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PAVES THE WAY

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Title: PAVES THE WAY


1
PAVES THE WAY
BITUMEN
2
Bitumen
  • Multi-utility Binder

3
Advantages
  • Smooth
  • Safe
  • Economical
  • Speed
  • Quiet
  • Environment friendly
  • Versatile
  • State of-the-art
  • Stage Construction
  • Resistant to de-icing material
  • Serviceability

4
Smooth
  • Better riding quality
  • Absence of joints
  • Estimated 15 increase in pavement life for 50
    increase in smoothness
  • Less wear and tear to vehicle
  • Lesser fuel consumption
  • Enjoyable ride

5
Safe
  • Better skid resistance over a longer period of
    time
  • Use of OGFC reduces Tyre Spray, Hydroplaning and
    Improves Visibility
  • Better contrast with pavement markings

6
Economical
  • Low initial cost compared to PCC
  • Gap widens throughout pavement life
  • A well designed and constructed pavement
  • Can last for 25 to 34 years without
    reconstruction
  • Can serve for 15 year or more before distresses
    become sufficient to require rehabilitation

7
Speed of Construction
  • Newark Airport 1,15,000MT in 15 days, 11,000MT
    in 24 hours
  • Pave during off peak hours and open to traffic as
    soon as it cools down
  • Reduces work zone accident
  • Can result in 80 reduction in user delay costs
  • 24-hour closure will have 3 to 10 times more
    vehicles pass through the work zone

8
Quiet Pavements
  • Dense graded asphalt is quieter by 2 to 3 dB(A)
    compared to PCC
  • 3 dB(A) corresponds to
  • Doubling the distance in the line of source
  • Reducing traffic volume by 50
  • Reducing traffic speed by 25
  • Open graded Friction Course
  • Reduces noise further
  • Costs 1/8th of noise barrier on side of the road
  • Aesthetically superior

9
Environment Friendly
  • Used for water proofing of fish ponds without any
    problem
  • Very low level of leachable compounds
  • Most recycled product in the world
  • 100 recyclable
  • Second highest - Aluminium cans 60
  • Can use waste material from other fields also
    like worn out PCC

10
Versatile
11
State-of-the-Art
  • Road design, construction and maintenance methods
    are being overhauled
  • New tests being developed
  • New plants providing high quality materials
  • Pavers with laser controlled screeds for even
    smoother pavements
  • Better material transfer vehicles for uniformity
    and rollers with increased compactive effort.
  • The ultimate result of this new technology will
    be smoother, more durable, longer lasting
    asphalt pavements

12
Stage Construction
  • Bituminous pavements can be constructed in stages
  • Being made thicker and/or wider as the need
    arises
  • Each successive layer becomes an integral part of
    the pavement structure, increasing the load
    carrying capacity.

13
De-icing Materials
  • Bituminous pavements are not harmed by de-icing
    chemicals
  • Also snow and ice melt quickly from bituminous
    pavements

14
Serviceability
  • Bituminous pavements can easily maintain a high
    level of serviceability with minimal disruption
    to the traffic
  • Can be easily trenched, patched and quickly
    opened to traffic when underground utilities need
    to be repaired.

15
BEAUTIFUL
16
B I T U M E N
A VISCO - ELASTIC MATERIAL
17
Engineering Properties of Bitumen
  • Bitumen is a visco-elastic material its
    deformation under stress is a function of both
    temperature loading time
  • At higher temperature /or longer loading time
  • Behave as viscous liquids
  • At low temperature /or short loading time
  • Behave as elastic solids
  • The intermediate range of temperatures, more
    typical of the conditions in service, result in
    visco-elastic behaviour.

18
The Stiffness Concept
  • In solids
  • E s
  • e
  • where E Elastic modulus
  • s Stress
  • e Strain

19
The Stiffness Concept
  • In visco-elastic material
  • St,T s
  • et,T
  • Where St,T Stiffness modulus at
    specific time t
    Temp. T.
  • s Stress
  • et,T Strain at specific time t
    temp. T.

20
PERFORMANCE GRADE BITUMEN
21
BITUMEN TODAY
  • Penetration/Viscosity based classification
  • 80/100, 60/70, 30/40
  • Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility,
    Viscosity
  • Empirical tests done at standard temp., loading,
    etc.
  • Ageing is not considered
  • No direct correlation with actual field
    conditions
  • Seems to work somehow Has stood the test of
    time
  • Need to cut inefficiencies Cost effective

More direct correlation between bitumen and road
performance is needed
22
BITUMEN TOMORROW
  • More direct correlation between road performance
    and properties of bitumen
  • Properties desired
  • Easier handling (mixing, coating, rolling)
  • Better rutting resistance
  • Higher fatigue life
  • Resistance to low temperature cracking

- New system of classification to be developed
- New tests to be developed
23
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24
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25
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26
CLASSIFICATION
  • PG 58 -22

Min. pavement design temp.
Performance Grade
Average 7 day max. pavement design temp.
27
MIXING AND LAYING
  • Tested in rotational viscometer
  • Max. viscosity of 3 Pa-s at 135oC

28
AGEING OF BITUMEN
  • During Construction
  • Early in Pavements life
  • Post construction upto two years
  • Late in pavements life
  • Seven plus years of life

Rotating thin film oven test (RTFOT)
RTFOT Pressure Ageing Vessel (PAV)
29
ROTATING THIN FILM OVEN TEST
30
PRESSURE AGEING VESSEL
31
RUTTING
  • Due to melting of bitumen on the road
  • Always occurs at max. pavement temp.
  • Test to be conducted at max. pavement temp.
  • Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer
  • G/Sind min. 1 kPa, _at_ 10 rad/s for unaged bitumen
  • G/Sind min. 2.2 kPa, _at_ 10 rad/s for RTFOT aged
    bitumen

32
DYNAMIC SHEAR RHEOMETER
33
FATIGUE
  • Due to repeated loading,unloading cycles
  • Always occurs near the average pavement temp.
  • Test to be conducted at average 4OC pavement
    temp.
  • Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer
  • GSind max. 5000 kPa, _at_ 10 rad/s for RTFOT PAV
    aged bitumen

34
LOW TEMP CRACKING
  • Due to loss of elasticity at very low temp.
  • Always occurs at lowest pavement temp.
  • Testing done at min. temp. 10OC
  • Bending Beam Rheometer
  • Creep Stiffness of max. 300,000 kPa, m-value min.
    0.30
  • Direct Tension Test - For Modified Bitumens
  • Failure strain min. 1

35
BENDING BEAM RHEOMETER
36
DIRECT TENSILE TESTER
37
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
38
GRADE BUMPING
  • Choice of grade depends on max. and min. pavement
    temperature 20 mm below road surface.
  • Correction for Traffic speed
  • gt 90 km/h - No Correction
  • lt 90 km/h - Increase one high temp.
    grade
  • lt 20 km/h - Increase two high temp.
    grade
  • Correction for Traffic volume
  • lt 10 million ESAL - No Correction
  • gt 10 million ESAL - Increase one high temp.
    grade
  • gt 30 million ESAL - Increase two high temp.
    grade

39
Bitumen
  • New Trends

40
Future Trends in Bituminous Roads
  • ISO Certification of Roads
  • Road Safety Audit
  • Performance Based Specifications
  • Stone Mastic Asphalt
  • Perpetual Pavements
  • Foamed Bitumen
  • Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen
  • Sulphur Extended Bitumen Modifiers

41
ISO Certification of Roads
  • Growth in EN ISO 9000 certification in European
    countries
  • Voluntary activity driven by individual companies
    or by the national asphalt industry.
  • To obtain management and marketing tools.
  • In several countries certification is becoming a
    regulatory requirement, usually by mutual
    agreement between suppliers and clients.
  • Effective quality schedules can be produced only
    by joint action of supplier and client side of
    road sector.
  • If the positive aspects of certification are not
    taken into account in contract arrangements its
    introduction will increase the overall cost of
    asphalt roads

42
Road Safety Audit
  • Safety audit applied to
  • Fresh project proposals
  • Existing network of roads
  • Specific existing project
  • Auditors should be completely independent of the
    organization involved in development of project.
  • The audit team comprising of 4-5 people inspect
    the roads during daytime and also at night.
  • The team identifies aspects that the road
    controlling authority does well, as well as the
    aspects that could be improved.

43
Road Safety Audits (Contd.)
  • The team selects aspects and features that were
    observed on a number of audited roads.
  • The teams recommendations focus on policies and
    procedures and not on correcting the identified
    deficiencies.
  • The team ranks each recommendation on a four
    point subjective scale.
  • The draft report in a standard format is reported
    to the authority for their comments
  • A formal final report is submitted
  • Database is developed for all road safety audits

44
Performance Grade Specifications
  • Existing Specifications
  • Most tests are empirical tests and are not
    directly related to performance on the road
  • Tests are conducted at one standard temp.
  • Performance under climatic condition prevailing
    throughout the year are not evaluated
  • Only short term ageing is evaluated, that too
    only in a few cases
  • Performance grade tests simulate the actual field
    conditions in a more realistic way

45
Stone Mastic Asphalt
  • Increasingly popular Worldwide in heavy traffic
    roads airfields.
  • Even surface gives better riding comfort.
  • Texture gives good skid resistance relatively
    low traffic noise.
  • Strong aggregate structure provided by the coarse
    aggregate particles gives excellent resistance to
    permanent deformation.
  • Rich mastic, which fills the voids, makes SMA
    highly durable.
  • Modified bitumen Fibres can be used to further
    enhance the mechanical properties.
  • Allows thin layer application.

46
Stone Mastic Asphalt (Contd.)
  • The aggregate grading is similar to that of
    Porous Asphalt, but with the voids filled with
    mortar.
  • The process of designing Stone Mastic Asphalt mix
    involves adjusting grading to accommodate
    required binder and void content rather than the
    more familiar process of adjusting the binder
    content to suit the aggregate grading.
  • Cost effective despite high quality aggregate
    higher binder content.
  • Extremely low maintenance.
  • Longer life.

47
Perpetual Pavements
  • Structure Lasts 50 years
  • Bottom-Up Design and Construction
  • Indefinite Fatigue Life
  • Renewable Pavement Surface.
  • High Rutting Resistance
  • Tailored for Specific Application
  • Consistent, Smooth and Safe Driving Surface.
  • Environmentally Friendly
  • Avoids Costly Reconstruction

48
Perpetual Pavements
  • Designed and build to last at least 50 years
  • Will result in reduced maintenance cost and
    traffic disruptions
  • Build bottom-up with strong foundation and
    structural stability
  • Higher fatigue resistance in lower layers
  • Higher rutting resistance in upper layers
  • Drainage is an important consideration in the
    design of pavement structures
  • The change in foundation properties with the
    different seasons must be adequately accounted
    for
  • Special soil conditions such as frost heave and
    expansive behavior need to be included in the
    site investigation and design, depending upon the
    local situation and standard practice
  • The selection of materials and mix design for the
    HMA layers is dependent upon the needs for the
    individual layers with respect to the overall
    performance of the pavement
  • Aggregate interlock is an important component to
    mix stability.

49
Perpetual Pavements
  • The use of crushed, hard aggregate particles and
    an aggregate structure evaluation will help to
    guarantee particle-to-particle contact.
  • use of polymers and fibers can enhance the
    high-temperature performance of asphalt binders.
  • It is important to achieve the proper density
    during construction. An air void content higher
    than about six percent may result in
    consolidation and rutting early in the pavements
    life.
  • The material in the top HMA layer may be either a
    SMA, OGFC or Superpave mix, depending upon the
    needs of a specific area. In any case, as
    distresses dictate the need for a new pavement
    surface, the old surface may be milled up and
    replaced with a minimum of traffic disruption and
    cost.
  • This underscores the principles of the Perpetual
    Pavement Design build it for the traffic, soil
    and climate, and the only cost thereafter should
    be associated with periodic overlays.
  • There are a number of initiatives by various
    countries and states to formalize the concept of
    Perpetual Pavements.
  • In Europe, particularly England and France, the
    idea of high-modulus pavements has gained
    acceptance. These are thick asphalt pavements
    placed over one or more layers of granular
    material.
  • Illinois is engaged in developing a long-life
    asphalt pavement design procedure. Participants
    have included the Illinois DOT, the HMA industry
    and the University of Illinois.
  • The Michigan Asphalt Pavement Association has
    developed a Perpetual Pavement design procedure.
  • Wisconsin is in the process of researching
    Perpetual Pavements at a number of test sites.
  • Texas is using Perpetual Pavements along the
    heavily traveled I-35 corridor.
  • Kentucky has used the Perpetual Pavement concept
    to design portions of interstate pavements.
  • Other efforts are proceeding in Virginia and
    Ohio.
  • What makes the Perpetual Pavement perpetual is
    that, while the surface will need periodic
    replacement, the bulk of the pavement structure
    will remain intact.

50
Foamed Bitumen
  • Mixture of Bitumen (98), water (1) and foaming
    agent (1)
  • When hot bitumen (160 to 200OC) comes in contact
    with cold water (15 to 25OC)
  • Mixture expands more than 10 times
  • Forms a fine mist or foam
  • Foamed bitumen is sprayed on fine aggregate in
    mixing drums to get a strong flexible pavement
    material
  • Used for durable, fast and low cost
    rehabilitation of existing pavements

51
Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen
  • Lower stripping compared to other bitumens
  • Reduction in mixing and laying temperatures
  • Improves fracture strength and ductility
  • Very low dosage of modifier
  • Test tracks in the world are still under
    evaluation but preliminary results are very
    promising

52
Sulphur Extended Asphalt Modifier
  • Odourless pellets consisting of Sulphur,
    Plasticizers and additives
  • Is added to the hot mix
  • Melts and disperses easily
  • Acts as binder extender and asphalt mix modifier
  • Environmentally safe
  • Reduces Bitumen requirement by 30
  • Mixing temperature is reduced by 10OC
  • Higher resistance to rutting, fatigue failure and
    low temperature cracking
  • Suitable for perpetual pavements

53
  • SAFE
  • HANDLING PRACTICES

54
Health, Safety Environmental Aspects
  • Low order of potential hazard provided good
    handling practices are observed.
  • Contains Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. PCAs
    with molecular wt. Of 200 to 4500 are
    biologically active carcenogens. Concentration of
    these in Bitumen is extremely low.
  • Other than heat burns, hazards are negligible.
    However it is prudent to avoid prolonged
    intimate skin contact.

55
Health, Safety Environmental Aspects (contd.)
  • In case of skin burns plunge the affected area
    under cold running water for 10 minutes.
  • When bitumen is heated or mixed with aggregate,
    fumes are emitted. The fumes contain particulate
    matter, Hydrocarbon vapours very small amount
    of H2S. However, the concentration is rarely
    above permissible limits.

56
MODIFIED BITUMEN
  • Binder of the future

57
Why Modified Bitumen?
  • Demands on Road increasing every year
  • Increasing Number of Vehicles
  • Increasing Axle Load
  • Desire to maintain higher serviceability level
  • Higher fatigue resistance
  • Higher resistance to weathering
  • Better adhesion
  • Higher stiffness modulus
  • Lesser cracking, ravelling, deformation creep
    failure
  • Reduce number of overlays
  • Reduction in vehicle operation cost

58
Why Modified Bitumen?
  • Another view point
  • 2.75 million vehicles generate discarded tyres
  • 30,000- 40,000 tyres are disposed every day
  • 1,00,000 1,20,000 tyres will be available by
    2021
  • Use of CRMB in maintenance of roads can consume
    3500 Kg/km non-biodegradable waste rubber

59
Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen
  • Bitumen
  • Additives (Modifiers/Treated Crumb Rubber)

60
Advantages of CRMB
  • Higher resistance to deformations/ wear tear
  • Resistance to reflective cracking
  • Reduced expense on frequent overlays
  • Lower susceptibility to temp. variation
  • Higher resistance to deformation at high
    temperature
  • Better Age Resistance Properties
  • Higher Fatigue Life of Mixes
  • Better Adhesion Properties
  • Reduced Noise

61
Types of Modifiers
Synthetic Elastomers SBS, SBR etc.
Polymers
Plastics
Rubbers
Crumb Rubber
Natural Rubber (Latex)
Thermoset Epoxy Resins
Plain
Thermoplastic LDPE, EVA, EBA
Chemically Treated
62
Why Treat Crumb Rubber?
  • Be compatible with Bitumen
  • Blend with Bitumen properly thoroughly
  • Improve temperature resistance of Bitumen
  • Resist degradation of Bituminous mix
  • Be capable of being processed by conventional
    mixing plants and laying machinery
  • Produce coating viscosity at application temp.
  • Maintain premium properties during
    storage,application and in service
  • Be cost-effective considering life cycle cost

63
Properties of Modifier
  • Be compatible with Bitumen
  • Blend with Bitumen properly thoroughly
  • Improve temperature resistance of Bitumen
  • Resist degradation of Bituminous mix
  • Be capable of being processed by conventional
    mixing plants and laying machinery
  • Produce coating viscosity at application temp.
  • Maintain premium properties during
    storage,application and in service.
  • Be cost-effective considering life cycle cost

64
Grades of CRMB
  • GRADES HP GRADES
  • CRMB 50 HP MB(CR) 50
  • CRMB 55 HP MB(CR) 55
  • CRMB 60 HP MB(CR) 60
  • Meets IRCSP53-2002

65
Tests on Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen
  • Penetration
  • Softening Point
  • Elastic Recovery
  • Thin Film Oven Test
  • Penetration
  • Softening Point
  • Elastic Recovery

66
Test and Trials with CRMB
  • Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
  • Highway Research Station, Chennai.
  • Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara.
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.
  • Municipal Corporation of Delhi.
  • Research Station, P.W (RB) Dept., Hyderabad.,
    Andhra Pradesh.

67
EVALUATION OF CRMB VIS-A-VIS BITUMEN 80/100
  • BY
  • CENTRAL ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE

68
STUDY RESULT
  • CRMB modified mixes indicate better resistance to
    deformation at high temperature as indicated by
    about 1.5 times higher values of stability,
    Marshall quotient and stiffness modulus.
  • Higher values of indirect tensile strength and
    stiffness modulus indicate better resistance to
    cracking using modified bitumen in structural
    layers.
  • Modified mixes in structural layers are expected
    to take higher traffic stresses due to higher
    values of stiffness modulus.
  • Tensile strength ratio before and after
    conditioning in water is higher for modified
    mixes thus indicating superior resistance to
    moisture damage.

69
Circular Test track study conducted by Highway
Research Station, Chennai
70
Tests conducted in Circular Test Track Study
  • Surface Evaluation
  • Skid resistance
  • Texture depth
  • Depletion values

71
CIRCULAR TEST TRACK STUDY CONCLUSION
  • The Highways Research Station has opined that
    the performance of modified bitumen stretch
    improves by 1.7 times than the conventional
    bitumen stretch.

72
PALANPUR - ABU ROAD
73
Performance Evaluation Of Palanpur Abu Road By
GERI
  • Test section of CRMB strengthned in 2001. 60/70
    section strengthned in 2002
  • CRMB showing better roughness values, distress
    values and deflection value
  • Report concluded that use of CRMB delaying the
    period of maintenance

74
Picture 1 has 60/70 Bitumen and picture 2 CRMB
60. After keeping both the boxes in extreme
climatic conditions Picture 2 aggregate has
binding left with bitumen which is not visible in
case of picture 1
Picture-1
Picture-2
75
AHMEDABAD VADODARA EXPRESSWAY
76
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
77
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
78
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
79
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
80
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
81
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
82
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
83
AHEMADABAD VADODRA EXPRESSWAY IN 2002-2003
84
INTERNATIONAL USAGE OF CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED
BITUMEN
85
International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified
Bitumen
  • CRMB is being used in USA from 1960
  • Currently Arizona , Florida , Texas and
    California using 2 million tons of Rubberized
    Bitumen.
  • CRMB is very popular in Australia for chip
    sealing wearing courses and structural layers .
  • Use of CRMB increasing in developing countries
    of Latin America.

86
International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified
Bitumen
  • CRMB in use in USA, Canada, France , Germany and
    South Africa.
  • UK Environmentalists want use of CRMB to be
    encouraged on roads. Govts. especially are
    considering making the use mandatory.
  • Belgian Road Research center encouraging the use
    of CRMB on Freeways
  • South African companies are increasingly using
    Rubber Modified mixes

87
25 YEAR ANALYSIS BY DEPARTMENT OF
TRANSPORT, ARIZONA
88
Conclusions
  1. Total thickness of conventional pavement was 21
    inches Vs. 13 ½ inches for a rubberized pavement,
    the cost saving in initial construction was
    approx. 42
  2. Roughness value of conventional pavement was
    poorer by 27 initially but due to higher
    deterioration the gap increased to 50 by end of
    11 years
  3. In span of 11 years 50 less money was spent on
    maintenance cost on rubberized pavement in
    comparison to conventional pavement
  4. The benefit to the user by way of savings in VOC
    was also seen and estimated that it is
    significantly less on rubberized pavement in
    comparison to conventional pavement

89
Conclusions
Quote Based on the data analysis
presented for the two pavements, an
asphalt-rubber pavement would be more
cost-effective than a conventional pavement with
respect to agency costs as well as user costs.
In addition, the good performance of the
asphalt-rubber pavement would increase its
service life, which in turn would have a
substantial impact on life cycle cost analysis.
Furthermore, if one or more rehabilitation is
eliminated in a typical analysis period (35
years), it would also have a significant impact
on user costs during the work zone periods.
Unquote.
90
Selection Criteria
  • Atmospheric Temperature OC
  • Minimum
    Maximum
  • lt35 35-45 gt45
  • lt-10 CRMB50 CRMB 55 CRMB 55
  • -10 to10 CRMB 50 CRMB 55 CRMB 60
  • gt10 CRMB 55 CRMB 55 CRMB 60

91
Recommended Handling Temperatures
Stage of Work Viscosity, Poise Temp. Range, OC
Binder at Mixing lt 2 165 185
Mix at Mixing Plant lt 4 140 - 160
Mix at Laying Site lt 5 130 - 150
Rolling at Site 10 1,000 115 - 135
92
HANDLING OF CRMB
  • CRMB should ideally be used in hot condition.
  • When supplied in drums, it shall be agitated
    properly in melted condition for 10 - 15 minutes
    before use.
  • Mixing rolling temperature should be approx.
    10OC higher than conventional temperature.

93
No Wonder The smart choice is Bitumen
  • Thank You!

94
Indian Roads An Overview
  • National Highways - 58,077 Km
  • State Highways - 1,37,119 Km
  • Major District Roads - 4,70,000 Km
  • Village Other Roads - 26,50,000 Km
  • Total - 33,00,000 Km

95
Road Network in India
2
4
8
96
Road Transport vs Rail Transport
  • Road
    Railways
  • Passenger 80 20
  • Freight 60 40

97
Road Transport Increases
  • Year Road length Increase
    Vehicles Increase
  • lakh Km
    lakhs
  • 1951 3.99 -
    3.06 -
  • 1961 5.25 32
    6.65 117
  • 1971 9.18 75
    18.65 180
  • 1981 14.89 62
    53.61 190
  • 1991 21.40 44
    213.74 296
  • 2000 30.00 40
    500.21 134

98
Vehicle Composition
  • Year Total 2 Wheelers Cars/Jeeps
    Buses Trucks Other
  • ()
    () ()
    () ()
  • 1951 3.1 0.3(9) 1.6(52)
    0.4(11) 0.8(27) 0.1(1)
  • 1971 18.7 5.8(31) 6.8(37)
    0.9(5) 3.4(18) 1.7(9)
  • 1991 213.7 142(66) 29.5(14)
    3.3(2) 13.6(6) 5.3(12)
  • 2000 500.2 355(70) 60.2(12)
    6.0(1.2) 31(6) 2.3(11)

99
Vehicles in Metros (1998)
  • Delhi 30.33
  • Mumbai 8.60
  • Kolkata 6.64
  • Chennai 9.75
  • Ahmedabad 6.86
  • Bangalore 11.30
  • Hyderabad 8.87
  • All figures in lakhs

100
BITUMEN
  • A BRIEF HISTORY

101
Bitumen - HISTORY
  • Used in Building and Paving since Ancient times.
  • Oldest adhesive known to man.
  • Used in 3500 B.C. as mortar for building stones
    and paving blocks in Mesopotamia.
  • Used for water tightening of reservoirs, canals,
    bathing pools embankments of rivers in Indus
    Valley.

102
Bitumen - HISTORY
  • Used for Mummification in 300 B.C.
  • Rock Asphalt used for flooring/sidewalks in
    France in 1800 A.D.
  • First road surfacing with Bitumen done in New
    Jersey in 1870 A.D.
  • From 1900 onwards Bitumen produced from
    Refineries being used extensively.

103
BITUMEN
  • THE PRODUCT

104
Types of Binders
  • 1. TAR
  • (I) COKE OVEN TAR
  • Produced at temperatures above 1200OC during
    manufacturing of coke.
  • High aromatic content.
  • Pitch content - 50 .
  • (II) LOW AROMATIC TAR
  • Produced at temperatures 600OC to 700OC.
  • Less viscous.
  • Paraffinic in nature.
  • Pitch content - 35 .

105
Types of Binders (Contd.)
  • 2. NATURAL ASPHALT / ROCK ASPHALT / LAKE ASPHALT
  • Naturally occurring Bituminous binder.
  • Biggest deposits in Trinedad
  • 100 Acres,
  • 90 meter deep
  • 10 to 15 Million Metric Tonnes.
  • Penetration - 50
  • Asphalt found in France, Italy Switzerland -
    Rock Asphalt.
  • 3. BITUMEN
  • Obtained from Crude Petroleum.

106
Types of Bitumen
  • Conventional Bitumen
  • Paving Grade Bitumen
  • Industrial Grade Bitumen
  • Bitumen Emulsions
  • Modified Bitumen

107
MORE ABOUT
  • BITUMEN

108
Grades/Types of Bitumen
  • PAVING BITUMEN 80/100, 60/70, 30/40
  • Used in Road Construction worldwide.
  • Confirms to IS73 of 1992.
  • Industrial Bitumen
  • Confirms to IS702 of 1988.
  • Harder grades.
  • Used in water proofing, cable insulation, gunny
    bags, rubber industries, etc.
  • Not marketed by Oil Companies.

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Advantages of Bituminous Roads
  • Initial saving
  • Flexibility speed of construction
  • Ageless rehabilitation is inexpensive
  • Stage Construction - in ribbons, not in slabs
  • Higher skid resistance
  • Visibility Dark Colour of road

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Advantages of Bituminous Roads
  • Better riding quality
  • Proven toughness
  • Paved Shoulders
  • Less wear tear of Vehicle
  • Can be fully recycled
  • Boeing insists that all runways be constructed
    with Bitumen

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Production Process
  • Fractional distillation Process
  • Crude Oil heated to 300 350OC is fed into
    atmospheric distillation column.
  • Lighter fractions like Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel
    separated at different heights
  • Heaviest fractions at bottom column are called
    long residue.
  • Long residue heated to 350-400OC fed into
    distillation column at reduced pressure.
  • Residue at bottom of column called short residue
    used as feedstock for Bitumen.
  • Hot air is blown into short residue to make
    Bitumen.

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Bitumen
  • A viscous liquid or a solid, consisting
    essentially of Hydrocarbons and their
    derivatives, which is soluble in
    Trichloroethylene and is substantially
    non-volatile and softens gradually when heated.
    It is Black or Brown in colour and posses water
    proofing adhesive properties. It is obtained by
    refining processes from Crude Petroleum.

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COMPOSITION
  • B I T U M E N

115
Elemental Analysis
  • Carbon 82 - 88
  • Hydrogen 8 - 11
  • Sulphur 0 - 6
  • Oxygen 0 - 1.5
  • Nitrogen 0 - 1

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Elemental Analysis
  • Elemental composition depends on
  • origin of crude
  • processes used in refinery
  • Elemental composition
  • Extremely complex with the number of molecules
    with different chemical structures being very
    large
  • Not feasible to attempt a complete analysis
  • Elemental composition provides little
    information of the types of molecular structure

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Chemical Composition
  • Bitumen
  • Asphaltenes (5 to 25 wt.)
  • Maltenes
  • Saturates (5 to 20 wt.)
  • Aromatics (40 to 65 wt.)
  • Resins (10 to 20 wt.)

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Properties of
  • BITUMEN

119
Physical Characteristics of Bitumen
  • Performance properties.
  • Index properties.
  • Mix properties.
  • Control properties.

120
Performance Properties
  • Directly relate to performance of the material.
  • Bitumen stiffness
  • Strength
  • Superpave Asphalt Binder Specifications are the
    only specifications based on performance
    properties.

121
Index Properties
  • Related to performance properties but not real
    material properties.
  • Elastic recovery test and Kinematic Viscosity
    test at 60OC.
  • Some Bitumen specifications are viscosity grades
    specifications.

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Mixing Properties
  • Properties related to mixing, transporting and
    construction.
  • Temperature-Viscosity relation of Bitumen is to
    be known to allow selection of optimum mixing
    temperature and the interval of compaction.

123
Control Properties
  • Empirical properties.
  • These properties are used for quality control and
    to grade Bitumen.
  • Control properties include Penetration, Softening
    Point, Frass Breaking Point, Ductility, etc.

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Properties of Bitumen
  • Characteristics 80/100 60/70 30/40
  • Specific gravity at 27OC 0.99 0.99
    0.99
  • Softening Point OC 35 to 50 40
    to 55 50 to 65
  • Penetration at 25OC, 100gm, 80 to 100 60
    to 70 30 to 40
  • 5 secs., 1/10 mm
  • Ductility at 27OC, in cm min. 75 75 50

125
SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS
  • Penetration Test
  • Indicates consistence
  • Softening Point
  • Indicates melting temperature
  • Loss on heating / thin film oven test
  • Hardening on road
  • Ductility Test
  • Affinity for aggregates
  • Solubility in Trichloroethelene
  • Indicates purity of Bitumen

126
Penetration
  • Travel in dmm of a specified needle under 100 g
    wt. for 5 secs into Bitumen at 25OC
  • Denotes consistency

127
Softening Point
  • 3.5 g steel ball placed on Bitumen sample in
    Brass ring
  • Bath temp. raised at 5OC per minute

128
DUCTILITY
  • Indicates the extent to which a sample can be
    stretched before breaking.
  • Length in cm. at breaking point is ductility

129
FLASH POINT
  • Used to measure temperature to which a sample
    bitumen may be safely heated
  • The flash point is the temperature reached when
    the vapour causes an instantaneous flash

130
Handling of
  • BITUMEN

131
Storage Handling
  • Bitumen tanks should have low surface to volume
    ratio.
  • p r2 1
  • Exposed surface
  • pr2h h
  • Product should be recirculated, however, return
    lines should enter the tank below Bitumen
    surface.
  • Bitumen should always be handled at lowest
    possible temperature, consistent with efficient
    use.
  • In case of reheating, heating should be done
    intermittently to prevent high localised
    temperatures. Prolonged direct flame heating may
    cause cracking of Bitumen.

132
Recommended Handling Temperatures
  • Characteristics 80/100 60/70 30/40
  • Min. Pumping Temp.27OC 105 110 125
  • Mixing/Coating Temp. OC 150 to 163 150 to
    163 160 to 175
  • Laying Temp.OC 130 to 160
    130 to 160 140 to 160
  • Spraying Temp.OC 175 - -
  • Max. Safe Hdlng. Temp. OC 175 175 175

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Selection of
  • GRADE

134
Selection Criteria
  • Choice of Bitumen is based on
  • Climatic Conditions - Maximum Minimum
    temperature rainfall.
  • Intensity of Traffic - Number of vehicles per
    day axle load of vehicles.

135
Applications of 80/100 Grade
  • Less viscous grade.
  • Used in all climatic conditions.
  • Suited for traffic load lt 1500 cv/day.
  • Better suited for high altitude/snow bound
    regions irrespective of traffic intensity.

136
Applications of 60/70 Grade
  • More viscous grade.
  • Higher softening point.
  • Suited for traffic intensity gt 1500 cv/day.
  • Can withstand heavier axle loads.
  • Better suited for highways, expressways
    urban roads.
  • Suited for areas where difference between min.
    max. temp. is gt 25oC.
  • Reduced stripping in presence of water.

137
Applications of 30/40 Grade
  • Suited for areas where diff. between min. max.
    temp. lt 25oC.
  • Suited for traffic intensity gt 1500 cv/ day
  • Used in metropolitan areas.

138
Durability of
  • BITUMINOUS ROADS

139
Factors Affecting Adhesive Properties
  • External
  • Rainfall
  • Humidity
  • water pH
  • Presence of salts
  • Temperature
  • Temperature cycles
  • Traffic
  • Design
  • Workmanship
  • Drainage
  • Aggregate
  • Mineralogy
  • Surface texture
  • Porosity
  • Dirt
  • Durability
  • Surface area
  • Absorption
  • Moisture content
  • Shape
  • Weathering

140
Factors Affecting Adhesive Properties
  • Bitumen
  • Rheology
  • Constitution
  • Mix
  • Void content
  • Permeability
  • Bitumen content
  • Bitumen film thickness
  • Filler type
  • Aggregate grading
  • Mix type

141
Durability of Bitumen
  • Oxidative hardening.
  • Evaporative hardening.
  • Exudative hardening.
  • Hardening in Bulk storage.
  • Hardening during mixing.
  • Physical hardening.

142
  • Normally Bitumen hardens by one grade
    during mixing and laying.

143
Performance Requirements of Asphalt Mix
  • Friction (only for surface layer).
  • Resistance to permanent deformation (especially
    for surface layers).
  • Resistance to surface cracking induced by ageing
    (especially for surface layers).
  • Resistance to reflective cracking (both for
    surface layers and binder/base layers).
  • Contribution to structural strength (only for
    binder/base layers).
  • Resistance to stripping/ravelling.
  • Noise emission.

144
Influence of Bitumen on Performance of Asphalt Mix
  • Performance requirements Bitumen significance
  • Surface layer Binder/base
  • layers
  • Friction Low -
  • Permanent deformation High High
  • Surface cracking induced High Medium
  • by ageing
  • Stripping/ravelling Low Low
  • Contribution to structural Low to medium
    High
  • strength
  • Noise emission Low
    -
  • Other cracking Medium High

145
BITUMEN REQUIREMENTS
  • IN
  • DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS

146
Bitumen Requirements for Various Road Applications
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Prime coat over granular base
  • a) Low porosity (WMM or WBM) 6 to 9
  • b) Medium porosity (Cement stabilized) 9 to
    12
  • c) High porosity (Gravel base) 12
    to 15

147
Bitumen Requirements for Various Road
Applications (contd.)
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Tack Coat
  • a) Normal bituminous surface 2.0 to 2.5
  • b) Dry hungry bituminous surface 2.5 to 3.0
  • c) Granular surface treated with primer 2.5
    to 3.0
  • d) Non-bituminous surface
  • (i) Granular base (not primed) 3.5 to 4.0
  • (ii) Cement concrete pavement 3.0 to 3.5

148
Bitumen Requirements for Various Road
Applications (contd.)
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Bituminous penetration macadam
  • a) Compacted thickness 50 mm 50
  • b) Compacted thickness 75 mm 68
  • Bituminous macadam
  • Total Bitumen content - 3 to 3.5
    by weight of total mix

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Bitumen Requirements for Various Road
Applications (contd.)
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Built up spray grout 15
  • Dense bituminous macadam
  • Total bitumen content - 4 by
  • weight of total mix

150
Bitumen Requirements for Various Road
Applications (contd.)
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Surface dressing
  • a) Single coat or first of 2 coats 18
  • b) Second coat 10
  • Open grade premix carpet
  • a) 13.2 mm stone chipping 9.5
  • b) 11.2 mm stone chipping 5.1

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Bitumen Requirements for Various Road
Applications (contd.)
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Mix seal surfacing
  • a) Type A mix seal surfacing 22.0
  • b) Type B mix seal surfacing 19.0
  • Semi-dense bituminous concrete
  • Total bitumen content - not less than
    4.0 of total weight of mix

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Bitumen Requirements for Various Road
Applications (contd.)
  • Quantity of Bitumen
  • ( Kg per 10 sqm)
  • Bituminous concrete
  • Total bitumen content - not less than
    4.5 of total weight of mix
  • Bitumen mastic 14 to 17
  • Slurry seal
  • Total bitumen emulsion content - 180-250
    litres per tonne of dry aggregate

153
CRMB Performance on Road
CRMB Performance on Road
154
DELHI JAIPUR SECTION
155
DEFORMATION OF SURFACE IN UNMODIFIED SECTION
156
PATCH WORK IN UNMODIFIED SECTION
157
POT HOLE IN KM-144 UNMODIFIED
158
TRANSVERSE CRACKING UNMODIFIED SECTION
159
A VIEW OF MODIFIED (CRMB) SECTION
160
CLOSE-UP OF MODIFIED SURFACE
161
GOOD SURFACE CONDITION OF MODIFIED SECTION
162
GOOD SURFACE OF MODIFIED BC
163
Conclusions by CRRI
  • Use of CRMB in 40 mm thick BC layers delays
    commencement of distress development by about two
    years for a structurally adequate pavement
  • Use of CRMB in BC layers demonstrated better
    engineering properties of mixes such as higher
    values of stiffness modulus and Marshall
    stability etc.
  • Correlation indicate higher life of 40 mm BC
    Surface with the uses of CRMB as compared to
    60/70 bitumen.

Contd
164
Conclusions by CRRI
  • CRMB 60 modified bitumen can be used as binder in
    wearing surface under heavy traffic and
    identical climatic conditions on other reaches of
    NHDP
  • The renewal cycle for 60/70 grade bitumen in
    4Omm BC is estimated about 4 years, under heavy
    traffic and moderate climatic conditions, while
    this would be at least 6 years when CRMB 60 is
    used as binder in surface course.

165
Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen in India
  • Ministry of Road Transport and Highway has made
    use of modified bitumen on National Highways
    mandatory. Research projects to evaluate the
    benefits in structural layers has been undertaken
    by NHAI.
  • Ministry of Rural Development has made use of
    Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen in Pradhan Mantri
    Gramin Sadak Yojana scheme for rural roads
    compulsory.
  • Airport authority of India are not only using
    CRMB for the wearing courses but also structural
    layers due to increased elastic modules and
    indirect tensile strength.

Contd
166
Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen in India
  • Indian Road Congress in its publications has
    expressed that by using CRMB maintenance of the
    roads can be delayed by over 50
  • All leading research institute including
    Central Road Research Institute and Indian
    Institute of Technology have given reports
    recommending the use of modified bitumen
  • By the Year 2005 more than 50 of modified
    bitumen will be consumed. Thus in India alone
    market will be over 2 million tons
  • All states of India have taken-up use modified
    bitumen for state funded schemes.
  • Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen has been
    specified on projects funded by JIBC, ADB and
    world bank

167
Satisfied Clientele
  • P W D - Maharashtra
  • P W D - Madhya Pradesh
  • Major Private Contractors in Maharashtra
  • Ketan Constructions Ahmedabad Vadodara
    Expressway
  • Contractors in Orissa, A.P. Gujarat.
  • Airport Authority of India

168
CRMB
  • Balance between cost and performance
  • Large quantities available
  • Easy to use
  • Rugged
  • Initial usage has given excellent results

169
Drainage Measures
  • In Road Construction

170
Why drainage is important?
  • Reduces sub-soil strength
  • Some soils have high volume change when wet
  • Subsoil water takes very long to evaporate
  • Pockets of porous material become subterranean
    reservoirs
  • Most sub-grade soils consist of very fine
    materials which weaken when wet
  • Sub-soil water exerts hydrostatic pressure

171
How Does Water Enter the Pavement?
  • Rainfall
  • Flow of water from surrounding high ground
  • Capillary action
  • High water table
  • Flow of water within pavement

172
Drainage improvement Measures
  • Maintain transverse slope in good condition
  • Construct roads as far above water table as
    economically practicable
  • Bottom of sub-grade should be 0.6-1.0m above
    water level
  • If not possible, use capillary cut offs
  • Where large inflow of water is expected, design
    sub-soil drainage system
  • Base should be 300-450 mm wider than Bituminous
    surface
  • Ensure that shoulders are not higher than
    carriageway

173
Future Challenges
  • In Road Industry

174
Challenges to Road Construction Industry
  • Increased traffic loads and density
  • More cost efficient solutions
  • Faster repair methods and easier maintenance
  • Road owners increasingly buying road performance

175
ISO Certification for Roads
  • There is a growth in EN ISO 9000 certification in
    European countries.
  • In some cases it is a voluntary activity driven
    by individual companies or by the national
    asphalt industry. Main aim is to obtain
    management and marketing tools.
  • In several countries certification of asphalt is
    becoming a regulatory requirement, usually by
    mutual agreement between suppliers and clients.
  • Effective quality schedules can be produced only
    by joint action of supplier and client side of
    road sector.
  • If the positive aspects of certification are not
    taken into account in contract arrangements its
    introduction will increase the overall cost of
    asphalt roads.

176
Stone Mastic Asphalt
  • Increasingly popular Worldwide in heavy traffic
    roads airfields.
  • Even surface gives better riding comfort.
  • Texture gives good skid resistance relatively
    low traffic noise.
  • Strong aggregate structure provided by the coarse
    aggregate particles gives excellent resistance to
    permanent deformation.
  • Rich mastic, which fills the voids, makes SMA
    highly durable.
  • Modified bitumen can be used to further enhance
    the mechanical properties.
  • Allows thin layer application..

177
Stone Mastic Asphalt (Contd.)
  • The aggregate grading is similar to that of
    Porous Asphalt, but with the voids filled with
    mortar.
  • The process of designing Stone Mastic Asphalt mix
    involves adjusting grading to accommodate
    required binder and void content rather than the
    more familiar process of adjusting the binder
    content to suit the aggregate grading.
  • Cost effective despite high quality aggregate
    higher binder content.
  • Extremely low maintenance.
  • Longer life.

178
Road Safety Audits
  • Safety audit applied to
  • Fresh project proposals
  • Existing network of roads
  • Specific existing project
  • Auditors should be completely independent of the
    organization involved in development of project.
  • The audit team comprising of 4-5 people inspect
    the roads during daytime and also at night.
  • The team identifies aspects that the road
    controlling authority does well, as well as the
    aspects that could be improved.

179
Road Safety Audits (Contd.)
  • The team selects aspects and features that were
    observed on a number of audited roads.
  • The teams recommendations focus on policies and
    procedures and not on correcting the identified
    deficiencies.
  • The team ranks each recommendation on a four
    point subjective scale.
  • The report is in a standard format and is
    reported to the authority for their comments on
    the draft report.
  • A formal final report is submitted to the
    authorities.
  • Database is developed for all road safety audits.

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Our Intention
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Thank You
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Trinidad Lake
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