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Title: B R _ main


1
B R _ main
Warm-up Exercises
Background Information
2
B R _ Warm-up Exercises _ list
Warm-up Exercises
Journey on the Paper
Brainstorming
Clone
3
B R _ Clone _ list
Clone
News
Discussion
Ads Designing
4
B R _ Background Information _ list
Background Information
Stephen Hawking
Albert Einstein
Frankenstein
5
B R _ Stephen _ list
Stephen Hawking
Brief Introduction to Stephen Hawking
Chronology of Stephen Hawking
Main Achievements of Stephen Hawking
6
B R _ Albert Einstein_ list
Albert Einstein (18791955)
Monologue of Einstein
Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity
Albert Einsteins General Theory of Relativity
7
B R _ Frankenstein _ list
Frankenstein
A General Introduction
A Clip in the Novel Frankenstein
8
B R _ Journey on the Paper 1
Journey on the Paper
Now lets go on a journey through the most
spectacular 100 years in the history of science
and technology to have an overview of how our
understanding of the world has grown from 1900 to
today.
9
B R _ Journey on the Paper 2
MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH Medicine and Health
1900 Patients battle illness, while doctors can
do little more than counsel (??) and comfort them
and keep them clean.
Today Doctors treat and often cure patients with
a vast array (???) of medicines and medical
technologies, but some diseases are still
incurable.
10
B R _ Journey on the Paper 3
MYSTERIES OF THE UNIVERSE Physics and
Astronomy
1900 The Milky Way galaxy (??) (including some
unexplained nebular clouds (??)) is the known
universe. Newtons laws explain the physical
world. Matter is composed of atoms.
11
B R _ Journey on the Paper 4
MYSTERIES OF THE UNIVERSE Physics and Astronomy
Today The Milky Way is just one galaxy among
countless millions we have observed in the
universe. There is no set of laws that explains
all phenomena in the physical world, although
there are many theories. Atoms are composed of
many subatomic particles, all of which derive
from (???) energy.
12
B R _ Journey on the Paper 5
RESEARCH INTO OURSELVES Human Behavior
Today Mental illness can be treated with a range
of therapies (??) and medications. We know a
great deal about the chemistry and the parts of
the brain that control our behavior and thoughts.
1900 There is no cure for the mentally ill, who
are confined to insane asylums (????). Mind and
body are thought of as two separate things.
13
B R _ Journey on the Paper 6
FASTER, CLOSER, BETTER Technology
1900 The only way to view the Olympic Games in
Paris is in person. News about the Games travels
to America via (??) telegraph and is printed in
newspapers.
Today Millions worldwide watch the 2008 Beijing
Olympics on television, transmitted
instantaneously (???) by satellite. The news
spreads as well by radio, newspaper, and the
World Wide Web.
14
B R _ Journey on the Paper 7
ORIGINS Earth and Life Science
1900 There is no good explanation for
catastrophic events such as earthquakes. The
Earth is thought to be a mere 50 million years
old, and the evolution of species is hotly
debated.
15
B R _ Journey on the Paper 8
ORIGINS Earth and Life Science
Today The plates (??) that make up the Earths
crust (??) move over time, causing earthquakes
and volcanoes. The Earth is known to be 4,500
million years old. The genetic code of DNA, which
drives evolution, is better understood every day.
16
B R _ Brainstorming
Brainstorm some of the scientific and
technological inventions.
cell phone
e-mail
genetic engineering
clone
laptop (?????)
nuclear weapons
nanotechnology (????)
17
B R _ Discussion
Discussion
?
Do all these inventions always change our lives
for the better? Give examples to explain your
opinion.
18
B R _ news
News
News 1 In Feb. 1997
News 2 In Apr. 1998
News 3 In Feb. 2003
19
B R _ news _ script 1
In February 1997 a group of geneticists
(????) led by Ian Wilmut at the Roslin Institute
in Edinburgh, Scotland, announced that they had
cloned a sheep from the mammary gland tissue
(????) of a six-year-old ewe (??), the first time
scientists have been able to clone an adult
mammal (????).
20
B R _ news _ script 2
Dolly, the first-ever mammal to be
successfully cloned from an adult cell, with her
first lamb, named Bonnie, is seen at the Roslin
Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland in this image on
April 23, 1998. Dolly, who was naturally mated at
the end of last year with a Welsh Mountain ram
(??), gave birth to Bonnie on April 13, proving
that despite her unusual origins, she is able to
breed normally and produce healthy offspring.
21
B R _ news _ script 3
Dolly, the sheep, the first mammal to be
successfully cloned from an adult cell, has been
put down after she was found to have a lung
disease, the Roslin Institute in Scotlands
capital
Edinburgh said on Feb 17, 2003. She was
suffering from an incurable disease, said Dr.
Harry Griffin, after Roslin released a statement
saying the decision had been taken to put Dolly
down after she contracted (??) progressive lung
disease.
22
B R _ Discussion
Discussion
What is your attitude towards clone?
Clone is a member of a group of organisms or
plants produced non-sexually from one ancestor.
The suggested ethical and practical arguments
both for and against cloning
For
Against
23
B R _ Discussion _ for
1. Technology is not well developed. It has a
low fertility rate (???). In cloning Dolly, 277
eggs were used, 30 started to divide, nine
induced pregnancy, and only one survived to term
(??). 2. Clones may be treated as second-class
citizens and the unknown psychosocial harm with
impacts on the family and society. 3. Loss of
genetic variation.
24
B R _ Discussion _ Against
1. Animals from endangered species could be
cloned to prevent extinction. 2. Cloning would be
a good source for organ and bone marrow (??)
transplants. 3. Sterile (???) couples will be
able to have offspring who will have either the
mothers or fathers genetic pattern.
25
B R _ Ads Designing
Ads Designing
Decide for yourself which side of the issue to
support and then plan a public service
advertisement campaign for or against cloning.
Use attention-grabbing images and snappy (??) yet
informative language in your ads. You might find
models of such images and language in other
public service advertisements, such as
(A
few good examples can be found at
www.tobaccofreekids.org and www.badvertising.org.)
1. 2.
the ones
that discourage people from smoking.
26
B R _ Ads Designing _ picture 1
smoking
27
B R _ Brief Introduction to Stephen Hawking
Brief Introduction to Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking (1942 ) British theoretical
physicist and mathematician
28
B R _ Chronology of Stephen Hawking 1
Chronology of Stephen Hawking
1942 1958 1962

Born in Oxford, England. Entered
and became especially interested in
thermodynamics (???), relativity theory, and
quantum mechanics (????). Received a bachelors
degree in physics and then enrolled as a research
student in general relativity at the
.
Oxford University
University of Cambridge
29
B R _ Chronology of Stephen Hawking 2
1966

Earned his Ph.D. degree at the University of
Cambridge. Stayed at the University of Cambridge
to do post-doctoral research. Diagnosed as having
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (??????????).
I am quite often asked How do you feel about
having ALS? The answer is, not a lot. I try to
lead as normal a life as possible, and not think
about my condition, or regret the things it
prevents me from doing, which are not that many.
30
B R _ Chronology of Stephen Hawking 3
1977 1979

Became a professor of physics. Appointed Lucasian
Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, a post
once held by Isaac Newton.
This is a picture of Stephen Hawking, Isaac
Newton and Albert Einstein.
31
B R _ Chronology of Stephen Hawking 4
1988 1993 1996

Published his famous book A Brief History of
Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Wrote
Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other
Essays. Co-authored a book with Sir Roger Penrose
titled The Nature of Space and Time.
32
B R _ Oxford University _ picture
Chronology of Stephen Hawking
Oxford University
33
B R _ University of Cambridge_ picture
Chronology of Stephen Hawking
University of Cambridge
34
B R _ Main Achievements of Stephen Hawking 1
Main Achievements of Stephen Hawking
singularity
A point in space-time at which the space-time
curvature (??) becomes infinite.
35
B R _ Main Achievements of Stephen Hawking 2
black hole
A region of space-time from which nothing, not
even light, can escape. Nothing can escape
because gravity is so strong.
With the help of the following words and
expressions, listen to a recording of more
information on black hole.
object n. ?? emit v. ??,?? the event horizon
????,??????
misuse v. ??,?? turn out ??? manner n. ??,??
entropy n. ?,?????? fatal a. ???,??? motivate v.
?? irritation n. ??
36
B R _ Main Achievements of Stephen Hawking 3
A Brief History of Time
One of his books to make his work accessible to
the public.
37
B R _ Main Achievements of Stephen Hawking 4
Medal of Freedom
38
B R _ black hole _ script
By their very definition, black holes are
objects which are not supposed to emit anything.
It therefore seemed that the area of the event
horizon of a black hole could not be regarded as
its entropy. In fact in 1972, I wrote a paper on
this subject with Brandon Carter and an American
colleague Jim Bardeen. We pointed out that,
although there were many similarities between
entropy and the area of the event horizon, there
was this apparently fatal difficulty. I must
admit that in writing this paper I was motivated
partly by irritation with Beckenstein, because I
felt he had misused my discovery of the increase
of the area of the event horizon. However, it
turned out in the end that he was basically
correct, though in a manner he had certainly not
expected.
39
B R _ Medal of Freedom _ script
Persistent in his pursuit of knowledge,
Stephen Hawking has unlocked new pathways of
discovery and inspired people around the world.
He has dedicated his life to exploring the
fundamental laws that govern the universe, and he
has contributed to some of the greatest
scientific discoveries of our time. His work has
stirred the imagination of experts and lay
persons alike. Living with a disability and
possessing an uncommon ease of spirit, Stephen
Hawkings attitude and achievements inspire hope,
intellectual curiosity, and respect for the
tremendous power of science.
40
B R _ Monologue of Einstein 1
Monologue of Einstein
Albert Einstein (18791955)
41
B R _ Monologue of Einstein 2
I was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879.
As you may know, 1905 was a big year for me.
Thats when I turned the world upside down, at
least for scientists, with several new ideas. I
proposed that space and time had to be looked at
in a whole new way that Newtons view of space
and time was inaccurate. These ideas became known
as the special theory of relativity and
introduced the equation Emc2. Ten years later I
presented the general theory of relativity. The
general theory showed that gravity is not a
force, as Newton had thought. It is instead a
curvature (??) of the space-time continuum.
42
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 1
Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity
Listen to the recording and choose the best
answer.
1) Which of the following does not change
according to Einstein? ______
A. Time
B. Mass
C. Speed of light
D. Length
43
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 1A
Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity
1) Which of the following does not change
according to Einstein? ______
A
A. Time
B. Mass
C. Speed of light
D. Length
44
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 1B
Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity
1) Which of the following does not change
according to Einstein? ______
B
A. Time
B. Mass
C. Speed of light
D. Length
45
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 1C
Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity
1) Which of the following does not change
according to Einstein? ______
C
A. Time
B. Mass
C. Speed of light
D. Length
46
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 1D
Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity
1) Which of the following does not change
according to Einstein? ______
D
A. Time
B. Mass
C. Speed of light
D. Length
47
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 2
2) The two spaceships mentioned are exactly alike
except for ______.
A. speed
B. color
C. mass
D. motion
48
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 2A
2) The two spaceships mentioned are exactly alike
except for ______.
A
A. speed
B. color
C. mass
D. motion
49
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 2B
2) The two spaceships mentioned are exactly alike
except for ______.
B
A. speed
B. color
C. mass
D. motion
50
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 2C
2) The two spaceships mentioned are exactly alike
except for ______.
C
A. speed
B. color
C. mass
D. motion
51
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 2D
2) The two spaceships mentioned are exactly alike
except for ______.
D
A. speed
B. color
C. mass
D. motion
52
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 3
3) What does the scientist in the spaceship
measure? ______
A. The speed of the spaceship.
B. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the spaceship.
C. The speed of the other spaceship.
D. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the other spaceship.
53
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 3A
3) What does the scientist in the spaceship
measure? ______
A
A. The speed of the spaceship.
B. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the spaceship.
C. The speed of the other spaceship.
D. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the other spaceship.
54
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 3B
3) What does the scientist in the spaceship
measure? ______
B
A. The speed of the spaceship.
B. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the spaceship.
C. The speed of the other spaceship.
D. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the other spaceship.
55
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 3C
3) What does the scientist in the spaceship
measure? ______
C
A. The speed of the spaceship.
B. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the spaceship.
C. The speed of the other spaceship.
D. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the other spaceship.
56
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 3D
3) What does the scientist in the spaceship
measure? ______
D
A. The speed of the spaceship.
B. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the spaceship.
C. The speed of the other spaceship.
D. The time needed for a beam of lights travel
in the other spaceship.
57
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 4
4) What did the scientist in the red ship see or
conclude? ______
A. His beam of light does not appear to go
straight up.
B. The beam of light in the blue ship appears to
come straight down.
C. Time passed more slowly in the red ship.
D. The blue ship is shorter than the red one.
58
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 4A
4) What did the scientist in the red ship see or
conclude? ______
A
A. His beam of light does not appear to go
straight up.
B. The beam of light in the blue ship appears to
come straight down.
C. Time passed more slowly in the red ship.
D. The blue ship is shorter than the red one.
59
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 4B
4) What did the scientist in the red ship see or
conclude? ______
B
A. His beam of light does not appear to go
straight up.
B. The beam of light in the blue ship appears to
come straight down.
C. Time passed more slowly in the red ship.
D. The blue ship is shorter than the red one.
60
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 4C
4) What did the scientist in the red ship see or
conclude? ______
C
A. His beam of light does not appear to go
straight up.
B. The beam of light in the blue ship appears to
come straight down.
C. Time passed more slowly in the red ship.
D. The blue ship is shorter than the red one.
61
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity 4D
4) What did the scientist in the red ship see or
conclude? ______
D
A. His beam of light does not appear to go
straight up.
B. The beam of light in the blue ship appears to
come straight down.
C. Time passed more slowly in the red ship.
D. The blue ship is shorter than the red one.
62
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity _ script1
The most important of Albert Einsteins
theories published that year became known as his
Special Theory of Relativity. He said the speed
of light is always the same almost
three-hundred-thousand kilometers a second. Where
the light is coming from or who is measuring it
does not change the speed. However, he said, time
can change. And mass can change. And length can
change. They depend on where a person is in
relation to an object or an event. Imagine
two space vehicles with a scientist travelling in
each one. One spaceship is red. One is blue.
Except for color, both spaceships are exactly
alike. They pass one another far out in space.
63
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity _ script2
Neither scientist feels that his ship is
moving. To each, it seems that the other ship is
moving, not his. As they pass at high speed, the
scientist in each ship measures how long it takes
a beam of light to travel from the floor to the
top of his spaceship, hit a mirror and return to
the floor. Each spaceship has a window that lets
each scientist see the experiment of the other.
They begin their experiments at exactly the
same moment. The scientist in the blue ship sees
his beam of light go straight up and come
straight down. But he sees that the light beam in
the red ship does not do this. The red ship is
moving so fast that the beam does not appear to
go straight up. It forms a path up and down that
looks like an upside down V.
64
B R _ Albert Einsteins Special Theory of
Relativity _ script3
The scientist in the red ship would see
exactly the same thing as he watched the
experiment by the other scientist. He could say
that time passed more slowly in the other ship.
Each scientist would be correct, because the
passing of time is linked to the position of the
observer. Each scientist also would see
that the other spaceship was shorter than his
own. The higher the speeds the spaceships were
travelling, the shorter the other ship would
appear. And although the other ship would seem
shorter, its mass would increase. It would seem
to get heavier. The ideas were difficult to
accept. Yet other scientists did experiments to
prove that Einsteins theory was correct.
65
B R _ Albert Einsteins General Theory of
Relativity 1
Albert Einsteins General Theory of Relativity
Listen to the passage, and fill in the blanks
with the missing word(s) you hear.
Ten years after his paper on the special
theory of relativity, Albert Einstein finished
work on another theory. It described what he
called his General Theory of Relativity. It
his special theory to include the
motion of objects that are gaining speed. This
theory offered new ideas about gravity and the
close between matter and
energy. It built on the ideas about mass he had
in 1905.
expanded
________
relationship
__________
expressed
________
66
B R _ Albert Einsteins General Theory of
Relativity 2
Einstein said that an object loses
when it gives off light, which is a kind of
energy. He believed that matter and energy were
different forms of the same thing. That was the
basis of his famous
statement EMC2 (Energy equals mass times the
speed of light squared). This or
formula explained that a great amount of energy
could come from a small piece of matter. It
explained how the sun could give off heat and
light for millions of years. This formula also
led to the of atomic energy.
mass
____
mathematical
___________
statement
________
discovery
________
67
B R _ Albert Einsteins General Theory of
Relativity 3
In his general theory of relativity,
Einstein said that gravity, like time, is not
always the same. Gravity changes as
speed up or slow down. He also said that
gravity from very large objects, such as stars,
could turn the path of light waves that passed
nearby. This seemed . But in
1919, British scientists confirmed his theory
when the sun was completely during
a solar eclipse. Albert Einstein immediately
became famous around the world.
observers
________
unbelievable
___________
blocked
_______
68
B R _ A General Introduction
A General Introduction
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus,
generally known as Frankenstein, is a novel
written by Mary Shelley. The title of the novel
refers to a scientist, Victor Frankenstein, who
learns how to create life and creates a being in
the likeness of man, but larger than average and
more powerful. In popular culture, people have
tended incorrectly to refer to the monster as
Frankenstein.
69
B R _ A General Introduction _ pic1
70
B R _ A General Introduction _ pic2
71
B R _ A Clip in the Novel Frankenstein 1
A Clip in the Novel Frankenstein
1) What was the author interested in?
The man was interested in human bodies.
2) What did the author begin to do?
The author began to work with dead bodies. He
studied the progress of their decay, and examined
the change from life to death, and death to life.
72
B R _ A Clip in the Novel Frankenstein 2
3) What did the author finally discover?
He finally discovered how life was created.
4) What was the authors attitude towards
knowledge?
Knowledge is dangerous.
5) What is the authors first task?
The first task is to create a body.
73
G R _ main
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
74
G R _ Further Understanding
Further Understanding
For Part 1 Questions and Answers
For Part 2 Skimming
For Part 3 True or False
75
G R _ Part Division of the Text 1
Part Division of the Text
Parts
Para(s)
Main Ideas
1
13
To make informed decisions about change, the
public needs a basic understanding of science.
2
46
What can be done to educate the public about
science.
3
7
With an informed public, human civilization will
survive.
76
G R _ Questions and Answers 1
Questions and Answers
1) What is the attitude of some people towards
the changes brought about by science and
technology?
Some people would like to stop these changes and
go back to what they see as a purer and simpler
age.
2) What was life like before science and
technology began to change our way of life?
For the vast majority of the population, life was
nasty, brutish, and short.
77
G R _ Questions and Answers 2
3) What would happen if all government money for
research were cut off?
The force of competition would still bring about
advances in technology if all government money
for research were cut off.
4) Is it possible to prevent science and
technology from further development? Why or why
not?
No. The only way to prevent further developments
would be a global state that suppressed anything
new, and human initiative and inventiveness are
such that even this would not succeed.
78
G R _ Questions and Answers 3
5) What are general publics attitudes towards
science and technology?
They expect the steady increase in the standard
of living that new developments in science and
technology have brought to continue, but they
also distrust science because they dont
understand it. Besides, the public also has a
great interest in science.
79
G R _ Skimming 1
Skimming
1. Skim Part 2 to find out a mini-exposition. Topi
c sentence How to educate the public in
science?
Supporting point 1
science education in schools
_________________________
Supporting point 2
replacing equations with words and diagrams
_________________________ ________________________
_
Supporting point 3
making use of popular media such as newspapers,
magazines and above all TV
_________________________ ________________________
_ _________________________
80
G R _ Skimming 2
2. This part is full of comparison and contrast,
read this part and fill in the following table
with information obtained from this part.
81
G R _ Skimming 3
Sides
Authors preference
Reasons
1. Experts need equations for
Equations vs.
1
The author preferred conveying science by
precise values of quantities
_______________________.
words and diagrams
________________.
words and diagrams
________________.
2. The public only needs
a qualitative grasp of scientific concepts
_________________________ ________.
1. Science lessons dont include
latest development and scientific progress
___________________________ ________.
Science lessons vs.
The author preferred
2
Magazine articles and popular books
none of them
__________________ ____________.
___________.
2. Even though these publications could help
put across , they are
only read by
New
developments
a small proportion of
population
3
1. It can reach
a truly mass audience
__________________.
Magazine and books vs.
The author preferred
television
_________.
2. It contains many
very good science
television
_________.
programs
82
G R _ True or False 1
True or False
1) Our civilization is more advanced than other
alien civilizations according to the joke.
T
( )
2) We have not been contacted by an alien
civilization because of the insufficient
development of the science and technology.
F
( )
We have not been contacted by an alien
civilization because any alien civilization tends
to destroy themselves when they reach our stage.
83
G R _ True or False 2
3) The author has had sufficient evidence to
prove that the joke is wrong.
F
( )
The author has not had sufficient evidence, but
he believes that the good sense of the public
might prove the joke is wrong.
84
D R _ Text 1
Public Attitudes Toward Science
Stephen Hawking
Whether we like it or not, the world we
live in has changed a great deal in the last
hundred years, and it is likely to change even
more in the next hundred. Some people would like
to stop these
changes and go back to what they see as a purer
and simpler age. But as history shows, the past
was not that wonderful. It was not so bad for a
privileged minority, though even they had to do
without modern medicine, and childbirth was
highly risky for women. But for the vast majority
of the population, life was nasty, brutish, and
short.
85
D R _ Text 2
Anyway, even if one wanted to, one
couldnt put the clock back to an earlier age.
Knowledge and techniques cant just be forgotten.
Nor can one prevent further advances in the
future. Even if all government money for research
were cut off (and the present government is doing
its best), the force of competition would still
bring about advances in technology. Moreover,
one cannot stop inquiring minds from thinking
about basic science, whether or not they are paid
for it. The only way to prevent further
developments would be a global state that
suppressed anything new, and human initiative and
inventiveness are such that even this wouldnt
succeed. All it would do is slow down the
rate of change.
86
D R _ Text 3
If we accept that we cannot prevent science
and technology from changing our world, we can at
least try to ensure that the changes they make
are in the right directions. In a democratic
society, this means that the public needs to have
a basic understanding of science, so that it can
make informed decisions and not leave them in the
hands of experts. At the moment, the public
is in two minds about science. It has come to
expect the steady increase in the standard of
living that new developments in science and
technology have brought to continue, but it also
distrusts science because it doesnt understand
it. This distrust is evident in the cartoon
figure of the mad scientist working in his
laboratory to produce a Frankenstein.
87
D R _ Text 4
It is also an important element behind
support for the Green parties. But the public
also has a great interest in science,
particularly astronomy, as is shown by the large
audiences for television series such as The Sky
at Night and for science fiction.
88
D R _ Text 5
What can be done to harness this interest
and give the public the scientific background it
needs to make informed decisions on subjects like
acid rain, the greenhouse effect, nuclear
weapons, and genetic engineering? Clearly, the
basis must lie in what is taught in schools.
But in schools science is often presented
in a dry and uninteresting manner. Children learn
it by rote to pass examinations, and they dont
see its relevance to the world around them.
Moreover, science is often taught in terms of
equations.
89
D R _ Text 6
Although equations are a brief and accurate way
of describing mathematical ideas, they frighten
most people. When I wrote a popular book
recently, I was advised that each equation I
included would
halve the sales. I included one equation,
Einsteins famous equation, Emc2. Maybe I
would have sold twice as many copies without it.
Scientists and engineers tend to express
their ideas in the form of equations because they
need to know the precise values of quantities.
But for the rest of us, a qualitative grasp of
scientific concepts is sufficient, and this can
be conveyed by words and diagrams, without the
use of equations.
90
D R _ Text 7
The science people learn in school can
provide the basic framework. But the rate of
scientific progress is now so rapid that there
are always new developments that have occurred
since one was at school or university. I never
learned about molecular biology or transistors at
school, but genetic engineering and computers are
two of the developments most likely to change the
way we live in the future. Popular books and
magazine articles about science can help to put
across new developments, but even the most
successful popular book is read by only a small
proportion of the population. Only television can
reach a truly mass audience.
91
D R _ Text 8
There are some very good science programmes on
TV, but others present scientific wonders simply
as magic, without explaining them or showing how
they fit into the framework of scientific ideas.
Producers of television science programmes should
realize that they have a responsibility to
educate the public, not just entertain it.

92
D R _ Text 9
The world today is filled with dangers,
hence the sick joke that the reason we have not
been contacted by an alien civilization is that
civilizations tend to destroy themselves when
they reach our stage. But I have sufficient
faith in the good sense of the public to believe
that we might prove this wrong.
93
D R _ Sentence 1
Nor can one prevent further advances in the
future.
Why is this sentence reversed?
The word nor here appears at the beginning of
the sentence to give force to the negation.
Nor will I deny that.
94
D R _ Sentence 2
The only way to prevent further developments
would be a global state that suppressed anything
new, and human initiative and inventiveness are
such that even this wouldnt succeed.
1. What is the grammatical function of the first
that?
Here that brings about an attributive clause.
2. What does the structure such that here mean?
The structure is used to give an explanation for
something.
His manner was such that he would offend everyone
he met.
95
D R _ Sentence 3
3. What can we infer from this sentence?
No way can suppress anything new, as human
initiative and inventiveness do exist.
96
D R _ Sentence 4
All it would do is slow down the rate of change.
Why is there no to between is and slow?
When do appears in the subject of a sentence,
the sign to of an infinitive which is used as
the predicative can be omitted.
The first thing he did was (to) look for a guide.
All we could do now is (to) remain cool-headed.
97
D R _ Sentence 5
At the moment, the public is in two minds about
science.
1. What does in two minds about mean?
Unable to decide whether or not you want sth. or
want to do sth.
I think shes in two minds about whether to
accept his present or not.
98
D R _ Sentence 6
2. What can we learn from the sentence?
The public finds itself holding two contradictory
viewpoints about science. On the one hand, it
expects the improvement in the standard of living
that has been brought by science on the other
hand, it also distrusts science because it does
not understand it.
99
D R _ Sentence 7
It is also an important element behind support
for the Green parties.
1. What does it refer to?
The publics distrust of science.
2. What part of speech is support here?
It is a noun.
100
D R _ Sentence 8
But in schools science is often presented in a
dry and uninteresting manner.
Paraphrase the sentence.
But in schools science is often taught in a dull
and boring way.
101
D R _ Sentence 9
Maybe I would have sold twice as many copies
without it.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
??????????,????????????
102
D R _ Sentence 10
But I have sufficient faith in the good sense of
the public to believe that we might prove this
wrong.
1. What does sense here mean?
Power of judging.
2. What does this sentence imply?
The author believes that the public will have a
good understanding about science and can make
informed judgments by itself.
103
D R _ word _ likely 1
likely 1. adj. probable
An incident likely to lead to war is reported on
TV.
????????????????
2. adv. probably
I shall very likely be here again next month.
Pattern
It is likely that ???
It is highly likely that he will succeed.
104
D R _ word _ likely 2
likely, possible probable ???????????
CF
likely ????,???????????????
The likely outcome of the contest varies from
moment to moment.
??????????????
possible ????????????,?????????,????????,?????????
???????
Is it possible to get to the city by train, or
must I take a bus?
?????????????????????????
105
D R _ word _ likely 3
probable ??? possible ?,??????????????,
??????????????
CF
It is probable that he has forgotten our
appointment.
??????????????
106
D R _ word _ do without 1
do without manage to survive, continue, or
succeed, although you do not have sth. you need
I havent enough money to buy a car, so Ill just
have to do without.
He cant do without the services of a secretary.
107
D R _ word _ do without 2
Collocation
????,??
do away with
??,??????
do up
????
have something to do with
?????
have nothing to do with
108
D R _ word _ highly 1
highly adv. 1) very
Mr. Smith was a highly successful salesman.
2) to a high degree
He speaks very highly of you.
??????????????????????
Most of the people present at the meeting are
highly educated women.
109
D R _ word _ highly 2
highly high ???????????
CF
highly ?????????????
???????
a highly paid official
think highly of sb.
????
high ?????,???????????????
aim high
?????
search high and low
????
110
D R _ word _ highly 3
CF
????????? closely close closely ???,??????
Watch what I do closely.
?????????
The prisoners were closely guarded.
?????????
close ?????
He lives close to the school.
?????????
111
D R _ word _ put / turn the clock back
put / turn the clock back return to a situation
that used to exist, usually because the present
situation is unpleasant
The employment bill in which women are not
allowed to take jobs will put the clock back
fifty years.
Forget all about it and look to the future you
cant turn the clock back.
112
D R _ word _ bring about 1
bring about cause to happen
????????
What brought it about?
Some educators are hoping to bring about major
changes in the educational system.
Collocation
????
bring forth
????
bring forward
??????
bring up
113
D R _ word _ bring about 2
Fill in the blanks with the phrases and change
the form where necessary.
1. They proposed that the date of the congress
be a few months. 2.
The trees in the orchard many
apples. 3. He was well
4. At the meeting the next morning, they
many problems and
discussed them one by one.
brought forward
_____________
bring forth
_________
brought up
_________.
brought up
/ forward / forth
114
D R _ word _ inquire 1
inquire
1. vt. ask to be told
He inquired (of her) the reason for being late
again.
He asked for his key and inquired whether there
had been any message for him.
2. vi. seek information by questioning
????????????????
I rang up to inquire about train times.
115
D R _ word _ inquire 2
Collocation
??
inquire after
??
inquire for
??,??
inquire into
inquire, ask question
CF
??????,?????? inquire ?????????,??????????????
???
116
D R _ word _ inquire 3
He inquired your telephone number.
??????????
ask ?????, ???????????????, ????????????????
CF
Excuse me. May I ask you a question?
???,??????????
question ??????????,???????????
The suspect was questioned by the police.
????????
117
D R _ word _ initiative
initiative n.
1) ability to make decisions and take action
without the help of others
If you show that you have initiative, you will
sooner or later be promoted.
The workers are able to solve the problem on
their own initiative.
2) used in the phrase take the initiative be
the first person to take action to improve a
situation or relationship, esp. when other people
are waiting for sb. else to do sth.
He took the initiative in organizing a party
after his brothers wedding.
118
D R _ word _ rate
rate n.
  1. value, cost, speed, etc. measured by its relation
    to some other amount

The worlds forests are disappearing at an even
faster rate than experts have thought.
??????????????
The birth rate is the number of births compared
to the number of the people.
2) of the (numbered) quality
a first-rate performer a second-rate comic
119
D R _ word _ ensure
ensure vt. make sure guarantee
The new treaty will ensure peace.
?????????????
I cant ensure that he will be here in time.
120
D R _ word _ informed 1
informed adj.
knowing things having all the information
??????????
Keep me informed of fresh development.
Hes a well-informed man.
inform, tell instruct
CF
?????????????????????? inform ???????,
??????????????????(?????????,?????????????)???
121
D R _ word _ informed 2
I have just received a letter from my old school
informing me that my former headmaster, Mr.
Reginald Page, will be retiring next week.
??????????,?????????????????????????
tell ???,????????????????
CF
Glancing at her scornfully, he told her that the
dress was sold.
?????????,????????????
122
D R _ word _ informed 3
instruct ???,????(?????????),?????
CF
The editor at once sent the journalist a telegram
instructing him to find out the exact number of
steps and the height of the wall.
???????????????,???????????????????
123
D R _ word _ steady
steady adj.
1) constant regular in movement
The governments policies have brought a period
of steady economic growth with falling
unemployment.
There has been a steady growth in the industry.
2) firm
Using the razor requires a steady hand.
124
D R _ word _ basis 1
basis (pl. bases) n.
1) facts or ideas from which sth. can be
developed foundation (usu. used as a singular
noun, followed by for or of )
The writing is full of arguments that have a firm
basis.
What is the basis for your opinion?
2) circumstance that provides a reason for some
action or opinion (usu. followed by of or
that-clause)
On the basis that recognizing the problem is
halfway to a solution, we should pay much
attention to his comments.
125
D R _ word _ basis 2
?????????,??????????
On the basis of our sales forecasts, we may begin
to make a profit next year.
basis, base foundation ???????,?????
CF
basis ?????,?????????????
Charity toward others is the basis of her
philosophy.
?????????????
126
D R _ word _ basis 3
base ????????????????,???????????????
CF
We picnicked at the base of the mountain.
?????????
The lamp stands on a circular base.
???????????
foundation ??????????,????????
Those thoughts rocked her assurance to its
foundations.
????????????????
The huge lorries shock the house to its
foundations.
?????,????????
127
D R _ word _ lie in
lie in exist or be found in (sth.)
The root of all these events lay in history.
????????????????????????????
The plays interest lies in the questions it
raises about marriage.
128
D R _ word _ in terms of
in terms of as regards (sth.) expressed as
(sth.)
In terms of salary, the job is terrible.
???????????
Give the answer in terms of a percentage.
129
D R _ word _ tend
tend 1. vi. be likely to happen or have a
particular characteristic or effect
Some people tend to get up later at weekends.
???????
Prices are tending upwards.
2. vt. watch over attend to
shepherds tending their flocks
tend the sick and wounded
130
D R _ word _ precise
precise adj.
1) exact
We will never know the precise details of his
death.
Our train leaves at about half past ten, or to
be precise 1033.
2) taking care to be exact and not to make errors
??????????
He is a very precise man.
131
D R _ word _ grasp 1
grasp
1. v.
1) understand
This is a concept we in the West find difficult
to grasp.
2) seize firmly
The drowning man grasped the rope.
?????????????
A man who grasps at too much may lose everything.
132
D R _ word _ grasp 2
2. n. power of grasping
?????????
This work is beyond my grasp.
Success is within her grasp.
133
D R _ word _ sufficient
sufficient adj.
enough
30 should be sufficient for a new pair of shoes.
??????????????
There was sufficient evidence to prove that he
was guilty.
134
D R _ word _ convey
convey vt.
1) make (ideas, feelings, etc.) known to another
?????????????
I cant convey my feelings in words.
This picture will convey to you some idea of the
beauty of the scenery.
???????????????????
2) take carry
This train conveys both passengers and goods.
135
D R _ word _ put across 1
put across cause to be understood
?????????????
Hes very good at putting his ideas across.
Good teachers are the ones who are able to put
things across well.
136
D R _ word _ put across 2
Collocation
??(????)?????
put aside
put forward
??(?????)
put in
??,??(??????)
put off
????
put on
??
??
put out
?????
put through
??
put up with
137
D R _ word _ proportion 1
proportion n.
1) part of a group or an amount
A large proportion of the dolphins in that area
will eventually die because of water pollution.
?????????????????
A large proportion of the citys population is
aged over 50.
2) relation of one thing to another in quantity,
size, etc.
The proportion of men to women in the medical
profession has changed in recent years.
138
D R _ word _ proportion 2
Collocation
???????
in proportion to
in direct proportion to
?????
in inverse proportion to
?????
in proportion
?????
out of proportion
?????
139
D R _ word _ fit into
fit into
be part of a situation, system, or plan
The new college courses fit into a national
education plan.
College English videos are designed to fit into
the syllabus.
140
D R _ word _ educate
educate vt. teach or train
You should educate your children to behave well.
?????????????????
The boy had to educate himself in the evening
after finishing his work.
141
D R _ word _ entertain
entertain v.
1) give pleasure (to)
Childrens television programs not only entertain
but also teach.
????????????
We were all entertained by his tricks.
2) receive (people) as guests
According to the school regulations, women
students are not allowed to entertain men in
their rooms.
The Smiths entertain a great deal.
142
D R _ word _ contact 1
contact
1. vt. get in touch with
Feel free to contact us if you need my help.
2. n. touching or communication
We can learn much by being brought into contact
with other minds.
???????,????????????????
He made many useful social contacts while he was
in Canada.
143
D R _ word _ contact 2
contact, contrast contract ???????,?????? contac
t ??,?? contrast ??,?? contract ???,???
CF
Fill in the blanks with the above words and
change the form where necessary.
1. Research is more mentally fatiguing,
with physical labour. 2. They have
to build a railway across
Africa. 3. I must my lawyer before I
made my final decisions.
contrasted
_________
contracted
_________
contact
______
144
A R _ main
Useful Expressions
Sentence Translation
Summary Writing
Interview
Dictation
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
145
A R _ Useful Expressions 1
Useful Expressions
1. ????????
in the last hundred years
go back to
2. ??
3. ????????
a privileged minority
4. ????
the present government
5. ????
basic science
6. ????
a global state
7. ????
a democratic society
146
A R _ Useful Expressions 2
make informed decisions
the standard of living
cartoon figures
science fictions
acid rain
greenhouse effect
nuclear weapons
147
A R _ Useful Expressions 3
15. ????
genetic engineering
learn by rote
16. ????
17. ?????
halve the sales
18. ?????
molecular biology
19. ????
alien civilization
20. ?????
have sufficient faith in
148
A R _ Summary Writing 1
Summary Writing
have
Science and technology (?????????)
to the world we
live in in the last hundred years. (????)
that the changes are in the
right directions? Clearly, the public needs
(????) so as to
(???????)

on their own fate. Schools are important,
especially if science is taught (????????)
and scientific
concepts are expressed (?????????)

At the same time, we need to(????)
popular
media such as newspapers,
brought great changes
How to ensure
____________
education in science
_________________
make informed decisions
____________________
in an interesting manner
____________________,
in the form of words and
diagrams
make full use of
______________
149
A R _ Summary Writing 2
magazines and above all TV to (???????)
put across the latest developments
_____________________________.

Human civilization can survive if the
public understands science well.
150
A R _ Talk about the Pictures
Talk about the Pictures
151
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 1
152
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 2
153
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 3
154
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 4
155
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 5
156
A R _ Interview 1
Interview
Suppose you are Mr. / Ms. Zhang, a sociologist,
who is doing a research on the benefits and harms
of cell phones, and your partner is the host of
Tell It like It Is (????), a popular TV program
concerning hot issues of current affairs and
social topics. The interview may cover the
following topics.
157
A R _ Interview 2
1. Do you think peoples life has been greatly
improved by the use of cell phones? 2. Do you
think cell phones have seriously influenced
peoples daily life? 3. Do you think we should
ban the use of cell phones in public places, such
as buses? 4. What would be the future of cell
phones?
Tips
158
A R _ Interview _ tip1
Advantages of cell phones
1) By using a cell phone, you can communicate
with anyone whenever you want and wherever you
are. 2) If there is an emergency situation, cell
phones can be useful. 3) You can get access to
the Internet by using a cell phone. 4) Apart from
the instant access they give us, cell phones can
be vital, convenient and cost-effective for
people who want to stay connected all the
time. 5) These devices allow you to enjoy
entertainment, access information, capture and
share pictures and videos, at anytime and
anywhere you want.
159
A R _ Interview _ tip2
Disadvantages of cell phones
1) Radiation affects your health. 2) Vibrations
affect your ear drums. 3) Act in bad manners
when you are talking to someone and the phone
rings you start yelling Hello! Hello. 4)
Modern phones with cameras etc. go beyond normal
use. They have become dangerous to society and
the privacy of your contacts. 5) Cell-phone users
may spend much on running after unnecessary
up-to-date models which are changed and innovated
all the time.
160
A R _ Dictation 1
Dictation
The following passage is about technology and
peoples life. When youre listening, youre
required to fill in the gaps with the words you
hear.
Low technology is also important in
developing countries. Low-tech can help people
improve their quality of life. Two examples are
devices and stoves that use a
small amount of fuel. This is called appropriate
technology. It usually fewer
inventions
________
water-cleaning
_____________
requires
_______
161
A R _ Dictation 2
resources than high technology. It also is less
costly and easier to operate. And it does not
harm the environment. Burundis
government wants people to use peat instead of
fuels. Peat is easy to get and its
use can save trees from being cut down. Burundis
army is the main user of peat stoves. But the
country plans to sell peat stoves to
too. In Cambodia, about one hundred
thousand homes have ceramic water purifiers.
These devices microorganisms and other
substances, making water safe to drink. The
American group International
Development Enterprises has supported the use of
the low-tech purifiers.
traditional
_________
civilians
_______,
remove
______
non-profit
_________
162
A R _ Dictation 3
Cambodians like Lach Emmaly are very She
says she finds the device useful because she does
not have to for firewood to make a
fire to heat water. She says the water purifier
saves her time and money, and keeps her
satisfied
_______.
search
______
_______.
healthy
163
A R _ Sentence Translation 1
Sentence Translation
1. The only way to prevent further developments
would be a global state that suppressed anything
new, and human initiative and inventiveness are
such that even this wouldnt succeed.
??????????????????????????????,???????????????,???
?????????
164
A R _ Sentence Translation 2
2. In a democratic society, this means that the
public needs to have a basic understanding of
science, so that it can make informed decisions
and not leave them in the hands of experts.
????????,???????????????????,???????????,?????????
????
165
A R _ Sentence Translation 3
3. What can be done to harness this interest and
give the public the scientific background it
needs to make informed decisions on subjects like
acid rain, the greenhouse effect, nuclear
weapons, and genetic engineering?
???????????,?????????????,????????????????????????
??????????
166
A R _ Sentence Translation 4
4. ????????????????????, ??????????????????????
The films appeal lies in not only the
entertainment it provides to the audience but
also the questions it raises about the possible
contact between human beings and alien
civilizations.
5. ???????????, ??????????????????????
True it is hard to make accurate predictions, but
steady growth of the information industry ensures
that this line of products is highly profitable.
167
A R _ Sentence Translation 5
6. ?????????,?????????????????,??????????????
With the improvement of the standard of living,
the proportion of peoples income spent on food
has decreased while that spent on education has
increased remarkably.
7. ??????????,?????????????????
To understand the major international events, we
first need to consider their historical and
political background.
168
A R _ Writing Practice 1
Writing Practice
Write an essay of about 80 words entitled Should
cloning of human beings be banned? Your essay
should cover the following points.
1. Your opinion on cloning of human beings. 2.
Give supporting evidence. 3. Use to begin with,
secondly, thirdly and finally to connect all the
evidence.
169
A R _ Writing Practice 2
Model Paper
Cloning of human beings should not be
banned. To begin with, it is probably one of the
ways like vitro (???) fertilization (??) to help
a couple have a child when they could not have
any other way. Secondly, it will advance our
knowledge of how genes direct the development of
a single cell embryo (??) into a complex adult.
Finally, the ethical problems concerning cloning
will be solved gradually by human beings.
170
A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 1
Proverbs and Quotations
1. Science has no enemy but the ignorant.
???????????
2. Science rests on phenomena.
?????????
171
A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 2
3. Truth has no special time of its own. Its hour
is now always. A. Schweitzer, German surgeon
??????????????????????? ???? A. ???
4. Even when the experts all agree, they may well
be mistaken. Bertrand Russell, British
logician
????????????,???????? ?????? ?????
172
A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 3
5. The Golden Rule is that there are no golden
rules. G. B. Shaw, Irish writer
?????????????????? ????? ???
6. Most ignorance is vincible ignorance. We dont
know because we dont want to know.
Aldous Huxley, British
writer
??????????????????????????? ???? ???????
173
S R _ main
Culture Notes
Reading
Comprehension Tasks
174
B R _ Culture Notes _ list
Culture Notes
El Nino
A Brief History of Exploration of Mars
175
B R _ Comprehension Tasks _ list
Comprehension Tasks
Talk about the Pictures
Listening and Discussion
176
S R _ Culture Notes 1
El Nino
El Nino is a global ocean-atmosphere
phenomenon. It is an important temperature
fluctuation in surface waters of the tropical
Eastern Pacific Ocean. The name El Nino, from the
Spanish for the little boy, refers to the
Christ child, because the phenomenon is usually
noticed around
Christmas time in the Pacific Ocean off the west
coast of South America.
177
S R _ Culture Notes 2
A Brief History of Exploration of Mars
1. The modern era of Mars exploration began to
take shape in the early 1960s.This era has, so
far, consisted of a series of robotic probes
launched, primarily, by the United States.
2. Mariner 4 was launched by NASA in November of
1964. On July 15th, 1965 it passed by Mars
successfully at 9,846 km.
3. The two Viking probes were launched from Earth
in 1975 and entered Mars orbit in the same year.
178
S R _ Culture Notes 3
4. Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4th,
1996 and landed near the mouth of the Ares Valles
valley on July 4th, 1997.
5. Mars Odyssey was launched on April 7th, 2001
and entered Mars orbit on October 24th, 2001.
6. Mars Express is the first successful robotic
probe to Mars launched and operated by the
European Space Agency. It was launched in June of
2003 an
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