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Give Me Liberty!

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Norton Media Library Chapter 23 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 23
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. Origins of the Cold War
  • Rival postwar powers
  • United States
  • Measures of power
  • Half of the worlds manufacturing capacity
    atomic bomb
  • Global agenda determined to avoid isolationism
  • Soviet Union
  • Measures of power militarily occupied much of
    eastern Europe
  • Global agenda determined to establish sphere of
    influence
  • Roots of containment
  • Projection of Soviet dominance in eastern Europe
  • Iran
  • Poland, Romania, Bulgaria (the Latin America of
    Europe)
  • George Kennans Long Telegram (February 1946)
  • USSR was not rational
  • Only US could contain them
  • Winston Churchills iron curtain speech (March
    1946)

3
I. Origins of the Cold War (contd)
  • Truman Doctrine (March 1947)
  • Background
  • President Trumans perspective on world
  • Lack of experience
  • Black-and-white outlook
  • Greece and Turkey questions
  • Disengagement of Britain
  • Greece threatened by communist rebellion
  • Turkey USSR wanted control of straits linking
    Black and Mediterranean Seas
  • Internal conflicts
  • Strategic significance gateway to SE Europe and
    Middle East
  • Unveiling by Truman in defense of freedom

4
I. Origins of the Cold War (contd)
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Themes and significance
  • Presidential embrace of containment policy
  • Division of the globe between free and
    communist
  • Americas ongoing mission to lead, defend free
    world
  • Impact on popular conception of postwar world
  • Broad bipartisan support
  • Implementation
  • Aid to anticommunist regimes
  • Forging of global military alliances
  • Founding of new national security bodies immune
    from democratic oversight
  • Atomic Energy Commission
  • National Security Council (NSC)
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • Are we to shoulder responsibility of 19th c.
    British imperialism?

5
I. Origins of the Cold War (contd)
  • George Marshall Plan finance European economic
    recovery
  • Provisions
  • Underlying motivations and vision
  • Containment
  • Pro-Capitalism
  • New Deal for Europe
  • Achievements Europe on its feet by 1950
  • Japanese reconstruction Douglas MacArthur
  • Berlin Crisis
  • Emerging East-West conflict over Berlin
  • New western currency
  • Soviets prohibit western access to Berlin
  • Western airlift
  • Lifting of blockade (May 1949)
  • Escalation of Cold War
  • Division of Germany into East Germany and West
    Germany
  • Soviet acquisition of atomic bomb (1949)

6
Map 91
7
I. Origins of the Cold War (contd)
  • Escalation of Cold War
  • Establishment of North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization (1949)
  • Avowed mission mutual defense pledge against
    Soviet aggression
  • Belgium, UK, France, Canada, Portugal, Italy
  • Establishment of Warsaw Pact (1955) Bulgaria,
    Poland, Hungary
  • Communist revolution in China (1949)
  • Mao Zedong
  • Political repercussions in United States
    negative impact on Truman administration
  • American response blocked Zedongs government
    from UN
  • NSC-68
  • Defined cold war as struggle between the idea of
    freedom and the idea of slavery under the grim
    oligarchy of the Kremlin
  • Establishment of permanent military complex

8
I. Origins of the Cold War (contd)
  • Korean War
  • Postwar division of Korea (similar to Berlin)
  • Communist North anticommunist South
  • North Korean invasion of south (June 1950)
  • Mobilization of U.S. military response
  • Perception of Cold War test
  • Obtainment of United Nations authorization
  • Initial American military progress
  • MacArthur at Inchon (September 1950)
  • Intervention by China (October 1950)
  • Removal of General Douglas MacArthur
  • Wanted to invade (w/ nuclear weapons) China
  • Truman refused MacArthur publicly criticized
    Truman fired him
  • Protracted stalemate _at_ 38th parallel (original
    boundary)
  • 33,000 US deaths 1 million Korean soldiers 2
    million civilians
  • Armistice and aftermath

9
Map 92
10
I. Origins of the Cold War (contd)
  • Concerns raised by the Cold War
  • Simplistic East-West dichotomies
  • Inability to see foreign developments on
    case-by-case basis
  • Continual intervention abroad
  • Walter Lippman
  • Tendency to side with undemocratic regimes
  • Aversion to colonial independence
  • Philippine independence (1946)
  • Retraction of support of colonial independence
    movements
  • Double-standard of language of freedom

11
II. Ideological mobilization for Cold War
  • Cultural Cold War
  • Depictions of U.S. history
  • Historical Americanism pluralism, tolerance, and
    equality
  • Ethnic and racial strife?
  • The arts
  • Areas
  • Film The Red Menace and removal of negative
    aspects of American history from scripts
  • Painting Jackson Pollocks creation-based action
    paintings
  • Music John Cages liberal compositions
  • Dance George Balanchines graceful freedom
    choreography
  • Secret involvement of national security agencies
  • CIA and Defense Department funded the arts
  • Political discourse

12
II. Ideological mobilization for Cold War (contd)
  • Themes
  • America as land of pluralism, tolerance,
    equality, free expression, individual liberty
  • Communist regimes as totalitarian
  • Aggressive states seeking to subdue all of civil
    society
  • Socialized resources (medicine, housing) as
    communistic and a negation of freedom
  • American Medical Associations campaign against
    socialized medicine, a.k.a. Trumans national
    health insurance plan
  • Rise of human rights
  • Background
  • Historical origins of concept Enlightenment, AR,
    FR
  • Impact of World War II Four Freedoms, Atlantic
    Charter, and Nuremberg

13
II. Ideological mobilization for Cold War (contd)
  • Rise of human rights
  • Drafting of UN Universal Declaration of Human
    Rights (1948)
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Range of rights identified
  • Civil and political liberties speech, religion,
    arbitrary rule
  • Social and economic entitlements
  • Affirmation of global accountability of nations
  • Cold War contest over
  • U.S. emphasis on political rights
  • Soviet emphasis on social, economic rights
  • Compromise two separate covenants
  • Civil and political
  • Economic, social, and cultural
  • Congress ratified 1st in 1992 has yet to ratify
    2nd

14
III. Truman presidency
  • Postwar domestic situation
  • Rapid demobilization return of soldiers to
    civilian life
  • Abolition of wartime regulatory agencies
  • Fair Deal
  • Aims
  • Revive momentum of New Deal
  • Improve social safety net and living standards
  • Program called on Congress to
  • Increase minimum wage
  • Enact program of national health insurance
  • Expand public housing, Social Security, and aid
    to education

15
III. Truman presidency (contd)
  • Strike Wave of 1946
  • Contributing factors
  • Scope and Magnitude
  • Range of industries affected steel, auto, coal,
    etc.
  • Operation Dixie Unionize the South
  • Textile, steel, and agricultural industries
  • Truman response
  • Concern over economic effect
  • Threat to draft striking railroad workers
  • Court order against striking miners
  • Outcomes
  • Presidential fact-finding boards

16
III. Truman presidency (contd)
  • Republican congressional gains of 1946
  • Causes
  • Middle-class alarm over strike wave
  • Labor disappointment over Truman
  • Failure of Operation Dixie conservative
    coalition of Republicans and southern Democrats
  • Consequences
  • Rejection of Fair Deal program
  • Tax cuts for wealthy
  • Taft-Hartley Act
  • Provisions reversed many labor gains

17
III. Truman presidency (contd)
  • Steps towards civil rights
  • Anti-discrimination measures, state and local
  • Fair employment practices commissions
  • Vitality of civil rights coalition
  • Labor, religious groups, and black organizations
  • Growing response to lynching zero lynchings in
    1952
  • Integration of major league baseball Jackie
    Robinson
  • Commission on Civil Rights To Secure These
    Rights (Oct. 1947)
  • Called on government to end segregation across
    the board
  • Trumans civil rights initiatives
  • Program presented to Congress
  • Content permanent civil rights commission,
    federal anti-lynching and poll tax laws, and
    equal access to education and employment
  • Defeated by Congress
  • Executive order desegregating of armed forces

18
III. Truman presidency (contd)
  • Steps towards civil rights
  • Trumans civil rights initiatives
  • Underlying considerations
  • Personal sentiments
  • Cold War implications
  • Political strategy
  • Election of 1948
  • Truman and the Democrats
  • Drive to revive and broaden New Deal coalition
  • Progressive program
  • Hubert Humphrey walk out of the shadow of
    states rights and into the sunlight of human
    rights.
  • Strom Thurmond and the States Rights
    (Dixiecrat) party
  • Break from Democratic party
  • Call for segregation, states rights
  • The issue was individual liberty and freedom

19
III. Truman presidency (contd)
  • Election of 1948
  • Henry A. Wallace and Progressive party
  • Program
  • Expansion of welfare
  • Desegregation
  • De-escalation of Cold War
  • Support from communists abandonment by liberals
  • Thomas A. Dewey and the Republicans
  • Colorlessness of candidate
  • Complacency and vagueness of campaign
  • Trumans upset victory

20
Map 93
21
IV. Anticommunist crusade
  • Wide-ranging impact of Cold War on American life
  • Permanent military-industrial establishment
  • Federal projects
  • Weapons development
  • Military bases
  • Higher education
  • Interstate highway system
  • Culture of secrecy, dishonesty chemical,
    biological, and nuclear testing on unwitting
    soldiers and civilians
  • Revised immigration policy Communist-region
    refugees
  • Dismantling of segregation
  • Assault on right to dissent

22
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • Emergence of anticommunist crusade
  • Trumans loyalty review system (1947)
  • House Un-American Activities Committee hearings
    on Hollywood (1947)
  • Pressure to testify about beliefs, name names
  • Cooperation and resistance
  • Walt Disney, Gary Cooper, Ronald Reagan
  • Arrest and blacklisting of Hollywood Ten
  • Legal cases
  • Trial, conviction, and imprisonment of Alger Hiss
  • Whittaker Chambers Richard Nixon (prosecutor)
  • Trial, conviction, and imprisonment of Communist
    Party leaders
  • Trial, conviction, and death of Julius and Ethel
    Rosenberg

23
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • McCarthyism
  • Joseph R. McCarthy
  • Background fictional war record
  • Emergence with sensational Wheeling speech
  • McCarthys Senate committee hearings
  • Wild allegations regarding disloyalty, communist
    presence
  • Growing Republican ambivalence
  • McCarthys downfall
  • Army-McCarthy hearings
  • Television exposure
  • Scolding by Joseph Welch Have you no sense of
    decency
  • Senate censure
  • Genesis of term McCarthyism

24
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • Breadth of anticommunist crusade around country
  • Initiatives of government (national, state, and
    local)
  • Investigative committees
  • Police department red squads
  • Laws to ban, monitor communist presence
  • Loyalty oaths
  • Initiatives of private organizations American
    Legion, DAR
  • Ideological cleansing of public libraries,
    universities Robin Hood
  • Acquiescence of judiciary Dennis v. United
    States
  • Upheld jailing of Communist leaders (beliefs, not
    actions)
  • Acquiescence of liberals
  • Cost to the persecuted

25
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • Anticommunism as popular mass movement
  • Strength among those of eastern European descent
  • Strength among Catholics
  • Multiple uses of anticommunism
  • Bureaucratic self-promotion
  • Political self-preservation
  • Discrediting of political, social targets
  • New Deal legacy
  • Economic regulation
  • Organized labor
  • Civil rights
  • Feminism
  • Homosexuality

26
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • Anticommunist politics
  • Republican use of anticommunism to block Truman
    program
  • McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)
  • Barred totalitarians from entering US
  • McCarran-Walter Act (1952)
  • Act used to exclude prominent individuals from
    entry into US
  • Authorized deportation of communist-Americans
  • Operation Wetback (1954)
  • Confinement of social welfare benefits to
    unionized workers
  • Ideological taming of organized labor
  • CIO expulsion of left-wing leaders and unions
  • Labors support for Cold War foreign policy

27
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • Response of civil rights movement to
    anticommunist crusade
  • Outspoken opposition (Paul Robeson, W.E.B. Du
    Bois)
  • Shifting approach of mainstream groups (NAACP,
    NUL)
  • Initial resistance
  • Growing accommodation
  • Purges of Communist members
  • Silence about political persecution
  • Embrace of Cold War rhetoric
  • Use of Cold War rhetoric to promote civil rights
  • Demise of left-leaning organizations (Southern
    Conference for Human Welfare)

28
IV. Anticommunist crusade (contd)
  • Lull in momentum for civil rights
  • Dampening effect of Cold War
  • Diminishing of efforts from Truman
    administration, Democrats
  • Legacy for black postwar prospects
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