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Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy

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Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy Section 1 Bureaucratic Organization Mr. Young Title: The Damages of the Bureaucracy Artist: unknown, La Presna, Panama Date ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy


1
Unit 7 Chapter 10 Federal Bureaucracy
  • Section 1
  • Bureaucratic Organization
  • Mr. Young

2
Essential Questions
  • What is the major importance of the Federal
    Bureaucracy?

3
I CAN
  1. Define the concept of Bureaucracy and describe
    its characteristics
  2. Explain the concept of a Bureaucrat and their
    function within the government
  3. Identify and Describe the structure and function
    of the Federal Bureaucracy

4
Group 1
  • Definitions of Bureaucracy

5
Bureaucracy -
  • A professional corps of unelected officials
    organized in a pyramid hierarchy, functioning
    under impersonal uniform rules and procedures.

6
Bureaucracy
  • A hierarchical organization in which offices have
    specified missions and employees are assigned
    responsibility based on merit, knowledge, and
    experience.

7
bureaucracy
  • Definition an administrative system, especially
    in a government, that divides work into specific
    categories carried out by special departments of
    nonelected officials

8
bureaucracy
  • literally means rule by desks
  • government by clerks

9
Duty of Bureaucracy Cabinet Departments
  • Most Important duty Carry out the Day-to-Day
    business of the government
  • 15 cabinet departments

10
Group 2
  • What and Whom are Bureaucrats?

11
Bureaucrats
  • A Civil servant
  • Permanent employee of the government

12
Who are the Bureaucrats?
  • 97 are career government employees
  • Only 10 live in the D.C. area
  • 30 work for the D.O.D.
  • Less than 15 work for social welfare
    agencies
  • Most are white collar workers secretaries,
    clerks, lawyers, inspectors
    engineers
  • Civil employees more diverse demographically than
    Congress

13
The Federal Bureaucracy is
  • 4 million employees 2.8 million are civilians or
    civil servants
  • President only appoints 3 (patronage or
    political appointments)
  • 15 cabinet level departments
  • 200 independent agencies with 2,000 bureaus,
    divisions, branches, etc.
  • Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service,
    Veterans Administration

14
Bureaucratic Statistics
  • 2.9 million civilians
  • 1.4 million military
  • 4.2 million state
  • 11.4 million local
  • Total 19.8 million people work for government

15
Where do Federal Employees Work?
Source www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivitie
s/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
16
What Jobs Do Bureaucrats Do?
Source www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivitie
s/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
17
(No Transcript)
18
Demographics of Federal Employees
19
(No Transcript)
20
Group 3
  • Functions and Structures of the Federal
    Bureaucracy

21
Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy
  • Implementation - carry out laws of Congress,
    executive orders of the President
  • Administration - routine administrative work
    provide services (ex SSA sends social security
    checks to beneficiaries)
  • Regulation - issue rules and regulations that
    impact the public (ex EPA sets clean air
    standards)
  • Source http//www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/sub
    jects/am_gov/chap6/a0606401.asp

22
Organization
  • Departments, agencies, boards, commissions,
    corporations, and advisory committees
  • Article 2- President appoints heads of departments

23
The Cabinet Departments
  • The 15 cabinet departments headed by a cabinet
    secretary appointed by the president and approved
    by the Senate
  • Each department expert in specific policy area
  • Each department has its own budget
  • Department of Homeland Security, created in 2002,
    is newest department

24
(No Transcript)
25
Department of Homeland Security
Executive Secretary
Commandant of Coast Guard (1)
Legislative Affairs
Secretary ---------------------------------- Deput
y Secretary
Inspector General
Public Affairs
General Counsel
State and Local Coordination
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
Citizenship Immigration Service Ombudsman (1)
Director, Bureau of Citizenship Immigration
Services (1)
Special Assistant to the Secretary (private
sector)
Director of the Secret Service (1)
Privacy Officer
Small Disadvantaged Business
National Capital Region Coordination
Chief of Staff
International Affairs
Shared Services
Counter Narcotics
Under Secretary Science and Technology
Under Secretary Information Analysis and
Infrastructure Protection
Under Secretary Border Transportation Security
Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness and
Response
Under Secretary Management
Note (1) Effective March 1st, 2003
26
Independent Executive Agencies
  • Established by Congress with separate status
    outside the executive branch
  • Given a specific mandate and generally perform a
    service function, not a regulatory one.
  • Some examples include Social Security
    Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA.

27
Independent Agencies
  • Similar to cabinet departments but usually have a
    narrower area of responsibility
  • Ex NASA, CIA
  • Perform services for the executive branch

28
Independent Regulatory Commissions
  • IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic
    activity or interest such as the Federal
    Communications Commission (public air waves) or
    Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money
    supply)
  • IRCs operate independently from Congress and the
    President
  • Once appointed and seated, members cannot be
    removed without cause

29
Regulatory Commissions
  • Administrative units that have responsibility for
    the monitoring and regulation of ongoing economic
    activities
  • Created to make rules for large industries and
    businesses that affect public interest
  • Under intense pressure from lobbyists
  • Ex EPA (environment), SEC (stocks and bonds)

30
Government Corporations
  • Government owned businesses created by Congress
  • May or may not be profitable, but serve a public
    need
  • Ex U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley
    Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting

31
Government Corporations
  • Independent agencies, are similar to private
    organizations in that they can charge for their
    services but differ in that they receive federal
    funding
  • ExTVA, USPS, Amtrak

32
Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy
Source www.edmonds.wednet.edu/mths/ClassActivitie
s/ Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
33
Group 4
  • Characteristics and Criticisms

34
Characteristics of a Bureaucracy
  • administration of government through departments
  • consists of unelected often highly trained
    professionals
  • task specialization
  • hierarchical authority

35
Public Perceptions of Bureaucracies
  • impersonal
  • inclined to follow rigid or complex procedures
  • may stifle effectiveness and innovation
  • red tape

36
Criticism of Bureaucracy
  • I. RED TAPE
  • too many rigid procedures gtgtgt ex all hiring must
    be done through OPM
  • too many policies with no flexibility for special
    circumstances
  • too many forms to fill out, lines to wait
  • II. INEFFICIENCY
  • lack of incentive to be productive - no profit
    motive
  • III. DUPLICATION OF SERVICES
  • bureaucracy is so complicated
  • agencies are performing similar and sometimes the
    same functions
  • Dept. of Commerce overlaps with Dept. of
    Agriculture, GSA overlaps with Dept. of Interior,
    etc.
  • federalism makes this more complicated, many
    services are provided at the state and national
    level both

37
Criticisms Continued
  • IV. BUREAUCRACY IS LAW MAKER
  • regulations end up having the effect of law.
  • V. BUREAUCRACY IS TOO BIG
  • privatization would be more effective
  • VI. BUREAUCRACY IS CORRUPT
  • iron triangle - reveals the relationship between
    the Executive branch, Congress and private
    interest groups that can lead to decisions which
    benefit the private sector at the expense of the
    government.

38
Group 5
  • Oversight of the Federal Bureaucracy

39
The President Supervises the
Bureaucracy
  • The President can
  • appoint remove
    agency heads
  • reorganize the bureaucracy
  • issue executive orders
  • reduce an agency's budget

President Bush speaks about his budget
priorities for FY 2007
40
Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy
  • Congress can
  • create or abolish agencies
    departments
  • cut or reduce funding
  • investigate agency activities
  • hold committee hearings
  • pass legislation that alters an
    agency's functions
  • influence or even fail to confirm presidential
    appointments

Former FEMA Chief Michael Brown testifies before
House committee investigating Hurricane Katrina
41
Federal Courts Check the Bureaucracy
  • Federal courts can
  • through judicial review rule on whether the
    bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S.
    Constitution
  • provide due process for individuals affected by a
    bureaucratic action

Supreme Court of the United States
42
Question
  • Why do you think that the organization of
    Bureaucracies are so confusing?

43
Question
  • What do the 15 departments help to make up,
    guaranteed by the 25th amendment, that we talked
    about in the last unit.

44
Answer Presidential Succession
45
Cabinet Departments
  • Serve as the major service organization for the
    federal government
  • Has broad powers and responsibility
  • 15 different cabinets with different agendas and
    duties

46
Department of State
  • Founded 1789
  • Overall foreign policy of the United States
  • Embassies- office of ambassadors in foreign
    countries
  • Current Secretary Hillary Clinton

47
Department of Defense
  • Founded 1789 (Department of War)
  • Changed name in 1949
  • Protects the nations security
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, Marines, and
    Air Force)
  • Current Secretary Leon Panetta

48
Department of Treasury
  • Founded 1789
  • Managing the money of the US
  • Ex IRS, Bureau of Mint, Bureau of Public Debt
  • Current Secretary Timothy Geithner

49
Department of Interior
  • Founded 1849
  • Protect public lands and natural resources
    throughout the nation
  • Ex Bureau of Mines
  • Current Secretary Ken Salazar

50
Question
  • What Service, created by Teddy Roosevelt, would
    be found in the Department of Interior? (hint,
    think of Old Faithful)

51
(No Transcript)
52
Department of Agriculture
  • Founded 1862
  • Help farmers improve their income and expand
    their markets
  • Ex Food Safety and Inspection Service
  • Current Secretary Tom Vilsack

53
Department of Justice
  • Founded 1870
  • Attorney General (1789)
  • Oversee the nations legal affairs
  • Ex FBI, DEA, US Marshals
  • Current Secretary Attorney General Eric Holder

54
Department of Commerce
  • Founded 1903
  • Promote and protect the industrial and commercial
    segments of the American economy
  • Ex Bureau of Census, Patent and Trademark
    Office, National Institute of Standards and
    Technology
  • Current Secretary John Bryson

55
Department of Labor
  • Founded 1913
  • Protects American workers safe working
    conditions, safeguards a minimum wage, and
    protects pension rights
  • Ex Office of American Workplace
  • Current Secretary Hilda Solis

56
Housing and Urban Development
  • Founded 1965
  • Preserve the nations communities and ensure
    equal housing opportunities
  • Ex Government National Mortgage Association
  • Current Secretary Shaun Donovan

57
Transportation Department
  • Founded 1966
  • Regulate all aspects of transportation needs,
    policy development, and planning
  • Federal Aviation, Railroad, Highway, and Transit
  • Secretary Ray Lahood

58
Energy Department
  • Founded 1977
  • Plans energy policy and researches and develops
    energy technology
  • Secretary Stephen Chu

59
Question
  • What are some new research methods that the
    Energy Department is trying to work on to help
    the world with their environment problem?

60
Answer Clean Energy, such as Wind, Solar, Clean
Coal, Electric Cars
61
Health and Human Services Department
  • Founded 1979
  • Health and social services needs of people
  • Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, FDA
  • Secretary Kathleen Sebeliu

62
Education Department
  • Founded 1979
  • Coordinate federal assistance programs for public
    and private schools
  • Education is an essential feature of democracy
  • Secretary Arne Duncan

63
Veterans Affairs Department
  • Founded 1989
  • Administers several hospitals, educational, and
    other programs designed to benefit veterans and
    families
  • Secretary Eric Shinseki

64
Homeland Security Department
  • Founded 2002
  • Created after September 11th to help protect our
    nation, analyzes information from FBI and CIA
  • Secretary Janet Napiltano

65
Organization Cont.
66
Title The Damages of the Bureaucracy
  • Artist unknown, La Presna, Panama
  • Date May, 2006
  • Source http//www.politicalcartoons.com

67
Title Federal Employees Self Esteem Class
Artist Chip Bok Date
unknown Source http//www.reason.com/9602/bok.gif

68
Title Another Layer of Bureaucracy
Artist Bob Englehart, The Hartford Courant Date
February, 2006 Source http//www.politicalcart
oons.com
69
Title FEMAs Follies
Artist Mike Keefe, The Denver Post Date April,
2006 Source http//www.cagle.com/news/FEMASFollie
s/main.asp
70
Essential Questions
  • What is the major importance of the Federal
    Bureaucracy?

71
Works Cited Page
  • http//www.federalbudget.com/chartinfo.html
  • www.youthleadership.net
  • The Federal Bureaucracy Examining the Fourth
    Branch
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