or easily adapted.
  • Cost/benefit of requirements vary over User Level

6
Disability Level and Application
  • Communication
  • Environmental control
  • Robotics / Mobility devices
  • Neuroprosthetics


Most Severe
Least Severe
7
Effectiveness-application-satisfaction chart
8
Multiple points of view
  • Target users
  • Researchers (e.g., clinical researchers,
    neuroscientists, signal processing experts,
    etc.)
  • Technical operators (e.g., caregivers, therapists
    who are in charge of training someone on BCI
    operation)
  • End-users (e.g., people with disabilities who
    rely on the system for communication)
  • Casual end-users (e.g., those who use a BCI as an
    alternative input for entertainment devices)
  • Disciplines involved in research
  • Engineering
  • Clinical ...
  • Psychological
  • Neuroscience

9
Clinical applications of BCI are not
  • just application of potentially working
    technologies to a new group of experimental
    subjects.
  • Working with patients requires taking into
    account new issues
  • Human computer interaction
  • Ease of use
  • Reliability
  • Sensible applications

10
Invasive vs. noninvasive techniques
  • Multi-electrode grids implanted in cortex
  • Epi- or sub-dural implantation
  • Surface EEG
  • Non electrical signal (MEG, fMRI, NIRS, )

11
Integration with assistive technologies
  • need for "BCI device
  • integration of the BCI device as a control into
    standard
  • domotic and robotic systems
  • optimization of the BCI interface (to user and to
    caregiver generalization and simplification )

12
BCI-operated robot
13
BCI-operated Environmental control
14
Standardization
15
Non-invasive cortical estimation of brain activity
Scalp EEG
Linear inverse estimates within a RoI are
collapsed (mean)
M1 Hand area RoI
Virtual electrode
16
Role of technical standards in the development of
BCI systems
  • helpful to foster involvement of companies into
    the field
  • important to promote cooperation among research
    groups
  • Topics for standardization
  • system architecture
  • relationship with existing human-computer devices
  • training procedures
  • signal processing techniques
  • indices of performance
  • communication protocols with external devices

17
Advantage of Standards
  • Improved interoperability of components
  • Lowers need for expertise
  • Facilitates technology diffusion
  • Facilitates performance comparison
  • FDA/CE certification is cheaper
  • Helps to solve legal disputes

18
Standardization of software
  • Decision making tool for operators
  • Documentation and reference for good practice

19
Pseudo-BCI applications
  • Monitoring
  • Biofeedback
  • Detection of psychological states
  • EEG-EMG-EOG integration

20
Conclusions
  • BCI field is out of the demonstrations phase and
    is ready for clinical applications need for
    more intense multidisciplinary cooperation
  • Any new BCI technology should be focused on
    improving the quality of life of the end user
  • Many technologies still do not meet the
    requirements of particular BCI applications
  • The BCI community needs a technology
    standardization committee
  • BCI systems that can improve peoples lives are
    within reach
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