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Title: Higher-Level Thinking Strategies in the Spanish Language and Culture class Bloom's Taxonomy


1
Higher-Level Thinking Strategies in the Spanish
Language and Culture classBloom's Taxonomy
Gardners MIs
  • Gustavo Fares, Ph.D.
  • Lawrence University
  • www.lawrence.edu/fast/faresg

2
Goals
  • To gain a clear understanding of higher-level
    thinking strategies, following Bloom
    classifications, and the ways in which they can
    be related to Gardners theory of multiple
    intelligences.
  • To examine both theories and their implications
    for the development of classroom activities for
    the AP Spanish Language class, based on recent AP
    Spanish Language Exams tasks.
  • To see the AP Exam in light use of the two
    theories presented.

3
Summary
  • Bloom's Taxonomy
  • Domains of educational activities
  • Affective
  • Psychomotor
  • Cognitive
  • Bloom's Revised Taxonomy
  • Putting it all to work
  • Multiple Intelligences Today
  • Criteria of an Intelligence
  • The eight intelligtencies
  • Benefits of using the multiple intelligences
    approach?
  • How does it all fit together?
  • Activities
  • Bloom and Gardner in the AP Spanish Language Exam
    Tasks

4
Bloom's Taxonomy
  • Classification of learning objectives within
    education
  • First presented in 1956 through The Taxonomy of
    Educational Objectives, The Classification of
    Educational Goals, Handbook I Cognitive Domain,
    by Benjamin Bloom (editor), M. D. Englehart, E.
    J. Furst, W. H. Hill, and David Krathwohl.
  • It is considered a foundational element within
    education

5
Bloom's Taxonomy
  • Following the 1948 Convention of the American
    Psychological Association, B. S. Bloom formulated
    a classification of "the goals of the educational
    process".
  • Bloom and his co-workers established a hierarchy
    of educational objectives, which is generally
    referred to as Bloom's Taxonomy
  • Three "domains" of educational activities were
    identified.
  • The Affective Domain
  • growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)
  • The Psychomotor Domain
  • manual or physical skills (Skills)
  • The Cognitive Domain
  • knowledge and the development of intellectual
    attitudes and skills.

6
Domains of educational activities Affective
Domain
  • The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia,
    1973) includes the manner in which we deal with
    things emotionally, such as
  • feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms,
    motivations, and attitudes.
  • The five major categories are listed from the
    simplest behavior to the most complex

7
Affective Domain
  • Receiving
  • The lowest level the student passively pays
    attention. Without this level no learning can
    occur.
  • Responding
  • The person actively participates in the learning
    process, attends to a stimulus and reacts.
  • Valuing
  • The person attaches a value to an object, or
    piece of information.
  • Organizing
  • The person can put together different values,
    information, and ideas, comparing, relating and
    elaborating on what has been learned.
  • Characterizing
  • The person holds a particular value or belief
    that exerts influence on his/her behavior so that
    it becomes a characteristic of that person.

8
Psychomotor Domain
  • Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the
    ability to physically manipulate a tool or
    instrument.
  • Characterized by progressive levels of behaviors
    from observation to mastery of a physical skill.
  • Bloom and his colleagues never created
    subcategories for skills in the psychomotor
    domain, but since then other educators have
    created their own psychomotor taxonomies.
  • Simpson (1972), for instance, built a taxonomy
    based on the work of Bloom and others

9
The following is a combination of various
Psychomotor Domain taxonomies
10
Cognitive Domain
  • The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the
    development of intellectual skills.
  • Such as the recall or recognition of specific
    facts, patterns, and concepts
  • There are six major categories, which are listed
    in order, starting from the simplest behavior to
    the most complex.
  • The categories can be thought of as degrees of
    difficulties.
  • That is, the first one must be mastered before
    the next one can take place.

11
Cognitive Domain
  • Knowledge
  • arrange, define, duplicate, label, list,
    memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall.
  • Comprehension
  • classify, describe, discuss, explain, express,
    identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report,
    restate
  • Application
  • choose, demonstrate, employ, interpret, operate,
    practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use
  • Analysis
  • appraise, calculate, categorize, compare,
    contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate,
    distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test
  • Synthesis
  • collect, compose, construct, develop, formulate,
    manage, organize, plan, prepare
  • Evaluation
  • appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare,
    defend, estimate, judge, predict, rate, evaluate.

12
Cognitive Domain
13
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy
  • Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom,
    revisited the cognitive domains in the learning
    taxonomy in the mid-nineties and made some
    changes, the two most prominent ones being
  • 1) changing the names in the six categories from
    noun to verb forms
  • 2) slightly rearranging them.
  • This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of
    thinking and is perhaps more accurate

Reference 1. Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives, Handbook I The Cognitive
Domain. New York David McKay Co Inc.
14
Cognitive Domain Revised
15
Low levels in Blooms Cognitive Domain taxonomy
Knowledge and Understanding
  • Remembering, Understanding
  • Typical keywords might include
  • Define, describe, label, list, memorize, recall,
    identify, label, who, when, where.
  • moving through to
  • Summarize, interpret, contrast, predict,
    estimate, classify, describe, discuss, explain,
    indicate, give examples, paraphrase, locate.

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17
Questions for Remembering
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20
Questions for Understanding
(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.
12)
21
Understanding Potential Activities and Products
22
Medium levels of Blooms taxonomyApplication -
Applying
  • Typical keywords might include choose,
    demonstrate, employ, interpret, operate,
    practice, schedule, sketch, solve, useResources
    could include
  • Interactive games.
  • User selected photo galleries for portfolio
    evidence.
  • Problem solving via personal note-taking or
    spreadsheet application.
  • Creating audio clips.
  • Web search.
  • Wireless collaboration
  • Quiz software with questions

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24
Questions for Applying
(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.
13)
25
Applying Potential Activities and Products
26
Higher levels of Blooms taxonomy Analyzing,
Evaluating, Creating
  • Analyzing, Evaluating, Creating in the revised
    model
  • Typical keywords might include Modify,
    rearrange, construct, substitute, plan, create,
    explore. moving through to Recommend,
    appraise, defend, judge, evaluate,
    conclude.Resources could include
  • Personal notes or audio clips synthesizing key
    arguments, or reference materials
  • Collaborative summaries by wireless, SMS or
    mobile blog/wiki.
  • Web searches to add value to lecture or to
    dispute points of view.
  • Evaluating audio clips or creating audio clip to
    evaluate arguments.
  • Creation of a presentation to defend a viewpoint.

27
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28
Question for Analyzing
(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.
13)
29
Analyzing Potential Activities and Products
30
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31
Questions for Evaluating
(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.
14)
32
Evaluating Potential Activities and Products
33
Classroom Roles for Creating
34
Questions for Creating
(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.
14)
35
Creating Potential Activities and Products
36
Creating Products include
37
Putting it all to work
  • Developing a Range of Thinking Skills
  • 3 Examples with multiple activities and
    engagement of Blooms Cognitive levels
  • Space
  • Travel
  • Using audio recordings to create alternative
    learning experiences

38
Sample Unit Space
Remembering Cut out space pictures from a magazine. Make a display or a collage. List space words (Alphabet Key). List the names of the planets in our universe. List all the things an astronaut would need for a space journey.
Understanding Make your desk into a spaceship, Make an astronaut for a puppet play. Use it to tell what an astronaut does. Make a model of the planets in our solar system.
Applying Keep a diary of your space adventure (5 days). What sort of instruments would you need to make space music? Make a list of questions you would like to ask an astronaut.
Analyzing Make an application form for a person applying for the job of an astronaut. Compare Galileos telescope to a modern telescope. Distinguish between the Russian and American space programs.
Evaluating Compare the benefits of living on Earth and the moon. You can take three people with you to the moon. Choose and give reasons. Choose a planet you would like to live on- explain why.
Creating Write a newspaper report for the following headline Spaceship out of control. Use the SCAMPER strategy to design a new space suit. Create a game called Space Snap. Prepare a menu for your spaceship crew. Design an advertising program for trips to the moon.
39
Sample Unit Travel
Remembering How many ways can you travel from one place to another? List and draw all the ways you know. Describe one of the vehicles from your list, draw a diagram and label the parts. Collect transport pictures from magazines- make a poster with info.
Understanding How do you get from school to home? Explain the method of travel and draw a map. Write a play about a form of modern transport. Explain how you felt the first time you rode a bicycle. Make your desk into a form of transport.
Applying Explain why some vehicles are large and others small. Write a story about the uses of both. Read a story about The Little Red Engine and make up a play about it. Survey 10 other children to see what bikes they ride. Display on a chart or graph.
Analyzing Make a jigsaw puzzle of children using bikes safely. What problems are there with modern forms of transport and their uses- write a report. Use a Venn Diagram to compare boats to planes, or helicopters to bicycles.
Evaluating What changes would you recommend to road rules to prevent traffic accidents? Debate whether we should be able to buy fuel at a cheaper rate. Rate transport from slow to fast etc..
Creating Invent a vehicle. Draw or construct it after careful planning. What sort of transport will there be in twenty years time? Discuss, write about it and report to the class. Write a song about traveling in different forms of transport.
40
Example 3 Developing a Range of Thinking Skills
  • Using audio recordings to create alternative
    learning experiences
  • The examples below show a range of ways audio
    recording and playback can create very varied
    learning experiences at a range of different
    levels on Bloom's taxonomy.
  • The accessibility pros and cons vary with the
    pedagogical approach.
  • More creative and engaging uses may provide
    motivation.

41
Using audio recordings
  • Lower levels in Blooms taxonomy An audio
    recording can provide basic material that a
    learner needs
  • The learner may store basic notes in audio format
  • key vocabulary definitions, language phrases etc.
  • Text based information e.g. handout notes - can
    be transformed to MP3 format using text to speech
    software.
  • Audio clips loaded onto a device might include
    background information on different locations.

42
Using audio recordings
  • Medium levels of Blooms taxonomy
  • A learner compares audio files in order to select
    and use the appropriate information e.g.
    language based work or practical work.
  • A learner creates own audio clips explaining
    observations or summarizing group discussions.

43
Higher levels of Blooms taxonomy
  • Learners listen to audio clips and assess them
    for bias or prejudice
  • e.g. in humanities or social sciences.
  • Learners create audio clips to replicate
    particular styles
  • e.g. rhetorical, documentary, propagandist.
  • Learners create their own audio clips to
    summarize a series of arguments for or against a
    particular issue.
  • With each of these approaches, different factors
    come into play.
  • Group based work allows a division of labor that
    may bypass individual accessibility barriers.
  • Creating audio recordings may provide benefits
    for dyslexic or motor impaired learners
  • compared to note taking but may be inappropriate
    for speech impaired or deaf learners.

44
Based on Clark, B. (2002). Growing up
giftedDeveloping the potential of children at
home and at school.Upper Saddle River, NJ
Merrill Prentice Hall.
45
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46
2010 Exam Format
Section Item Type of Questions and Weight of Final Score of Questions and Weight of Final Score Time
Section I Multiple Choice 70-75 questions 50 85-90 min.
Part A Listening Short Dialogues Narratives 30-35 questions 20 30-35 min.
Part A Listening Long Dialogues Narratives 30-35 questions 20 30-35 min.
Part B Reading Reading Comprehension 35-40 questions 30 50-60 min.
Section II Free Response Free Response 50 85 min.
Part A Writing Informal Writing 1 prompt (10) 10 mins. 30 Approx. 65 min
Part A Writing Formal Writing (Integrated Skills) 1 prompt (20) 55 mins. 30 Approx. 65 min
Part B Speaking Informal Speaking Simulated Conversation 5-6 response prompts (10) 20 Approx. 20 min.
Part B Speaking Formal Oral Presentation (Integrated Skills) 1 prompt (10) 20 Approx. 20 min.
46
47
  • Qs ?

48
Multiple Intelligences Today
49
What constitutes an intelligence in M.I. Theory?
50
Criteria of an Intelligence
Potential Isolation by Brain Damage
The extent to which a particular faculty can be
destroyed or spared in its relative autonomy.
51
Criteria of an Intelligence
An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of
Operations
Can the basic information processing function be
isolated and identified in their neurological
form?
52
Criteria of an Intelligence
A Distinctive Developmental History Along with a
Definable Set of Expert End-State Performances
Can degrees of expertise be identified throughout
a developmental timeline?
53
Criteria of an Intelligence
An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary
Plausibility
An intelligence becomes more plausible if it can
be traced to its evolutionary antecedents.
54
Criteria of an Intelligence
The extent to a cognitive test can isolate the
ability.
Support From Experimental Psychological Tasks
55
Criteria of an Intelligence
Support From Psychometric Findings
The extent to which a specifically designed test
can support a domain of intelligence.
56
Criteria of an Intelligence
Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System
Has a culture been able to harness the raw
capacities to be exploited in a symbolic system?
57
The Eight Intelligences
  • Each has met the majority of criteria
  • Breakdown of cognitive skills with brain damage
  • Existence of exceptional populations
  • Identifiable core set of operations
  • Developmental and Evolutionary History
  • Psychometric and Psychological studies
  • Susceptible to encoding in a symbol system
  • Possibility of additional intelligences
  • Technical and accessible terminology

58
MIs
  • Developing a Mindset
  • Intelligence is something you use, rather than
    something you have!
  • The emphasis is on how you are smart, not how
    smart you are!

59
Spatial Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • The ability to make a mental picture of thoughts,
    ideas, concepts
  • The ability to manipulate images in space

60
Spatial Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Navigators, artists, architects, web-page
    designers, engineers, mechanics, scientific
    researchers, builders, decorators, etc.

61
Naturalist Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • The ability to recognize and classify the
    differences plants, animals, minerals, and
    man-made items

62
Naturalist Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Botanists, zoologists, landscapers, farmers,
    hunters, chefs
  • Anyone who organizes or catalogues items

63
Interpersonal Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • The ability to understand the thoughts and
    feelings of others

64
Interpersonal Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Teachers, lawyers, psychologists, preachers,
    salespeople, politicians, advertisers,
    entertainers
  • Anyone who lives, works, or interacts with others

65
Intrapersonal Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • An understanding of yourself, of who you are,
    what you can do, what you want to do, how you
    react to things, which things to avoid, and which
    things to gravitate toward

66
Intrapersonal Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Everybody and anybody, when we practice
    introspection
  • When we examine our thoughts and feelings

67
Musical Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • The ability to pick up and appreciate aural
    elements, such as those in music, and the
    capacity to work with rimes and rhythms.

68
Musical Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Musicians, music critics, advertisers,
    entertainers, teachers, aerobics instructors,
    dancers, poets
  • Anyone who appreciates music

69
Linguistic Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • The ability to use oral or written language to
    express what's on your mind and to understand
    other people.

70
Linguistic Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Writers, preachers, lawyers, teachers,
    entertainers, politicians, journalists, editors,
    students
  • Anyone who reads, writes, or speaks!

71
Linguistic intelligence
  • People who are strong in the language
    intelligence enjoy saying, hearing, and seeing
    words.
  • They like telling stories.
  • They are motivated by books, records, dramas,
    opportunities for writing.
  • Here are ways to work with this intelligence in
    lessons

72
Linguistic intelligence
  • Look at different kinds of dictionaries.
  • Read plays and poetry out loud.
  • Write a story for a book or newsletter.
  • Keep a journal.
  • Read from books written by or for new readers.
  • Use a tape recorder to tape stories and write
    them down.
  • Trade tall tales, attend story-telling events and
    workshops.
  • Read together, i.e., choral reading.
  • Read out loud to each other.
  • Read a section, then explain what you've read.
  • Read pieces with different emotional tones or
    viewpoints one angry, one happy, etc.
  • Explore and develop the love of words.

73
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • A sensitivity towards and a capacity to see
    logical or numerical patterns
  • The ability to handle long chains of reasoning

74
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Scientists, engineers, mathematicians, doctors,
    accountants, contractors
  • Anybody who tries to solve challenging problems

75
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
  • What is it?
  • Ability to control ones body movements with
    expertise and the capacity to handle objects
    skillfully

76
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
  • Who demonstrates it?
  • Athletes, dancers, carpenters, crafters, actors,
    potters, tailors, physical occupational
    therapists, yoga teachers, inventors

77
The Eight Intelligences
  • A ninth intelligence?
  • Gardner has allowed that there is an existential
    intelligence
  • He refers to this as, The intelligence of big
    questions

78
The Eight Intelligences
  • Intelligence Profiles
  • Variable over time
  • Affected by
  • Attention
  • Instruction
  • Practice
  • Development

79
So what are the benefits of using the MI approach?
  • Students are turned on to learning!
  • Students who may perform poorly on traditional
    tests are turned on to learning
  • when classroom experiences incorporate artistic,
    musical, or athletic activities.
  • Students are more active participants when we
    provide opportunities for authentic learning
    based on each students needs, interests, and
    talents.
  • Students develop increased self-esteem when they
    are able to demonstrate and share strengths and
    gain positive educational experiences.
  • Students manage their own learning and begin to
    value their strengths.
  • Student understanding increases.
  • When students understand their intelligences,
    they begin to manage their own learning and to
    value their individual strength

From Pamela Starkeys article in AP Central
80
Intelligences and Technology
81
Benefits of using the multiple intelligences
approach?
From Pamela Starkeys article in AP Central
82
How does it all fit together?
Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences
Blooms Revised Taxonomy
83
Bloom-Gardner Matrix
84
Activities
85
Language intelligence Activity
86
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
  • Look for a solution to a problem.
  • It implies a constant re-reading and pondering of
    its elements

87
Spatial Intelligence
  • This activity works with the visual imagination
  • The student needs to imagine visual clues and
    elements NOT present in the story.
  • Each students can contribute personal elements to
    the story

88
  • Musical Intelligence

89
Bloom and Gardner in the AP Spanish Language
Exam Tasks
90
2010 Exam Format
Section Item Type of Questions and Weight of Final Score of Questions and Weight of Final Score Time
Section I Multiple Choice 70-75 questions 50 85-90 min.
Part A Listening Short Dialogues Narratives 30-35 questions 20 30-35 min.
Part A Listening Long Dialogues Narratives 30-35 questions 20 30-35 min.
Part B Reading Reading Comprehension 35-40 questions 30 50-60 min.
Section II Free Response Free Response 50 85 min.
Part A Writing Informal Writing 1 prompt (10) 10 mins. 30 Approx. 65 min
Part A Writing Formal Writing (Integrated Skills) 1 prompt (20) 55 mins. 30 Approx. 65 min
Part B Speaking Informal Speaking Simulated Conversation 5-6 response prompts (10) 20 Approx. 20 min.
Part B Speaking Formal Oral Presentation (Integrated Skills) 1 prompt (10) 20 Approx. 20 min.
90
91
Multiple Choice
  • Listening Comprehension
  • Short Dialogues Narratives
  • Long Dialogues Narratives
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Literary and Journalistic texts
  • Sample Questions
  • Directions You will now listen to several
    selections. After each one, you will be asked
    some questions about what you have just heard.
    Select the BEST answer to each question from
    among the four choices printed in your test
    booklet and fill in the corresponding oval on the
    answer sheet.

92
Free ResponseInterpersonal Writing
93
Free ResponsePresentational Writing
94
Free ResponsePresentational Writing
95
Free ResponseInterpersonal Speaking
96
Free ResponsePresentational Speaking
97
MI Tools
  • How Smart are you? Assessing MI
  • Practicing MI
  • Resources
  • Extending this module
  • Please read Exploring "The Theory of Multiple
    Intelligences
  • (http//www.accelerated-learning.net/multiple
    .htm)
  • Please visit
  • The Surfaquarium website (http//surfaquarium.com/
    MI/)

98
  • Q A

99
Bloom Gardner go High-tech
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLOltDZgIZVcfeature
    related
  • National Educational Technology Standards
  • ISTE (International Society for Technology in
    Education)

100
Bloom on the Internet
  • Bloom's(1956) Revised Taxonomy
  • http//rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/b
    loom.html
  • An excellent introduction and explanation of the
    revised Taxonomy by Michael Pole on the
    oz-TeacherNet site written for the QSITE Higher
    order Thinking  Skills Online Course 2000. Pohl
    explains the terms and provides a comprehensive
    overview of the sub-categories, along with some
    suggested question starters that aim to evoke
    thinking specific to each level of the taxonomy.
    Suggested potential activities and student
    products are also listed.
  • Blooms Revised Taxonomy
  • http//coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/bloomrev/index.ht
    m
  • Another useful site for teachers with useful
    explanations and examples of questions from the
    College of Education at San Diego State
    University.
  • Taxonomy of Technology Integration
  • http//education.ed.pacificu.edu/aacu/workshop/rec
    oncept2B.html
  • This site compiled by the Berglund Center for
    Internet Studies at Pacific University, makes a
    valiant effort towards linking ICT (information
    and communication technologies) to learning via
    Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Educational
    Objectives (Anderson, et. al., 2001). The
    taxonomy presented on this site is designed to
    represent the varying cognitive processes that
    can be facilitated by the integration of ICT into
    the teaching and learning process.
  • Critical and Creative Thinking - Bloom's Taxonomy
  •  http//eduscapes.com/tap/topic69.htm
  •  Part of Eduscape.com, this site includes a
    definitive overview of critical and creative
    thinking as well as how Blooms domains of
    learning can be reflected in technology-rich
    projects. Many other links to Internet resources
    to support Blooms Taxonomy, as well as research
    and papers on Thinking Skills. Well worth a look.

101
Bloom on the Internet
  • http//www.tedi.uq.edu.au/Assess/Assessment/bloomt
    ax.html
  •  http//www.acps.k12.va.us/hammond/readstrat/Bloom
    sTaxonomy2.html
  •  http//www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dal
    ton.htm
  •  http//www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
  •  http//www.quia.com/fc/90134.html
  •  http//www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/handouts/1414.
    html Model questions and keywords
  •  http//schools.sd68.bc.ca/webquests/blooms.htm
  •  http//www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/blo
    om.html
  •  http//caribou.cc.trincoll.edu/depts_educ/Resourc
    es/Bloom.htm
  •  http//www.kent.wednet.edu/KSD/MA/resources/bloom
    s/teachers_blooms.html
  •  http//www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/Fac
    DevCom/guidebk/teachtip/questype.htm
  •  http//www.nexus.edu.au/teachstud/gat/painter.htm
    Questioning Techniques that includes reference
    to Blooms Taxonomy.
  •  http//scs.une.edu.au/TalentEd/EdSupport/Snugglep
    ot.htm
  • http//online.umwblogs.org/2008/08/27/bloom-gardne
    r-gliffy-reflection/
  • http//www.kurwongbss.eq.edu.au/thinking/Bloom/blo
    oms.htm
  • http//www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/matr
    ix.htm
  • http//office.microsoft.com/en-us/templates/TC3000
    05771033.aspx?AxInstalled1c0

102
Printed Resources
  • Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational
    Objectives, Handbook I The Cognitive Domain. New
    York David McKay Co Inc.
  • Clements, D. C. Gilliland and P. Holko. (1992).
    Thinking in Themes An Approach Through the
    Learning Centre. Melbourne Oxford University
    Press.
  • Crawford, Jean (ed.) (1991). Achieveing
    Excellence Units of Work for levels P-8.
    Carlton South, Vic. Education Shop, Ministry of
    Education and Training, Victoria.
  • Crosby, N. and E. Martin. (1981). Dont Teach!
    Let Me Learn. Book 3. Cheltenham, Vic. Hawker
    Brownlow.
  • Dalton, Joan. (1986). Extending Childrens
    Special Abilities Strategies for Primary
    Classrooms. Victoria Department of School
    Education, Victoria.
  • Dave, R. H. (1975). Developing and Writing
    Behavioural Objectives. (R J Armstrong, ed.)
    Educational Innovators Press.
  • Forte, Imogene and S. Schurr. (1997). The All-New
    Science Mind Stretchers Interdisciplinary Units
    to Teach Science Concepts and Strengthen Thinking
    Skills. Cheltenham, Vic. Hawker Brownlow.
  • Fogarty, R. (1997). Problem-based learning and
    other curriculum models for the multiple
    intelligences classroom. Arlington Heights, IL
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