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APUSH: Jacksonian Democracy

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Title: APUSH: Jacksonian Democracy


1
APUSH Jacksonian Democracy
  • Weber
  • 217

2
Activator
  • Chapter 10 reading test.
  • Good luck you have 20 minutes

3
Agenda
  • Activator, agenda, and objective (30 minutes)
  • DBQ on Jacksonian Democracy Group reading (30
    minutes)
  • DBQ Jigsaw (30 minutes)
  • DBQ Writing (30 minutes)
  • Exit ticket (5 minutes)

4
DBQ Jacksonian Democracy
  • To what extent was the Age of Jackson, 1824-1836,
    an age of triumphant nationalism, an economic
    evolution (Market Revolution), an age of social
    perfectionism, cultural romanticism, and at the
    same time, an era of divisive sectionalism.

5
Jacksonian Democracy DBQ
  • GROUP 1
  • A. Electoral map of 1828
  • B. Spoils system
  • C. Life of Jackson
  • D. Letter from Henry Clay.
  • E. Newspaper from 1832.
  • F. Veto of the Bank Bill
  • GROUP 2
  • G. SC Nullification
  • H. Jackson quote
  • I. The Age of Jackson
  • J. Jacksonian Era
  • K. Jacksonian Era
  • L. Map of trail of tears
  • M. Picture of inaugeration
  • N. Jacksonian Era

6
Jacksonian Democracy
  • GROUP 3
  • O. Worcester vs. Georgia
  • P. Market Revolution
  • Q. First Inaugural
  • R. Farewell address
  • S. Nullification proclamation
  • T. Henry Clay speech
  • GROUP 4
  • U. Contemporaries
  • V. Inauguration
  • W. Bridge court decision
  • X. Webster
  • Y. Rotation of office
  • Z. Cherokee letter
  • Facts and timeline

7
I. Triumph of democracy
  • Elimination of property qualifications for voting
  • Enfranchisement of wage-earning men
  • Popular pressures behind
  • Uneven pace of, state by state
  • Dorr War

8
I. Triumph of democracy (contd)
  • Elements of democracy
  • Mass participation in politics
  • Liveliness of the public sphere
  • Democracy as habit of the heart (Alexis de
    Tocqueville)
  • Democracy as hallmark of American freedom
  • Democratic ideal as radical departure in Western
    thought
  • Boundaries of the political nation
  • Inclusion of laboring white men, immigrants
  • Exclusion of women, non-whites
  • Shift in criteria from economic status to natural
    capacity

9
Triumph of democracy (contd)
  • Information revolution
  • Manifestations
  • Mass circulation of penny press
  • Variety of popular publications
  • Alternative newspapers
  • Contributing factors
  • New printing technologies
  • Low postal rates
  • Rise of political party organizations
  • New style of journalism

10
Triumph of democracy (contd)
  • Women and public sphere
  • Areas of involvement
  • Areas of exclusion
  • Racial democracy
  • Growing equation of democracy and whiteness
  • Rise of racist stereotypes
  • Contraction of black rights

11
Nationalism and its discontents
  • The American System
  • Underlying vision
  • Enhancement of nations financial,
    transportation, and
  • manufacturing sectors
  • Active role of federal government
  • Leading architects
  • Henry Clay
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Precursors
  • Congressional approval of National Road
  • Gallatin plan for federal road and canal
    construction

12
Nationalism and its discontents (contd)
  • The American System
  • 1815 blueprint
  • National bank
  • Tariff on imported manufactured goods
  • Internal improvements (road and canals)
  • Outcome
  • Enactment of tariff
  • Chartering of Second Bank of the United States
    (Bank)
  • Veto of internal improvements

13
Nationalism and its discontents (contd)
  • Functions and mission of Bank
  • Panic of 1819
  • Causes
  • Post-war speculative fever
  • Markets for American cotton and grain
  • Land boom in West
  • Easy credit from local banks and Bank
  • Ebbing demand for American exports, land
  • Material repercussions
  • Mass bankruptcy
  • Rising unemployment
  • Political repercussions
  • Growing popular distrust of banks
  • State measures to protect debtors, challenge Bank
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

14
Nationalism and its discontents (contd)
  • Missouri controversy
  • Narrative
  • Missouri quest for statehood
  • Tallmadge proposal limiting slavery
  • Stalemate
  • First Missouri Compromise
  • Dual admission of Missouri and Maine
  • Prohibition of slavery above 3630'
  • Second Missouri Compromise
  • Significance
  • Sectional conflict amid Era of Good Feelings
  • Harbinger of future crises over slavery

15
Nation, section, and party
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • Background
  • Latin American rebellions against Spanish
    colonial rule
  • Establishment of independent Latin American
    nations
  • Principles
  • No further European colonization in Americas
  • Noninterference by European powers in Latin
    American republics
  • Noninvolvement of United States in European wars
  • Motivations

16
Nation, section, and party (contd)
  • Election of 1824
  • Candidates and their constituencies
  • Andrew Jackson
  • John Quincy Adams
  • William H. Crawford
  • Henry Clay
  • 2. Outcome
  • Attainment by Jackson of first place in popular
    vote
  • Attainment by Adams of electoral vote majority
    (in House)
  • Charges of corrupt bargain between Adams and
    Clay

17
Nation, section, and party (contd)
  • Presidency of Adams
  • Background on Adams
  • Vision for nation
  • Domestic
  • American System
  • Activist national state
  • Foreign
  • Dynamic commerce around world
  • U.S. hegemony in Western Hemisphere
  • Achievements
  • Acceleration of internal
  • Increase in tariff

18
Nation, section, and party (contd)
  • Gathering Jacksonian challenge
  • Themes
  • Individual liberty
  • States rights
  • Limited government
  • Mobilization of Democratic party
  • Martin Van Burens approach to party politics
  • Quest for revived Jeffersonian coalition
  • Election of 1828
  • Old politics (Adams) vs. new politics (Jackson)
  • Scurrilous campaigning
  • Jacksons victory
  • Affirmation of a new American politics

19
Age of Jackson
  • Contradictions of Andrew Jackson
  • New mode of politics
  • Political contests as public spectacle, mass
    entertainment
  • Politicians as popular heroes
  • The party machine
  • Source of jobs for constituents
  • Mobilizer of voter turnout
  • Spoils system
  • National party conventions
  • Party newspapers

20
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • The Democratic party
  • Agenda and philosophy
  • Concern over gulf between social classes
  • Aversion to federal promotion of economic
    development, special interests
  • Vision of broad access to self-regulating market
  • Belief in limits on federal power
  • Counterposing of producing classes and
    non-producers
  • Individual morality as private concern

21
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • The Democratic party
  • Bases of support
  • Farmers remote from markets
  • Urban workers
  • Aspiring entrepreneurs
  • Catholic and immigrants
  • South and West

22
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • The Whig party
  • Agenda and philosophy
  • Receptiveness to hierarchy of social classes
  • Federal promotion of economic development
    American System
  • Individual morality as public concern
  • Bases of support
  • Established businessmen and bankers
  • Market-oriented farmers
  • Large planters
  • Evangelical Protestants
  • Northeast

23
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • Nullification crisis
  • Growing concern of southern planters over
    national authority
  • 1828 tariff of abominations
  • Emergence of nullification threat
  • South Carolina planter elite
  • Vice President Calhoun
  • States rights vs. liberty and union
  • Climax and resolution
  • 1832 tariff
  • Repudiation by South Carolina
  • Enactment of Force Bill by Congress
  • Engineering of compromise by Clay

24
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • Indian removal
  • Ongoing displacement
  • 1832 defeat of Black Hawk in Old Northwest
    (Illinois)
  • 1820s expulsion of Indians from Missouri
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act
  • Provision for removal of Five Civilized Tribes
    from
  • southern states
  • Support from Jackson
  • Implications
  • Repudiation of Jeffersonian idea of assimilation
  • Rebuff of Indian efforts to assimilate

25
IV. Age of Jackson (contd)
  • Indian removal
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act
  • Cherokee appeals to Congress, courts
  • Mixed response from Supreme Court
  • Johnson v. MIntosh
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
  • Worcester v. Georgia
  • Jackson defiance of Supreme Court
  • Trail of Tears

26
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • Indian removal
  • Responses of remaining southern tribes
  • Widespread acquiescence, voluntary departure
  • Resistance by Seminoles
  • Leadership of Osceola
  • Assistance from fugitive slaves
  • Second Seminole War
  • William Apesss A Son of the Forest
  • Receding of Indian presence east of the
    Mississippi

27
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • Bank War
  • Background
  • Bank as controversial symbol of market revolution
  • Nicholas Biddle and the Bank
  • View of Bank as union of political authority and
    economic privilege
  • Jackson vs. Bank
  • 1832 bill extending Bank charter
  • Veto by Jackson
  • Significance
  • Populist themes of veto message
  • Affirmation of presidential power

28
Age of Jackson (contd)
  • Bank War
  • Aftermath
  • Sweeping reelection of Jackson
  • Gradual death of Bank
  • Shift of government funds to local banks
  • Victory of soft-money over hard-money
  • Jacksonians
  • Pet banks
  • Expansion of paper currency
  • Speculative boom
  • Decline in real wages

29
Post-Jackson era
  • Panic of 1837 and subsequent depression
  • Causes
  • Specie Circular
  • Bank of England demand for repayment in gold or
    silver
  • Economic downturn in Britain
  • Material repercussions
  • Business failures
  • Farmers loss of land
  • Urban unemployment
  • Collapse of labor movement
  • Defaults on state debts

30
Post-Jackson era
  • Economic policy under Van Buren administration
  • Ascendancy of hard-money Democrats
  • Shift of government funds from pet banks to
    Independent
  • Treasury
  • Split within Democratic party
  • Election of 1840
  • Fragmenting of Democratic coalition
  • Maturation of Whig party
  • Adoption of Democratic party methods of
    organization
  • Nomination of William Henry Harrison
  • Log Cabin campaign
  • Harrisons defeat of Van Buren
  • Death of Harrison

31
Post-Jackson era
  • Presidency of John Tyler
  • Veto of Whigs American System program
  • Whig repudiation of Tyler
  • Weakness of Tyler without party backing
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