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Make up Class

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Title: Make up Class


1
Make up Class
  • Tugas hari ini (30 Mei 2012)
  • Baca Chapter 7 CNAP Wireless LAN
  • http//tif.bakrie.ac.id/cnap/3
  • Make Up Class
  • Pengganti kelas reguler 6 Juni 2012
  • Make up schedule
  • 12 Juni 2012
  • 10.10 12.40
  • Ruang 8

2
Chapter 7
  • Basic Wireless Conceptsand Configuration

3
Note for Instructors
  • These presentations are the result of a
    collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair
    College in Windsor, Ontario.
  • Thanks must go out to Rick Graziani of Cabrillo
    College. His material and additional information
    was used as a reference in their creation.
  • If anyone finds any errors or omissions, please
    let me know at
  • tdame_at_stclaircollege.ca.

4
Basic Wireless Concepts and Configuration
The Wireless LAN
5
Why Use Wireless?
  • Business networks today are evolving to support
    people who are on the move.
  • Productivity is no longer restricted to a fixed
    work location or a defined time period.
  • People now expect to be connected at any time and
    place, from the office to the airport or even the
    home.
  • Now employees can check e-mail, voice mail, and
    the status of products on personal digital
    assistants (PDAs) while at many temporary
    locations.
  • At home, the method of accessing the Internet has
    quickly moved from temporary modem dialup service
    to dedicated DSL or cable service.

6
Why Use Wireless?
  • Early communication relied on face-to-face
    conversations.
  • The telephone was used for voice and the post
    office delivered most of the written
    communications.
  • Video communication was one-way using the
    television.

7
Why Use Wireless?
  • Early networks were limited to character based
    information.
  • Communications between computers was not easy and
    required a host (no pun intended) of resources to
    accomplish the simplest data transfer.

8
Why Use Wireless?
Silver and Diamond Cell Phone 1.3Million
  • Todays networks carry multiple types of
    information through many types of devices -
    SIMULTANEOUSLY.
  • People expect immediate response wherever they
    are located.

Wind Energy Cell Phone Charger
9
Wireless vs Wired
  • In addition to the flexibility that WLANs offer,
    another important benefit is reduced costs.
  • Moving persons within a building with a wireless
    infrastructure.
  • Moving into a new building with no wired
    infrastructure.

Wired Network Wired Network Wired Network Wired Network Wireless Network Wireless Network Wireless Network
Component Qty Cost Total Qty Cost Total
Switches, cabinets, etc. 167 3,350 559,450 25 4,404 110,100
Cabling 7,500 45 337,500 430 75 61,920
Network Adapters 2,500 57 142,500 2,500 77 192,500
Wireless Access Points 250 1,034 258,500
POE Adapters 40 67 2,680
Total 1,039,450 364,520
Note Values are estimates and do not reflect
actual pricing.
10
Wireless LANs
  • Most current business networks rely on
    switch-based LANs for day-to-day operation inside
    the office.
  • Workers are becoming more mobile and want to
    maintain access to their business LAN resources
    from locations other than their desks.

11
Wireless LANs
  • The Wireless LAN, then, is an extension of the
    Ethernet LAN.

12
Comparing a WLAN to a LAN
13
Comparing a WLAN to a LAN
Privacy Issues
14
Wireless LAN Components
  • Additional components and protocols are used for
    802.11 wireless connections to extend the 802.3
    Ethernet LAN.

15
Wireless LAN Standards
  • 802.11 wireless LAN
  • An IEEE standard that defines how radio frequency
    (RF) in the unlicensed industrial, scientific,
    and medical (ISM) frequency bands is used for the
    Physical layer and the MAC sub-layer of wireless
    links.
  • Typically, the choice of which standard to use is
    based on data rate.

16
Wireless LAN Standards
  • Data Rates are affected by modulation technique
  • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
  • Simpler of the two methods.
  • Less expensive to implement.
  • 802.11b and 802.11g.
  • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
    (OFDM)
  • Faster data rates than DSSS.
  • 802.11a, 802.11g, 802.11n.

17
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
  • Each bit represented by multiple bits using
    spreading code
  • Spreading code spreads signal across wider
    frequency band
  • In proportion to number of bits used
  • 10 bit spreading code spreads signal across 10
    times bandwidth of 1 bit code
  • One method
  • Combine input with spreading code using XOR
  • Input bit 1 inverts spreading code bit
  • Input zero bit doesnt alter spreading code bit
  • Data rate equal to original spreading code
  • Performance similar to FHSS (frequency hopping
    spread spectrum)

18
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Example
19
OFDM
  • Dividing transmission bandwidth into many
    sub-channels which are transmitted in parallel

20
Complete OFDM Modulation
  • General OFDM Modulation and Demodulation

21
Wireless LAN Standards
  • 802.11a Standard
  • OFDM modulation and uses the 5 GHz band.
  • Less likely to experience interference than
    devices that operate in the 2.4 GHz band because
    there are fewer consumer devices that use the 5
    GHz band.

22
Wireless LAN Standards
  • 802.11a Standard
  • Disadvantages to using the 5GHz band.
  • More easily absorbed by walls (obstructions).
  • Slightly poorer range than 802.11g.
  • Some countries prohibit use.

23
Wireless LAN Standards
  • 802.11b and 802.11g Standard
  • Both use the 2.4 GHz band.
  • 802.11b
  • Up to 11 Mb/s using DSSS.
  • 802.11g
  • Up to 54 Mb/s using OFDM.
  • Backward compatible.

24
Wireless LAN Standards
  • 2.4 GHz band
  • Advantage
  • Better range than the 5GHz band since devices are
    not as easily obstructed.
  • Disadvantage
  • Many other devices use this band so it is prone
    to interference (microwave ovens, baby monitors,
    Bluetooth, cordless phones).

25
Wireless LAN Standards
  • 802.11n (November 2009)
  • Intended to improve WLAN data rates and range
    without requiring additional power or RF band
    allocation.
  • Uses multiple radios and antennae at endpoints,
    each broadcasting on the same frequency to
    establish multiple streams.
  • Multiple Input / Multiple Output (MIMO) and OFDM.
  • Theoretical maximum of 248 Mb/s.

26
WI-FI Certification
  • Wi-Fi Alliance
  • March, 2000.
  • A global, nonprofit, industry tradeassociation
    devoted to promoting thegrowth and acceptance of
    WLANs.
  • The Wi-Fi Alliances testing and certification
    programs help ensure the interoperability of WLAN
    products based on the IEEE 802.11 specification.
  • More than 4,000 products certified.

27
WI-FI Certification
  • Three key organizations that influenceWLAN
    standards
  • International Telecommunications
    UnionRadiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)
  • Regulates the allocation of the RF spectrum.
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    (IEEE)
  • Specifies how RF is modulated to carry the
    information. (802.3 Ethernet, 802.11 Wireless
    LAN).
  • Wi-Fi Alliance
  • Ensures that devices are inter-operable.

28
Wireless Infrastructure Components
  • Wireless NICs
  • The device that makes a client station capable of
    sending and receiving RF signals is the wireless
    NIC.
  • Like an Ethernet NIC, the wireless NIC, using the
    modulation technique it is configured to use,
    encodes a data stream onto an RF signal.
  • Wireless NICs are most often associated with
    mobile devices, such as laptop computers.

29
Wireless Infrastructure Components
  • Wireless Access Points
  • An access point is a Layer 2 device that
    functions like an 802.3 Ethernet hub.
  • Connects wireless clients (or stations) to the
    wired LAN.
  • Client devices communicate with the AP not each
    other.
  • Converts the TCP/IP data packets from their
    802.11 frame encapsulation to the 802.3 Ethernet
    frame format.
  • Clients must associate with an access point to
    obtain network services.
  • Association
  • The process by which a client joins an 802.11
    network. It is similar to plugging into a wired
    LAN.

30
Wireless Infrastructure Components
  • CSMA/CA
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
    Avoidance.
  • This simply means that devices on a WLAN must
    sense the medium for energy (RF stimulation above
    a certain threshold) and wait until the medium is
    free before sending.
  • If an access point receives data from a client
    station, it sends an acknowledgement to the
    client that the data has been received.
  • This acknowledgement keeps the client from
    assuming that a collision occurred and prevents a
    data retransmission by the client.

31
Wireless Infrastructure Components
  • CSMA/CA
  • RF signals attenuate.
  • That means that they lose their energy as they
    move away from their point of origin.
  • Hidden Node/Station Problem
  • Two client stations that both connect to the
    access point, but are at opposite sides of its
    reach.
  • If they are at the maximum range to reach the
    access point, they will not be able to reach each
    other.
  • Neither of those stations sense the other on the
    medium, and they may end up transmitting
    simultaneously.

32
Wireless Infrastructure Components
Remember, stations actually communicate through
the Access Point. The access point has a single
channel for all traffic.
  • CSMA/CA
  • One means of resolving thehidden node problem is
    afeature called request tosend/clear to
    send(RTS/CTS).
  • When RTS/CTS is enabledin a network, access
    pointsallocate the medium to the requesting
    station for as long as is required to complete
    the transmission.
  • When the transmission is complete, other stations
    can request the channel in a similar fashion.

33
Wireless Infrastructure Components
  • Wireless Routers
  • Wireless routers perform the role of access
    point, Ethernet switch, and router.
  • The Linksys WRT54GL is most commonly used as a
    small business or residential wireless access
    device.
  • The expected load on the device is low enough
    that it should be able to manage the provision of
    WLAN, 802.3 Ethernet, and connect to an ISP.

34
Wireless Operation
  • Configurable Wireless Parameters

802.11g is backward compatible with
802.11.b. Mixed mode supports both.
35
Wireless Operation
  • Configurable Wireless Parameters

Several access points can share an SSID.
A shared service set identifier (SSID) is a
unique identifier that client devices use to
distinguish between multiple wireless networks in
the same vicinity.
Alphanumeric, case-sensitive, from 2 to 32
characters.
36
Wireless Operation
  • Configurable Wireless Parameters

The IEEE 802.11 standard establishes
thechannelization scheme for the useof the
unlicensed ISM RF bands in WLANs.The 2.4 GHz
band is broken down into11 channels for North
Americaand 13 channels for Europe.
Many access points can automatically select a
channel based on adjacent channel use.Some
products continuously monitor the radio space to
adjust the channel settings dynamically in
response to environmental changes.
Best practices for WLANs that require multiple
access points are set to use non-overlapping
channels.
37
Wireless Topologies
  • WLANs can accommodate various network topologies.
  • When describing these topologies, the fundamental
    building block of the IEEE 802.11 WLAN
    architecture is the basic service set (BSS).
  • BSS
  • A group of stations that communicate with each
    other.
  • Three Types
  • Ad Hoc (Independent Basic Service Set IBSS)
  • Basic Service Set (BSS)
  • Extended Service Set (ESS)

38
Wireless Topologies
  • Ad Hoc
  • Wireless networks can operate without access
    points.
  • Client stations which are configured to operate
    in ad hoc mode configure the wireless parameters
    between themselves.

39
Wireless Topologies
  • Basic Service Sets (BSS)
  • Access points provide an infrastructure that adds
    services and improves the range for clients.
  • A single access point in infrastructure mode
    manages the wireless parameters and the topology
    is simply a BSS.
  • The coverage area for both an IBSS or a BSS is
    the basic service area (BSA).

40
Wireless Topologies
  • Extended Service Sets (ESS)
  • When a single BSS provides insufficient RF
    coverage, one or more can be joined through a
    common distribution system into an extended
    service set (ESS).
  • One BSS is differentiated from another by the BSS
    identifier (BSSID).
  • The MAC address of the access point.
  • The coverage area is the extended service area
    (ESA).

41
Wireless Topologies
  • Common Distribution System
  • Allows multiple access points in an ESS to appear
    to be a single BSS.
  • An ESS generally includes a common SSID to allow
    a user to roam from access point to access point.
  • Cells represent the coverage area provided by a
    single channel.
  • An ESS should have 10 to 15 percent overlap
    between cells.
  • Roaming capability created by using
    non-overlapping channels (e.g. one cell on
    channel 1 and the other on channel 6).

42
Wireless Association
  • Key part of the 802.11 process is discovering a
    WLAN and connecting to it.
  • The primary components
  • Beacons Frames used by the WLAN network to
    advertise its presence.
  • Probes Frames used by WLAN clients to find
    their networks.
  • Authentication Left over from the original
    802.11 standard, but still required.
  • Association Establishing the data link between
    an access point and a WLAN client.

43
Wireless Association
  • Beacons
  • Frames used by the WLAN network to advertise its
    presence.

The only part of the process that may be
broadcast on a regular basis. Not necessarily
enabled.
44
Wireless Association
  • Before an 802.11 client can send data over a WLAN
    network, it goes through the following
    three-stage process
  • Step 1 802.11 Probing.
  • Step 2 Authentication.
  • Step 3 Association.

45
Wireless Association
  • Step 1 802.11 Probing
  • Clients search for a specific network by
  • Sending a probe request out on multiple channels.
  • Specifies the network name (SSID) and bit rates.
  • A typical WLAN client is configured with a
    desired SSID.
  • Client is simply trying to discover available
    WLANs
  • Sends out a probe request with no SSID.
  • All access points that are configured to respond
    to this type of query respond.
  • WLANs with the broadcast SSID feature disabled do
    not respond.

46
Wireless Association
  • Step 2 Authentication
  • 802.11 was originally developed with two
    authentication mechanisms.
  • Open Authentication
  • A NULL authentication
  • The client says "authenticate me.
  • The access point responds with "yes.
  • This is the mechanism used in almost all 802.11
    deployments.

47
Wireless Association
  • Step 2 Authentication
  • 802.11 was originally developed with two
    authentication mechanisms.
  • Shared Key Authentication
  • Based on a key that is shared between the client
    station and the access point called the Wired
    Equivalency Protection (WEP) key.
  • The idea of the shared WEP key is that it gives a
    wireless link the equivalent privacy of a wired
    link, but the original implementation was flawed.
  • WEP needs to be included in client and access
    point implementations for standards compliance
    but it is not used or recommended.

48
Wireless Association
  • Step 3 802.11 Association
  • Finalizes the security and bit rate options.
  • Establishes the data link between the WLAN client
    and the access point.
  • The client learns the BSSID (MAC Address) of the
    access point.
  • Access point maps a logical port known as the
    association identifier (AID) to the WLAN client.
  • AID is equivalent to a port on a switch.
  • Association allows the infrastructure switch to
    keep track of frames destined for the WLAN client
    so that they can be forwarded.

49
Wireless Association
50
Planning the Wireless LAN
  • There needs to be a well-documented plan before a
    wireless network can be implemented.
  • Number of Users
  • Not a straightforward calculation.
  • Depends on the geographical layout of your
    facility (how many bodies and devices fit in a
    space),
  • Data Rates
  • RF is a shared medium and the more users there
    are the greater the contention for RF.
  • Use non-overlapping channels in an ESS.
  • You will have sufficient wireless support for
    your clients if you plan your network for proper
    RF coverage in an ESS.

51
Planning the Wireless LAN
  • Location of Access Points
  • You may not be able to simply draw coverage area
    circles and drop them over a plan.
  • Do access points use existing wiring?
  • Position access points
  • Above obstructions.
  • Vertically near the ceiling in the center of each
    coverage area, if possible.
  • In locations where users are expected to work.
    For example, conference rooms are typically a
    better location for access points than a hallway.

52
Planning the Wireless LAN
  • Coverage Area of Access Points
  • Estimate the expected coverage area of an access
    point.
  • This value varies depending on
  • The WLAN standard or mix of standards that you
    are deploying.
  • The nature of the facility.
  • The transmit power that the access point.
  • Based on your plan, place access points on the
    floor plan so that coverage circles are
    overlapping.

53
Planning the Wireless LAN
Number of Access Points
20,000 Sq. Ft. (1860 Sq. Meters)
Minimum of 6 Mbps 802.11b throughput for each
Basic Service Area (BSA)
20,000 Sq. Ft. with a coverage of 5,000 Sq. Ft.
results in 4 Access Points.
54
Planning the Wireless LAN
Dimension of Coverage Area
55
Planning the Wireless LAN
Location of Access Points
56
Basic Wireless Concepts and Configuration
Wireless LAN Security
Hackers/Crackers
War Drivers
Employees
Consumer Devices
57
Wireless LAN Security
  • Three Major Categories of Security Threats
  • War Drivers
  • War driving means driving around a neighborhood
    with a wireless laptop and looking for an
    unsecured 802.11b/g system.
  • Hackers/Crackers
  • Malicious intruders who enter systems as
    criminals and steal data or deliberately harm
    systems.
  • Employees
  • Set up and use Rogue Access Points without
    authorization. Either interfere with or
    compromise servers and files.

58
Threats to Wireless Security
  • War Drivers
  • "War driving" originally referred to using a
    scanning device to find cellular phone numbers to
    exploit.
  • War driving now also means driving around a
    neighborhood with a laptop and an 802.11b/g
    client card looking for an unsecured 802.11b/g
    system to exploit.
  • Software is readily available.

Totally and completely ILLEGAL!!!!!!!!
59
Threats to Wireless Security
  • Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
  • Attackers select a host as a target and position
    themselves logically between the target and the
    router of the target.
  • In a wired LAN, the attacker needs to be able to
    physically access the LAN to insert a device
    logically into the topology.
  • With a WLAN, the radio waves emitted by access
    points can provide the connection.
  • Because access points act like Ethernet hubs,
    each NIC in a BSS hears all the traffic.
  • Attackers can modify the NIC of their laptop with
    special software so that it accepts all traffic.

In effect, the NIC has been modified to act as an
Access Point.
60
Threats to Wireless Security
  • Denial of Service (DoS)
  • 802.11b/g WLANsuse the unlicensed2.4 GHz band.
  • This is the same bandused by most babymonitors,
    cordlessphones, andmicrowave ovens.
  • With these devicescrowding the RF
    band,attackers can create noise on all the
    channels in the band with commonly available
    devices.

61
Threats to Wireless Security
  • Denial of Service (DoS)
  • An attacker can turn a NIC into an access point.
  • The attacker, using a PC as an AP, can flood the
    BSS with clear-to-send (CTS) messages, which
    defeat the CSMA/CA function used by the stations.
  • The actualAP, floods theBSS withsimultaneoustr
    affic, causinga constantstream ofcollisions.

62
Threats to Wireless Security
  • Denial of Service (DoS)
  • Another DoS attack that can be launched in a BSS
    is when an attacker sends a series of
    disassociate commands that cause all stations to
    disconnect.
  • When the stations are disconnected, they
    immediately try to reassociate,which createsa
    burst oftraffic.
  • The attackersends anotherdisassociateand the
    cyclerepeats itself.

63
Wireless Security Protocols
64
Authenticating to the Wireless LAN
  • In an open network, such as a home network,
    association may be all that is required to grant
    a client access to devices and services on the
    WLAN.

65
Authenticating to the Wireless LAN
  • In networks that have stricter security
    requirements, an additional authentication or
    login is required to grant clients such access.
  • This login process is managed by the Extensible
    Authentication Protocol (EAP).

A central repository of User IDs and Passwords.
Used by all network login processes.
66
Wireless Encryption
  • Two Encryption Mechanisms
  • TKIP is the encryption method certified as Wi-Fi
    Protected Access (WPA).
  • Provides support for legacy WLAN equipment by
    addressing the original flaws associated with the
    802.11 WEP encryption method.
  • Encrypts the Layer 2 payload.
  • Message integrity check (MIC) in the encrypted
    packet that helps ensure against a message
    tampering.

67
Wireless Encryption
  • Two Encryption Mechanisms
  • The AES encryption of WPA2 is the preferred
    method.
  • WLAN encryption standards used in IEEE 802.11i.
  • Same functions as TKIP.
  • Uses additional data from the MAC header that
    allows destination hosts to recognize if the
    non-encrypted bits have been tampered with.
  • Also adds a sequence number to the encrypted data
    header.

68
Wireless Encryption
  • When you configure Linksys access points or
    wireless routers you may not see WPA or WPA2.
  • Instead you may see references to something
    calledpre-shared key (PSK).
  • Types of PSKs
  • PSK or PSK2 with TKIP is the same as WPA.
  • PSK or PSK2 with AES is the same as WPA2.
  • PSK2, without an encryption method specified, is
    the same as WPA2.

69
Controlling Access to the Wireless LAN
  • When controlling access, the concept of depth
    means having multiple solutions available.
  • Three step approach
  • SSID cloaking
  • Disable SSID broadcasts from access points.
  • MAC address filtering
  • Tables are manually constructed on the access
    point to allow or disallow clients based on their
    physical hardware address.
  • WLAN Security
  • Implement WPA or WPA2.

70
Controlling Access to the Wireless LAN
71
Controlling Access to the Wireless LAN
  • An additional consideration is to configure
    access points that are near outside walls of
    buildings to transmit on a lower power setting
    than other access points closer to the middle of
    the building.
  • This is to merely reduce the RF signature on the
    outside of the building.
  • Anyone running an application such as
    Netstumbler, Wireshark, or even Windows XP can
    map WLANs.

72
Basic Wireless Concepts and Configuration
Configuring Wireless LAN Access
73
Configuring the Wireless Access Point
  • In this topic, you will learn
  • How to configure a wireless access point.
  • How to set the SSID.
  • How to enable security.
  • How to configure the channel.
  • How to adjust the power settings.
  • How to back up and restore the configuration.

74
Configuring the Wireless Access Point
  • The basic approach to wireless implementation, as
    with any basic networking, is to configure and
    test incrementally.
  • Verify the existing network and Internet access
    for the wired hosts.
  • Start the WLAN implementation process with a
    single access point and a single client, without
    enabling wireless security.
  • Verify that the wireless client has received a
    DHCP IP address and can ping the local wired
    default router and then browse to the external
    Internet.
  • Finally, configure wireless security with WPA2.
  • Use WEP only if the hardware does not support WPA.

75
Basic Wireless Concepts and Configuration
Troubleshooting SimpleWLAN Problems
76
A Systematic Approach
Eliminate the Users PC as the source of the
problem.
Network configuration. Can it connect to a wired
network? Is the NIC O.K? Are the proper drivers
loaded? Do the security settings match?
How far is the PC from the Access Point? Check
the channel settings. Any interference from other
devices?
77
A Systematic Approach
Eliminate the Users PC as the source of the
problem.
Confirm the physical status of the devices.
Are all devices actually in place? Is there power
to all the devices?
78
A Systematic Approach
Eliminate the Users PC as the source of the
problem.
Confirm the physical status of the devices.
Inspect the wired links.
If all of this fails, perhaps the AP is faulty or
the configuration is in error. The AP may also
require a firmware upgrade.
Cables damaged or missing? Can you ping the AP
from a cabled device?
79
A Systematic Approach
Updating the Access Point
Download Select the Firmware Run the Upgrade
DO NOT upgrade the firmware unless you are
experiencing problems with the access point or
the new firmware has a feature you want to use.
80
A Systematic Approach
Incorrect Channel Settings
81
RF Interference Issues
Many other devices operate on Channel 6.
82
RF Interference Issues
  • Site Survey
  • How to not addressed in this course.
  • The first thing that should be done in the
    planning stage.
  • RF interference.
  • Physical Interference (cabinets, walls with metal
    girders).
  • Multiple WLANs.
  • Variances in usage (day/night shifts).
  • Two Types
  • Manual.
  • Utility Assisted.

83
Access Point Placement
  • A WLAN that just did not seem to perform like it
    should.
  • You keep losing association with an access point
  • Your data rates are much slower than they should
    be.

84
Access Point Placement
  • Some additional specific details
  • Not mounted closer than 7.9 inches (20 cm) from
    the body of all persons.
  • Do not mount the access point within 3 feet (91.4
    cm) of metal obstructions.
  • Install the access point away from microwave
    ovens.
  • Always mount the access point vertically..
  • Do not mount the access point outside of
    buildings.
  • Do not mount the access point on building
    perimeter walls, unless outside coverage is
    desired.
  • When mounting an access point in the corner of a
    right-angle hallway intersection, mount it at a
    45-degree angle.

85
Authentication and Encryption
  • The WLAN authentication and encryption problems
    you are most likely to encounter, and that you
    will be able to solve, are caused by incorrect
    client settings.

Remember, all devices connecting to an access
point must use the same security type as the one
configured on the access point.
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