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Introduction to the Middle Ages 1066-1485

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Introduction to the Middle Ages 1066-1485 Medieval Period: 1066-1485 AD Decay of Roman Empire=beginning of Middle Ages Roman empire split into two empires: Western ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the Middle Ages 1066-1485


1
Introduction to the Middle Ages 1066-1485
2
Medieval Period 1066-1485 AD
  • Decay of Roman Empirebeginning of Middle Ages
  • Roman empire split into two empires
  • Western ruled from Rome
  • Eastern ruled from Constantinople.
  • Germanic tribes (Anglo-Saxons) began to invade
    and set up individual kingdoms throughout the
    Western empire, ending Roman rule.
  • Introduced the feudal system

3
William the Conqueror
  • Invaded from Normandy in 1066
  • Changes England through
  • A new language (French)
  • A new social system (Feudalism)

4
Feudal System
King receives Divine Right from GOD!
5
Knights in Shining Armor
  • From mail shirts to a suit of armor

6
Knights in Shining Armor
  • Change came about as a result of the crossbow
  • Some armor suits weighed upwards of 120 pounds
  • Small slits in the helmets limited vision and
    ventilation
  • Heatstroke, suffocation, and
  • drowning
  • Upside-down turtles

7
Code of Chivalry
  • Idealistic code of honor followed by knights
  • Values
  • Loyalty (to God, King/Lord, and country)
  • Brotherhood
  • Bravery
  • Duty and Honor
  • Virtue
  • Must follow rules of courtly love when looking
    for a wife

8
Courtly Love
  • Combination of physical and spiritual desire
  • Object of love
  • Love is war
  • Cupids arrows
  • Object as fortress
  • Love is a sickness.

9
How to be a Courtly Man
  • Be courteous and polite.
  • Be mildly flirtatious
  • Put your beloved on a pedestal.
  • Show emotions through acts of strength and
    bravery.
  • Do not love someone from below your social class.

10
How to be a Courtly Woman
  • Remain coy and aloof
  • Resist advances
  • Follow courtly manners and behavior
  • Give tokens of affection

11
Role of Women
  • No political rights
  • Subservient to men
  • Mostly uneducated
  • But
  • Gained power through courtly love tradition
  • Could have power as a merchant, healer, Church
    leader (nun), or wife of an important man
  • Managed estates while husbands were at war
  • After marriage, her land became his land

12
Peasants
  • Paid taxes (tithes) to church
  • Obeyed lord who owned land
  • Followed Church leaders in everything
  • nasty, brutish, and short lives

13
Population
  • Due to rise in commerce, population grew in
    cities
  • Growth in middle class
  • More merchants and artisans
  • More money for art and education
  • Less power for landowners!

14
Christianity
  • Many kingdoms adopted the Roman religion,
    Christianity (Roman Catholicism).
  • Adopted the language of the church Latin
  • Romance languages descend from Latin and Germanic
    dialects.

15
The Power of the Church
  • Centers of communities
  • Church officials were civic leaders
  • Heresy having ideas different from church
    doctrine

16
The Crusades1095-1270
  • Moors (Muslims) had the Middle East in a
    stronghold.
  • Leaders in Europe felt the need to protect the
    Holy Land and keep it under Christian rule.

17
Pope Urbans Speech
  • Pope Urban II preached a sermon in France that
    inspired European knights to join a crusade to
    win back the Holy Lands.

18
The Crusades
  • Pros
  • Allowed crusaders to bring new spices, textiles
    and products back to Europe.
  • Inspired commerce
  • Created new social class merchant class

19
The Crusades
  • Cons
  • Failed to maintain European rule over the Holy
    Land

20
Catholicism vs. Nationalism
  • Nationalist feelings began to fuel tension
    between various kingdoms and the Catholic church.
  • Heresy resulted in punishment

21
The Magna Cartasigned in 1215
  • Power to (some of) the people
  • Heralded a return to older, democratic tendencies
    in England
  • Became the basis of English constitutional law
  • Trial by jury

22
The Hundred Years War1337-1453
  • England vs. France
  • King Edward III and King Henry V try to claim the
    French throne
  • Invention of the long bow
  • Green-clad yeoman take the place of knights in
    shining armor in battle

23
The Bubonic PLAGUE
  • 1348
  • Highly contagious spread by fleas from infected
    rats
  • Reduced population of Europe by one-third
  • Mostly poorest people
  • Caused a labor shortage
  • Peasants compete for wages
  • Get more money
  • Get more power!
  • Apocalyptic

24
Literature of the Middle Ages
  • Romances
  • Adventure stories of kings, knights, damsels
  • Quests and battles

25
Literature of the Middle Ages
  • Medieval Epics
  • Originated in the great halls of the Germanic
    tribes and focused on ideas such as loyalty and
    valor, which bound societies together.
  • Defined and expressed character of a people.

26
Literature of the Middle Ages
  • Medieval Epics
  • Based on historical events but prized adventure
    more than accuracy.
  • Were performed long before they were written down.

27
Literature of the Middle Ages
  • Medieval Epics
  • Exemplified feudal values
  • Title and rank
  • Military prowess
  • Loyalty
  • Honor
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