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Transportation Policy


Title: Transportation Policy Author: College of Liberal Arts Last modified by: Roderick H Squires Created Date: 11/26/2007 9:07:39 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Transportation Policy

Transportation Policy
  • Moving people, goods, and services from one place
    to another in the United States

Petroleum Flow, 2011
Restrictions on Individual Rights
  • Every man, when he enters into a society gives up
    part of his natural liberty, as the price of so
    valuable a purchase   obliges himself to conform
    to those laws which the community has thought
    proper to establish (William  Blackstone.
    Commentaries of the Law of England. A Facsimile
    of the First Edition of 1765-1769 (1979) vol. 1
    p. 121)
  • Our legal problem arises at the point where
    capitalist economy and activist state collide. No
    longer a night-watchman, the state surveys the
    outcome of market processes and find them
    wanting. Armed with a prodigious array of legal
    tools, it sets about improving upon the invisible
    hand - taxing here, subsidizing there, regulating
    everywhere. The results of all this motion may
    well be something that clearly redounds to the
    public good - a cleaner environment, a safer
    workplace, a decent home. Nonetheless, these
    welfare gains can rarely be purchased without
    social cost - though many gain, some will lose as
    a result of the new government initiative (Bruce
    A. Ackerman Private Property and the
    Constitution, 1977 p.1) 

Shopping Bag of Rights Paradigm
  • Governments decide how to control behavior how
    to produce the goods and services demanded by
  • Corporations decide how to exercise the rights
    they possess how to behave e.g. what goods
    and services to produce
  • Individuals decide how to exercise the rights
    they possess how to behave e.g. what goods
    and services to buy

What are the methods used by the federal
government to organize (coerce) behaviors?
  • What are carrots and big sticks?

Governments Influence the Production of All Goods
and the Provision of All Services
  • Produced by governments using resources owned by
  • Government employees and contracted employees
  • Usable/Accessible information research, data
    collection, public records
  • Produced by governments using resources owned by
  • Under coercion
  • Regulation big stick
  • Financial Incentive taxation, loan,
    infrastructure construction (water treatment,
    sewers, roads)
  • Usable/Accessible information research, data
    collection, public records
  • 2. Without any coercion free market
  • There aint no such thing as a free lunch

U S Constitution
Statutes Rules Judicial Opinions
Administration Education Public Safety
Agriculture Mining Manufacturing
Transportation Health Welfare Environmental
Protection Outdoor Recreation
Standard Industrial Classification(Corporate
Stakeholders in Transportation Policy)
  • Transportation, Communications, Electric, Gas,
    And Sanitary Services  
  • Major Group 40 Railroad Transportation  
  • Major Group 41 Local And Suburban Transit And
    Interurban Highway Passenger Transportation  
  • Major Group 42 Motor Freight Transportation And
  • Major Group 43 United States Postal Service  
  • Major Group 44 Water Transportation  
  • Major Group 45 Transportation By Air  
  • Major Group 46 Pipelines, Except Natural Gas  
  • Major Group 47 Transportation Services  
  • Major Group 48 Communications  
  • Major Group 49 Electric, Gas, And Sanitary

GAO-11-290 Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail
(Feb, 2011)
GAO-11-290 Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail
(Feb, 2011)
GAO-11-290 Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail
(Feb, 2011)
  • Since the 1960s major efforts have been made to
    integrate separate transport systems through
    intermodalism, which took place is several stages
  • This involves the use of at least two different
    modes in a trip from origin to destination
    through an intermodal transport chain
  • Intermodality enhances the economic performance
    of a transport chain by using modes in the most
    productive manner
  • Thus, the line-haul economies of rail may be
    exploited for long distances, with the
    efficiencies of trucks providing flexible local
    pick up and delivery
  • The key is that the entire trip is seen as a
    whole, rather than as a series of legs, each
    marked by an individual operation with separate
    sets of documentation and rates

(No Transcript)
  • United States federal transportation legislation
  • House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee
  • Jurisdiction over all modes of transportation
    aviation, maritime and waterborne transportation,
    roads, bridges, mass transit, and railroads 
  • Jurisdiction over other aspects of our national
    infrastructure, such as clean water and waste
    management, the transport of resources by
    pipeline, flood damage reduction, the economic
    development of depressed rural and urban areas,
    disaster preparedness and response, activities of
    the Army Corps of Engineers and the various
    missions of the Coast Guard
  • Senate Committee on Commerce, Science,
  • Jurisdiction
  • Featured legislation

Transportation Financing
  • Department of Transportation Fiscal Year 2012
    Budget Highlights (Ports-To-Plains Blog)
  • National Surface Transportation Infrastructure
    Financing Commission with analyzing future
    highway and transit needs and the finances of the
    Highway Trust Fund and making recommendations
    regarding alternative approaches to financing
    transportation infrastructure
  • Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transportation
    Finance (Brookings Institution)
  • The Future of Transportation Finance A New
    Generation of User Fees (Rand Corp)
  • Transportation Finance (Cambridge Systematics)
  • Transportation Financing (GE Capital)

  • 23 USC Highways (Legal Information Institute)
  • 49 USC Transportation (Legal Information
  • General and Intermodal Programs
  • Motor Vehicle and Driver Programs
  • 23 CFR Highways (Legal Information Institute)
  • 49 CFR Transportation (Legal Information
  • Tips To Decoding your Cars VIN Number
  • 49 CFR 565 Vehicle Identification Number

(No Transcript)
U S Department of Transportation
  • Minnesota Department of Transportation

49 USC 101 Purpose
  • The national objectives of general welfare,
    economic growth and stability, and security of
    the United States require the development of
    transportation policies and programs that
    contribute to providing fast, safe, efficient,
    and convenient transportation at the lowest cost
    consistent with those and other national
    objectives, including the efficient use and
    conservation of the resources of the United
  • (Pub. L. 97449, Jan. 12 1983, 96 Stat. 2414
    Pub. L. 102240, title VI,  6018, Dec. 18 1991,
    105 Stat. 2183)

49 USC 101 Purpose
  • A Department of Transportation is necessary in
    the public interest
  • To ensure the coordinated and effective
    administration of the transportation programs of
    the United States Government
  • To make easier the development and improvement of
    coordinated transportation service to be provided
    by private enterprise to the greatest extent
  • To encourage cooperation of Federal, State, and
    local governments, carriers, labor, and other
    interested persons to achieve transportation
  • To stimulate technological advances in
    transportation, through research and development
    or otherwise
  • To provide general leadership in identifying and
    solving transportation problems 
  • To develop and recommend to the President and
    Congress transportation policies and programs to
    achieve transportation objectives considering the
    needs of the public, users, carriers, industry,
    labor, and national defense

RoadsThe Bridge Archives
  • Passenger transportation is dominated by a
    network of approximately 2 million miles of paved
    roads, the bulk of which is constructed and
    maintained by state and local governments
  • 97 of passenger trips in the U.S. are by
    personal automobile

General Resources
  • The United States Highway System (Info Please)
  • Public Roads (Federal Highway Administration)
  • Highway history (FHWA)
  • History of the U.S. Highway System (Casey Cooper)
  • Good Roads and the Automobile in the United
    States 1880-1929 (Hugill,1982)
  • US Highways From US 1 to (US 830) (Robert V.
  • Minnesota Highways Page (Steve Riner)

General Resources
  • Road Function Classifications (Federal Highway
  • Toll Roads in the United States (Federal Highway
  • United States Numbered Highways (Wikipedia)
  • ISTEA, A poisonous brew for American cities (Cato
  • American Highways Users Alliance - nonprofit 501
    (c)(6) advocacy organization serving as the
    united voice of the transportation community
    promoting safe, uncongested highways and enhanced
    freedom of mobility.

The National Highway System - Minnesota
  • Approximately 160,000 miles of roadway important
    to the nation's economy, defense, and mobility
  • Developed by the Department of Transportation
    (DOT) in cooperation with states, local
    governments, and metropolitan planning
  • Interstate Highway System accounts for almost 30
    of the system
  • Congressionally designated high-priority
    corridors as identified in the Intermodal Surface
    Transportation Efficiency Act ISTEA
  • Non-interstate portion of the Strategic Highway
    Corridor Network (STRAHNET) identified by the
    Department of Defense in cooperation with DOT -
    critical strategic links allowing move troops and
    equipment to airports, ports, rail terminals, and
    other bases for rapid deployment is essential to
    our national defense
  • Strategic Highway Corridor Network connectors
    that link major military installations and other
    defense-related facilities to the STRAHNET

  • Automobiles - 2006 - 250,844,644 registered
    passenger vehicles
  • Bureau of Transportation Statistics
  • 56.13 were classified as cars
  • 37.79 were classified as "Other 2 axle, 4 tire
    vehicles, SUVs and pick-up trucks
  • 2.53 were classified as vehicles with 2 axles
    and 6 tires and
  • 2,010,335 (0.82) were classified as "Truck,
  • 5,780,870 motorcycles 2.37 of all registered
    passenger vehicles
  • Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ - NHTSA)
  • Fuel Economy ( - DOE)
  • Car Safety ( - NHTSA)

  • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
  • Research and Innovative Technology Administration
    (RITA) coordinates the U.S. Department of
    Transportation's (DOT) research programs and is
    charged with advancing the deployment of
    cross-cutting technologies to improve our
    Nations transportation system
  • Bureau of Transportation Statistics ltby modegt
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • National Transportation Library
  • Positioning, Navigation and Timing
  • Research, Development and Technology
  • University Transportation Centers
  • Transportation Safety Institute
  • Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
  • issues and enforces safety, theft-resistance,
    and fuel economy standards for motor vehicles -
    Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) system
  • licenses vehicle manufacturers and importation
  • regulates the import of vehicles and
    safety-regulated vehicle parts
  • administers the VIN system
  • develops safety testing protocols, provides
    vehicle insurance cost information,
  • creates and maintains the data files collected by
    the National Center for Statistics and Analysis
  • has asserted preemptive regulatory authority
    over Greenhouse gas emissions, but this has been
    disputed by such state regulatory agencies as
    the California Air Resources Board

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
  • Report to Congress on July 1 of each year
  • Reports include
  • a statistical and analytical summary of the
    transportation accident investigations conducted
    and reviewed by the Board during the prior
    calendar year
  • a survey and summary of the recommendations made
    by the Board to reduce the likelihood of
    recurrence of those accidents together with the
    observed response to each recommendation
  • a detailed appraisal of the accident
    investigation and accident prevention activities
    of other departments, agencies, and
    instrumentalities of the United States Government
    and State and local governmental authorities
    having responsibility for those activities under
    a law of the United States or a State
  • Collapse of I-35W Highway Bridge Minneapolis,
    Minnesota August 1, 2007 Nov 2008

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
  • Established as a separate administration within
    the U.S. Department of Transportation on January
    1, 2000, under the provisions of the Motor
    Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 that
    enhanced highway safety by imposing stricter
    penalties on those drivers of commercial motor
  • Improves the commercial driver license (CDL)
    sanctioning process by strengthening the
    expansion of violations that result in license
  • The Act requires states to disqualify CDL drivers
    who have high risk traffic offenses in their
    personal vehicles

Surface Transportation Board (STB)
  • The Surface Transportation Board (STB) was
    created in the Interstate Commerce Commission
    Termination Act of 1995 succeeded Interstate
    Commerce Commission
  • An economic regulatory agency
  • Both an adjudicatory and a regulatory body
  • Independent, although administratively affiliated
    with the Department of Transportation
  • Jurisdiction
  • railroad rate and service issues
  • rail restructuring transactions (mergers, line
    sales, line construction, and line abandonments)
  • certain trucking company, moving van, and
    non-contiguous ocean shipping company rate
  • certain intercity passenger bus company
    structure, financial, and operational matters
  • rates and services of certain pipelines not
    regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory

Federal Transit Administration (FTA)
  • Headed by an Administrator appointed by the
  • Authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible,
    Efficient Transportation Equity Act A Legacy for
    Users of 2005 (SAFETEA-LU)
  • Administers federal funding to support a variety
    of locally planned, constructed, and operated
    public transportation systems throughout the
    U.S., including buses, subways, light rail,
    commuter rail, streetcars, monorail, passenger
    ferry boats, inclined railways, and people movers
  • American Public Transport Association

Financing Roads
  • Approximately 56 of the construction and
    maintenance costs of the Interstates are funded
    through user fees, primarily gasoline taxes -
    collected by states and the federal government -
    and tolls, collected on toll roads and bridges
  • The rest of the costs are appropriated by
  • In the eastern United States, large sections of
    some Interstate Highways planned or built prior
    to 1956 are operated as toll roads
  • As American suburbs grew, the costs incurred in
    maintaining freeway infrastructure have grown,
    leaving little in the way of funds for new
    interstate construction
  • This has led to the proliferation of toll roads
    (turnpikes) as the new method of building
    limited-access highways in suburban areas
  • Adding toll HOV/HOT lanes in certain cities like
    San Diego, Salt Lake City, Minneapolis, Houston,
    Dallas, Atlanta and Washington, D.C

  • The dominant role of the federal government in
    road finance has enabled it to achieve
    legislative goals that fall outside its power to
    regulate interstate commerce as enumerated in the
    federal Constitution
  • By threatening to withhold highway funds, the
    federal government has been able to stimulate
    state legislatures to pass a variety of laws
  • Though some object on the ground that this
    infringes on states' rights the Supreme Court has
    upheld the practice as a permissible use of the
    Constitution's Commerce Clause
  • introduction of the 55 mph national speed limit
    in 1974 - its purpose was to save fuel in the
    wake of the 1973 energy crisis,
  • speed controls stayed in effect for 21 years

  • Acceptance of the national speed limit emboldened
    various presidents and Congresses to enact
    additional pieces of legislation, some of which
    have little to do with highways or transportation
  • Increasing the legal drinking age to 21
  • Megan's Law legislation, requiring states to
    disclose identities of sex offenders
  • Lowering the legal intoxication level to 0.08
    (the issue in Minnesota)
  • Requiring the use of carpool (HOV) lanes
  • States must also meet minimum enforcement
    standards for all federally-mandated legislation
    (for example, minimum penalties for violation of
    these laws and a minimum number of per capita
    underage drinking convictions or a compelling
    explanation regarding why this number is not met)
  • Loss of federal highway funding would lead
    deteriorating infrastructure, fiscal
    impoverishment, or both
  • Of course, a state that lost federal highway
    funding could theoretically threaten to stop
    maintaining its highways

Borrowing and the Federal Debt (National
Priorities Project)
  • Airport and Airway Trust Fund
  • Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund
  • Commodity Credit Corporation Fund
  • Federal Employees and Retired Employees Health
    Benefits Funds
  • Employees Life Insurance Fund
  • Highway Trust Fund
  • Land and Water Conservation
  • Medicare (Hospital Insurance and Supplemental
    Medical Insurance)
  • Military Retirement Fund
  • Nuclear Waste Fund
  • Postal Service Fund
  • Strengthening Markets, Income, and Supply
  • Social Security
  • Tennessee Valley Authority Fund
  • Unemployment Insurance Fund
  • Universal Service Fund
  • The debt held in federal accounts money that the
    Treasury has borrowed from itself 1/3 of the
  • Some federal tax revenues can only be used for
    certain programs and accumulated in dedicated
    trust funds.
  • When trust fund accounts run a surplus, the
    Treasury takes the surplus and uses it to pay for
    other kinds of federal spending
  • Of course the Treasury must pay that borrowed
    money back to the trust fund at a later date

Borrowing and the Federal Debt (National
Priorities Project)
  • Airport and Airway Trust Fund
  • Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund
  • Commodity Credit Corporation Fund
  • Federal Employees and Retired Employees Health
    Benefits Funds
  • Employees Life Insurance Fund
  • Highway Trust Fund
  • Land and Water Conservation
  • Medicare (Hospital Insurance and Supplemental
    Medical Insurance)
  • Military Retirement Fund
  • Nuclear Waste Fund
  • Postal Service Fund
  • Strengthening Markets, Income, and Supply
  • Social Security
  • Tennessee Valley Authority Fund
  • Unemployment Insurance Fund
  • Universal Service Fund
  • The debt held in federal accounts money that the
    Treasury has borrowed from itself 1/3 of the
  • Some federal tax revenues can only be used for
    certain programs and accumulated in dedicated
    trust funds.
  • When trust fund accounts run a surplus, the
    Treasury takes the surplus and uses it to pay for
    other kinds of federal spending
  • Of course the Treasury must pay that borrowed
    money back to the trust fund at a later date

Federal Highway Trust Fund
User-supported fund - taxes paid by the users of
highways dedicated to the HTF Principle is still
in effect, but the tax structure has changed
since 1956
Highway Trust Fund (the layered solution)
  • The Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA)
    of 1982 and the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984
    increased the motor-fuel taxes
  • The 1982 STAA also established a special Mass
    Transit Account in the HTF to receive part of the
    motor-fuel tax
  • Another increase of 5 cents per gallon was
    established as part of the Omnibus Budget
    Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA 90) One-half of
    the revenues derived from the 5-cent increase
    went to the General Fund of the Treasury for
    deficit reduction expired on October 1, 1995
  • Another increase of 4.3 cents per gallon was
    enacted effective October 1, 1993, by the Omnibus
    Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 all to go to
    the General Fund of the Treasury for deficit
    reduction (gasoline tax 18.4 cents per gallon) no
    expiration date
  • The legislation also provided that the temporary
    General Fund fuel tax imposed by OBRA 90 would be
    extended and that it would be directed to the HTF
    effective October 1, 1995, except in the case of
    certain alcohol fuels
  • The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 redirected the
    4.3-cents General Fund tax to the HTF effective
    October 1, 1997
  • The TEA-21 extended the HTF taxes through
    September 30, 2005, thus extending the fiscal
    "life" of the HTF

  • Highway Finances (FHWA)
  • Highway Trust Fund (FHWA)
  • Highway Financing (GAO)
  • Will Increased Highway Funding Help Rural Areas?
    (USDA Economic Research Service)
  • Financing Federal-aid Highways (FHWA)
  • Highway Trust Fund Overview of Highway Trust
    Fund ... (GAO)
  • Minnesota Highway Financing (Minnesota House
    Research, November 2000)
  • Gas Tax (

Alternative Fuels (DOE)
  • Energy Outlook 2011 (DOE)
  • Ethanol
  • American Coalition for Ethanol
  • National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition
  • Ethanol Producers and Consumers

Rail transportation in the United States
  • Railroad blog

U.S. Freight Railroad Economics (Alan Erera,
Georgia Institute of Technology)
General Resources
  • Trains, the Magazine of Railroading
  • Rail Transport (Wikipedia)
  • U.S. Railroads (Wikipedia)
  • History of Rail Transport in the United States
  • History of Railroads and Maps (Library of
  • Railroad History (Richard Jensen, Montana State
  • Association of American Railroads members include
    the major freight railroads in the United States,
    Canada and Mexico, as well as Amtrak
  • About Railroads in Minnesota (Minnesota
    Department of Transportation)
  • Transcontinental Railroad (PBS American
  • Transcontinental Railroad Maps (Central Pacific

Federal Railroad Administration
  • created by the Department of Transportation Act
    of 1966 (49 U.S.C. 103, Section 3(e)(1))
  • promulgate and enforce rail safety regulations
  • administer railroad assistance programs
  • conduct research and development in support of
    improved railroad safety and national rail
    transportation policy
  • rehabilitate the Northeast Corridor rail
    passenger service
  • consolidate government support of rail
    transportation activities

U.S. Railroad Retirement Board
  • Independent agency in the executive branch of the
    Federal Government.
  • Primary function to administer comprehensive
    retirement-survivor and unemployment-sickness
    benefit programs for the nation's railroad
    workers and their families, under the Railroad
    Retirement Act of 1974 and Railroad Unemployment
    Insurance Acts
  • In connection with the retirement program, the
    RRB has administrative responsibilities under the
    Social Security Act for certain benefit payments
    and railroad workers' Medicare coverage
  • Railroad Retirement Handbook

  • 45 US Code Railroads (Legal Information
  • Staggers Act of 1980 (Wikipedia)
  • The Success of the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980
    (Brookings Institute)
  • Efficiency and Adjustment The Impact of Railroad
    Deregulation (Cato Institute)
  • 49 CFR Transportation

Amtrak (Wikipedia)
  • Amtrak, the National Railroad Passenger
  • National facts
  • Minnesota facts 2011
  • Long distance train facts
  • Corridor trains
  • Northeast corridor
  • High speed rail. A national perspective (2008)

Minnesotas freight railroads
  • critical part of the States multimodal
    transportation system
  • many of the States major industries rely on the
    rail system for delivery of goods, connecting to
    markets beyond the States borders, throughout
    North America, and to the world through the
    seaports on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, and
    the Great Lakes
  • Minnesota has 4,538 route miles of railroads
    serviced by 22 railroad companies

Railroads in MinnesotaClass 1. Annual gross
operating revenues of at least 346.8 million
  • Burlington Northern Santa Fe 1,598 miles
  • Canadian National 436 miles
  • Canadian Pacific 750
  • Union Pacific 462

Class II. Regional and Short line
RailroadsAnnual gross operating revenues between
27.8 million and 346.8 million
  • None in Minnesota
  • Dakota, Minnesota, Eastern 472 miles
  • one of the largest regional railroads in the US,
  • operates about 1,100 miles of track in South
    Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wyoming, and Nebraska
  • Iowa, Chicago Eastern Railroad (ICE), with
    1,400 miles of line in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota,
    Missouri, and Wisconsin, was consolidated into
    the DME in 2008
  • both acquired by Canadian Pacific Railway in 2007
    for 1.5 billion
  • US Surface Transportation Board approved the deal
    in late 2008
  • transports a variety of goods, including coal,
    grain products (including ethanol), and steel

Surface Transportation Board
  • Dakota, Minnesota, and Eastern construction plans
  • Comments on proposal by USDA
  • Approval of CPs acquisition of DME
  • Dakota, Minnesota Eastern Railroad Corporation
    (70 FR 75240)
  • Southeastern Minnesota Freight Rail Capacity
    Study (MNDoT)

Class III. Local Switching RailroadAnnual
gross operating revenue of less than 27.7 million
  • Minnesota Regional Railroads Association
  • Minnesota Northern 156 miles
  • Otter Tail Valley 71 miles
  • Twin Cities Western 146 miles
  • operated by subsidiary Minnesota Prairie Line
    94 miles
  • owned by Minnesota Valley Regional Rail
  • Red River Valley Western 514 miles
  • Northern Lines Railway ?
  • Ramsey County Regional Railroad Authority

Minnesota Northern (Wikipedia)
  • Co-owned by KBN Incorporated and Independent
    Locomotive Service
  • created in December 1996 when the railroads
    former owner, RailAmerica, purchased 204 miles
    (328 km) of track from the newly-created
    Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway
  • included in the sale were 64 miles (103 km) of
    trackage rights on the BNSF's Grand Forks
    Subdivision from Crookston, Minnesota to Erskine,
    Minnesota and the Canadian Pacific's Detroit
    Lakes Subdivision from Erskine, Minnesota to
    Thief River Falls, Minnesota
  • (Rail America - a holding company of a number of
    short-line railroads and regional railroads in
    the United States and Canada)
  • The primary commodities hauled included grain,
    seeds, sugar and sugar by-products, coal, animal
    feeds, and fertilizers

  • Railroad Abandonment
  • Rails-to-Trails Conservancy is a nonprofit
    organization based in Washington, D.C., whose
    mission it is to create a nationwide network of
    trails from former rail lines and connecting
    corridors to build healthier places for healthier

  • Oil
  • Some large oil companies like Shell, BP and
    ExxonMobil operate pipeline systems that serve
    large regions of the country or move petroleum
    from one region to another
  • Another larger group of pipeline systems are
    owned and operated by companies who are only
    pipeline operators and who are not involved in
    other aspects of the oil industry
  • Companies, like a power plant or a chemical
    plant, who may operate a small pipeline system to
    bring fuel to the plant or to move feedstocks
    from one plant to another
  • Natural gas
  • pipelines run the gamut from large, regional
    companies to small, municipal gas systems and
    everything in between

  • Williams
  • Koch Pipeline Company
  • Magellan
  • Minnesota Limited
  • Enbridge Energy

Gas Pipelines
  • About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines (EIA)

List of natural gas pipelines in US
Oil Pipelines
  • Petroleum Reserves (DOE)
  • Strategic Petroleum Reserve (Wikipedia)

Oil Pipelines
  • Keystone XL Pipeline Project (TransCanada)
  • Keystone project (MinnPost)
  • Stopping the Keystone XL pipeline (NRDC)
  • Keystone pipeline dilemma (MN Daily Feb 18, 2013)

  • Enbridge Energy (Star Tribune Aug. 24, 2013)
  • Minnesota PUC to review Enbridge oil pipeline
    expansion (Star Tribune Sept. 5, 2013)

Refined Products Pipelines
  • gasoline, home heating oil, jet fuel, diesel,
    lubricants and the raw materials for fertilizer,
    chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Pipeline Safety
  • Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety
  • Enhance Pipeline Safety (NTSB)
  • Two and a half million miles of pipeline
    crisscross the nation carrying important
    resources, such as oil and gasoline, to
    consumers. While one of the safest and most
    efficient means of transporting these
    commodities, there is an inherent risk that can
    lead to tragic consequences, especially when
    safety standards are not observed or implemented
  • Pipeline Safety Trust
  • National Association of Pipeline Safety