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Automotive Drivetrains

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Automotive Drivetrains CLUTCHES Dual-mass Flywheel The flywheel hub and clutch mating area are two separate components Springs are used to dampen engine and clutch ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Automotive Drivetrains


1
Automotive Drivetrains
  • CLUTCHES

2
Purpose
To connect and disconnect engine power flow to
the transmission at the will of the driver.
3
Clutch System
  • Clutch systems are used to disengage the engine
    from the road
  • When the clutch pedal is depressed, the clutch
    (and transmission) is disengaged from the engine

4
Clutch System
  • With your foot off of the pedal, the clutch is
    engaged to the engine.
  • The pressure plate holds the clutch against the
    flywheel, allowing power to travel through the
    clutch to the input shaft of the transmission ...
  • The engine power will transfer through the clutch
    to the road

5
System Components
  • Flywheel Transfers engine power to the clutch
  • Input shaft Transfers power from clutch to the
    transmission
  • Clutch Disk (clutch) Splined to input shaft
    transfers power from engine to the input shaft
  • Pressure Plate Assembly Spring pressure tightly
    holds the clutch to the flywheel

6
Components cont
  • Release Bearing (throw-out bearing) Connected
    through linkage or hydraulics to the clutch
    pedal Provides a way for the pressure plate to
    release pressure on the clutch
  • Pilot Bearing (bushing) Mounted in the tail of
    the crankshaft. Stabilizes the input shaft. Not
    always used for FWD.
  • Clutch Fork (if applicable) Slides the release
    bearing into and away from the pressure plate
    assembly

7
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8
Components cont
  • Clutch Linkage (or hydraulic plumbing) Allows
    the driver to operate the clutch fork
  • Clutch (bell-housing) Housing Encloses the
    clutch assembly
  • May be integral with the transmission or
    removable

9
Clutch Components - Flywheel
  • Mounted on the rear of the crankshaft
  • Acts as balancer for engine
  • Adds inertia to the rotating crankshaft
  • Provides a surface for the clutch to contact
  • Usually surrounded by a ring gear for electric
    starter operation

10
Flywheel Construction
  • Usually constructed of nodular cast iron which
    has a high graphite content
  • The graphite helps lubricate engagement of the
    clutch
  • May also be constructed from cold rolled steel

11
Dual-mass Flywheel
  • The flywheel hub and clutch mating area are two
    separate components
  • Springs are used to dampen engine and clutch
    engagement oscillations

12
Dual-mass Flywheel
13
Flywheel Measurements
  • Run-out measured with a dial indicator
  • Parallelism straight-edge feeler gauge
  • Thickness micrometer or dial indicator

14
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15
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16
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17
Clutch Components
Input (clutch) shaft
  • Projects from the front of the transmission
  • Usually has a pilot which rides in a bearing or
    bushing in the end of the crankshaft
  • The clutch disc is splined to the clutch shaft

18
Clutch Components Clutch Disc
  • Is squeezed between the flywheel and the pressure
    plate
  • Transmits power from the engine crankshaft to the
    transmission input shaft

19
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20
Clutch Disc Construction
  • Facing manufactured with frictional material
  • (may contain asbestos)
  • Other surface materials include
  • paper-based
  • ceramic
  • cotton
  • brass

21
Clutch Disc Types
  • Rigid - used primarily for industrial/racing
    applications.
  • Flexible - most common, everything from grandmas
    cruiser to street/strip racing.

22
Flexible Clutch Disc
  • Hub flange - in direct contact with the input
    shaft
  • Friction ring - in direct contact with the
    flywheel/pressure plate.

23
Flexible Clutch Disc
  • Clutch facing - friction material
  • marcel springs - facing dampener
  • Torsional springs - further dampening for clutch
    application
  • Stop pins - limits the torsional springs travel
  • Rivets -fastens the facing material to marcel
    (springs)

24
Clutch Components Pressure Plate (clutch cover)
  • Squeezes clutch disc onto flywheel
  • Can be engaged or disengaged
  • Acts like a spring-loaded clamp

25
Pressure Plate - Types
Belleville/diaphragm-type Spring uses a
cone-shaped diaphragm spring for clamping force.
Multiple-Coil Springs DUGH! Semi-centrifugal
clamping force increases as rotational
(centrifugal) force increases
26
Belleville/diaphragm Spring
27
Spring-type Pressure Plate
28
Benefits and Disadvantages
  • Belleville/diaphragm type
  • cost effective
  • uniform engagement
  • limited spring pressure
  • Spring
  • unlimited pressure capabilities
  • as springs wear, pressure may become inconsistent

29
Clutch Components Release (throw-out) bearing
  • Operated by the clutch linkage
  • Presses against the pressure plate to release the
    clutch

30
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31
Clutch Components
Pilot Bearing (bushing)
  • Installed (pressed) into a machined bore in the
    end of the crankshaft or flywheel
  • May be a bushing, ball-bearing or roller-bearing

32
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33
Clutch linkage Mechanical Linkage-type
34
Clutch linkage Mechanical Cable-type
35
Clutch linkage Hydraulic Most Commonly used
today
36
Hydraulic Clutch Master
37
Hydraulic Clutch Slave
38
Hydraulic Clutch Slave Concentric-type
39
Dual-clutch Transmission
  • Essentially an automatic manual transmission
  • Delivered to the mainstream by Volkswagen now
    being used/developed by most mfg.
  • Eliminates the power sucking torque-converter
    of an automatic transmission

40
Dual-clutch Transmission
  • Utilizes two input shafts one inside of the
    other
  • Each input shaft will have a dedicated clutch or
    clutch pack splined to it.
  • A processor (computer) will engage one or the
    other clutches (or neither for neutral.)

41
Dual-clutch Transmission
  • May use a wet or dry clutch-pack

42
Dual-clutch Transmission
  • or conventional clutch disc design

43
Dual-clutch Transmission
  • Each of the input-shafts controls half of the
    transmissions gear-sets

44
Dual-clutch Transmission
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