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Visual Dynamic Model Inspecting with OPM Model-Based Simulation Environment


Title: Visual Dynamic Model Inspecting with OPM Model-Based Simulation Environment Author: lera Last modified by: lera Created Date: 4/20/2009 7:21:04 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Visual Dynamic Model Inspecting with OPM Model-Based Simulation Environment

Visual Dynamic Model Inspecting with OPM
Model-Based Simulation Environment
  • Yevgeny Yaroker,
  • Valeria Perelman,
  • Prof. Dov Dori
  • 17 February 2015

  • Our domain Conceptual design phase in the
    systems engineering lifecycle.
  • The decisions made during this phase are the most
    critical to get right and hardest to change.
  • Existing testing approaches operate on the
    systems detailed design, a stage which is
  • too technical for the customer to follow
  • may be very expensive to backtrack

  • There is a need to detect problems starting at
    early stages of the system development, when
    detailed design does not yet exist.
  • Benefits include
  • Debugging during earlier stages of system
    development, finding system malfunctions before
    investing in extensive code writing
  • Working on a more abstract model keeping the
    model simpler with concealed details.
  • Modeling with focus on satisfying requirements.
  • Predictability of changes/modifications in design

Model-Based Simulation Frameworks
  • System model simulation frameworks for detailed
  • Modelica, ARENA, Simulink,
  • Graphical presentation of process flows
  • OPM Animation (OPCAT)
  • Model-based simulation case tools
  • xUMLite (xUML)

System testing and evaluation approaches
Non- formal
Conceiving alternatives evaluation
What makes the conceptual model evaluating so
  • Human abilities to comprehend system dynamics,
    based on numerous static diagrams, are limited
    even when well-organized and holistic modeling
    languages (ML) are used.
  • High level of abstraction, which is typical of
    conceptual MLs, propagate notations ambiguity.
  • ?These factors lead to numerous human errors
  • constructing system models
  • reading conceptual models written by others

Research Goal
  • Develop and evaluate a visual dynamic model
    inspecting with OPM model-based simulation

What is Object Process Methodology (OPM)?
  • OPM is a comprehensive, generic systems
    development and lifecycle support paradigm
  • OPM Integrates the systems function, structure
    and dynamics in a single, unifying model.
  • Complexity is controlled through recursive and
    selective scaling (zooming) of objects and/or
    processes to any desired level of detail.
  • The OPM model combines image and text
  • intuitive graphics
  • a subset of natural English

OPM Basic Concepts
  • Object A thing that exists or can exist
    physically or logically
  • Process A thing that transforms an object by
    creating it or consuming it or changing its state
  • Objects and processes can be connected with
    links, which can be structural (such as
    aggregation, generalization) and procedural
    (enabling, transformation, and event links)

OPM main links
  • Structural Links

Procedural links
Connect objects to objects
Connect objects to processes
Aggregation- Participation
Generalization- Specialization
Classification- Instantiation
Exhibition- Characterization
Uni- and Bi-directional Tagged link
Solution Outline
  • Develop a model-based animation mechanism as an
    extension of OPM using the infrastructure
    provided by OPCAT
  • Define clear system behavioral rules in line with
    OPM syntax and semantics
  • Design a software tool with a wide user profile
  • having easy-to-use User Interface (UI),
  • not requiring a special technical background
  • providing efficient problem detection and
    reporting mechanisms
  • Develop a flexible system to enable future

Technical Requirements
  • Simulation/visualization workflow requirements
  • Simulation shall follow OPM rules.
  • Instance-level simulation shall be enabled.
  • DVD film simulation mode requirement Enable
    easy work through possible scenarios
    inexperienced users
  • Forward/backward simulation, step by
    step/continuous simulation, pause/continue
    (relevant only for continuous mode), changing
    simulation speed
  • Debugging functional requirements
  • Capability to define breakpoints
  • Provide lifespan component which graphically
    describes the state of all the OPM entities at
    any stage of simulation
  • Provide special Debug Info component which
    detects possible problems and notifies user about
  • Capability to reproduce problematic scenarios

Simulation Typical View
Process is colored if it is currently executed
Object with existing instance is colored
Red token runs on the activated link
Simulation Main Controls
  • Main Toolbar Controlling simulation flow
  • Starting/Stopping simulation.
  • Playing forward/backward.
  • Controlling simulation velocity.
  • Invoking simulation properties dialog.
  • Status Bar Observing simulation status
  • Play mode.
  • Current timeline.

Status Bar
Main toolbar
Model Debugging Process
  • User can toggle breakpoint on a process.
  • The simulation runs till the breakpoint is
  • Reaching the breakpoint will pause the

Debug Information
  • Notifying a user regarding the problems making
    the further progress run impossible, such as
  • A process invocation failure,
  • A required manual process activation,
  • No future simulation events situation.

Architecture Main Constructs
  • Task Queue consists of Simulation Tasks.
  • A Simulation Task
  • represents an atomic simulation activity
  • implements Command and Undo DPs.
  • Task Queue keeps the simulation working schedule.
  • Rule defines the Simulation Tasks to be scheduled
    upon some simulation events.
  • Scheduler uses rules to build the Tasks Queue.

Architecture The Three Layered Model
  • Simulation Rule is defined for each OPM entity
    and for each simulation event.
  • For instance, there is a rule for objects
    instance creation and its deletion.
  • An activated rule determines the Simulation Tasks
    to be executed and the set of next Rules to be
  • For each rule there is a class implementing its

Process Activation Rule Example
  • Activation Conditions
  • The elements linked to the process with one of
    the following links should be active -
  • Instrument link.
  • Condition link.
  • Consequent Rules
  • Process termination will be scheduled t time
    units after its activation time, where t is the
    process execution time.
  • Elements linked to the process with Consumption
    link will be deactivated.
  • Consequent Tasks
  • The process will be painted.
  • Elements linked to the process with Result link
    will be painted progressively.

Evaluation Experiment
  • Two OPM models were prepared for two different
    example systems.
  • The systems are very similar in their size and
  • Structural and behavioral errors were inserted
    intentionally to the OPM models.
  • Two groups of students were asked to find all the
    errors in the two models.
  • Each group analyzed one system using solely
    static set of the model diagrams, and another
    system using simulation tool.
  • Following table describes the experiment setup

Group B Group A
Analysis with the simulation environment assistance Static (manual) analysis System Model 1
Static (manual) analysis Analysis with the simulation environment assistance System Model 2
Evaluation Results (1)
  • Group of 98 students made the experiments in
    pairs (49 pairs).
  • The experience of this group with OPM and system
    modeling is average.

Structural errors found (max 5) Behavioral errors found (max 5)
1.08 2.12 Static (manual) analysis
0.50 2.98 Analysis with the OPCAT simulation environment
Evaluation Results (2)
  • Paired t-test results. N 49 pairs, 98 students.

lt 0.001 5.66 Behavioral aspect
lt 0.001 -3.77 Structural aspect
  • The students were also asked to give their
    general impression about helpfulness of the tool.
    The average mark is 4.81 on a 1-7 scale.

  • Through the research visual dynamic model
    inspecting with OPM model-based simulation
    environment was developed.
  • Results gathered using two experiments carried
    out on a large group of students confirmed the
    efficiency of the proposed solution.
  • Although the proposed solution is OPM-oriented,
    the architecture and attitude could be reused to
    implement simulation engines for other MLs