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Effective Writing Instruction for ESL Writers

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Effective Writing Instruction for ESL Writers Targeting ESL Students Towards Success Welcome to an ESL Writers World Comprehensive Instruction Takes into Account ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Writing Instruction for ESL Writers


1
Effective Writing Instruction for ESL Writers
  • Targeting ESL Students Towards Success

2
Welcome to an ESL Writers World
3
(No Transcript)
4
Percent Passing TAAS, 1994 and 2002
TAAS Writing, Grades 8 and 10 (Exit)
5
Comprehensive Instruction Takes into Account
Schooling Background
Reading Proficiency in English
Oral Language Proficiency in English
Writing Proficiency in English
6
ESL Students and Their Schooling Backgrounds
No Schooling
Formal Schooling
Limited-Formal Schooling
Long-Term Schooling
7
Levels of Reading Proficiency in English
Reading Proficiency Tests in English (RPTE)
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
8
Levels of Oral Language Proficiency (OLP) in
English
Non
Limited
Fluent
NES
LES
FES
9
Levels of Writing Proficiency in English
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Beginner
Advanced
Intermediate
10
Writing Rubrics CALLA vs.TAKS
TAKS
Organization
Conventions
Focus and Coherence
Development of Ideas
Voice
CALLA
Organization
Vocabulary and Word Forms
Language Use
Mechanics
11
Building on Strengths in a Dynamic Context
Beginning
Beginning
NES
Intermediate
LES
Intermediate
Advanced
FES
Advanced
12
Transferable and Non-Transferable Skills
Phonology
Orthography
Semantics
Syntax
13
Program Design
Newcomers Center
ESL with Sheltered Content Support
ESL Pullout
14
Taking Aim
FES
Academic Achievement
LES
NES
15
Fluent-English Speaking Student
  • Struggling ESL Writer
  • Long-Term or Formally Schooled
  • Intermediate or Advanced Reader
  • Intermediate or Advanced Writer

16
Examining the Layers
Target Language
17
Targeting Students for Success
Habib Julia Troung
Lupe Mark Natasha
Mustafa Bjorn José
Target Language
18
Habib
Formally Schooled
Non-English Speaking
Beginning Reader
Advanced Writer in Native Language
19
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib
20
Julia and Troung
21
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung
22
Beginning Writers Need
Instruction to develop
Oral Language
Orthography
Conventions
Sentence and Paragraph Construction
23
Integrated Language Instruction
Reading
Thinking
Writing
Listening
Speaking
24
Instructional Strategies for Beginning Writers
  • Language Experience Approach
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Learning Logs
  • Concept of Definition Maps
  • Sentence Synthesis
  • Word Walls
  • Sentence and Word Expansion
  • Capsule Vocabulary
  • Cloze Procedure
  • One-Sentence Summary
  • Visual-Verbal Word Association Cards
  • Window Paning

25
Additional Instructional Strategies
  • Oral Discussion
  • Partner Stories Using Pictures and Wordless Books
  • Concept Books Creating a Teaching Library
  • Riddle Books for Older Students
  • Pattern Poems
  • Improvisational Sign Language
  • Life Murals
  • Clustering
  • Freewriting
  • Semantic Mapping

26
Accelerating Beginners
Appropriate and ongoing assessment of student
progress is critical when helping them make the
greatest gains in academic achievement.
27
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung
28
Natasha
Limited-English Speaking
Limited-Formally Schooled
Intermediate Reader
Intermediate Writer in Native Language
29
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung Natasha
30
Mark and Lupe
31
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung Natasha Mark Lupe
32
Whats Difficult in Literature and Composition
for ESL Students?
Culture and Concepts
Cultural Values
Shared Knowledge
Discourse Organization
33
Whats Difficult in Literature and Composition
for ESL Students?
  • Vocabulary
  • Difficult to understand
  • Difficult to find appropriate words to express
    intended meaning

Finding the right word presents difficulties for
all writers for an ESL writer, finding a word is
the major challenge. (Chamot and OMalley,
1994, p. 290)
34
Whats Difficult in Literature and Composition
for ESL Students?
  • Language functions and structures
  • Comprehension and expression difficulties

ESL students may avoid or make inaccurate use of
complex sentences and grammatical structures that
communicate subtleties and nuances in written
English (Chamot and OMalley, 1994, p. 291).
  • Students may lack learning strategies
  • Comprehension
  • Writing

35
Intermediate Writers Need
  • Strategies to improve sentences
  • Quality
  • Length
  • Style
  • Variety
  • Strategies to improve organization
  • Paragraphing
  • Logical ordering of ideas in English
  • Support in the conventions of writing in
    English
  • Punctuation
  • Grammar
  • Usage

36
Eradication Strategies
Dont Work
  • Encourage appreciation and acceptance of others
    languages and dialects
  • Preserve the voices of students
  • Identify appropriate interventions to teach
    students about discourse patterns, audience,
    context, and tone

37
The Writing Process
  • Shifts emphasis from a product-driven approach to
    a process-driven approach
  • Provides effective writing instruction
  • Enforces the process all writers go through as
    they develop their compositions
  • Helps develop positive attitudes towards writing

38
Stages in the Writing Process
Prewriting
Reflective
Recursive
Drafting
Publishing
Revising
Editing
38
39
Using the Writing Process with ESL Writers
  • Focuses on meaning first and then moves to
    mechanics
  • Includes goals for fluency, clarity, and
    correctness
  • Allows students to be involved in writing
    regularly for meaningful purposes and real
    audiences
  • Allows more advanced students to work together
    and support each others writing development

40
Prewriting
  • Explore the possibilities in the writing task
  • Stimulate and enlarge the writers thoughts
  • Move writers from the stage of thinking about a
    writing task to the act of writing
  • Develop a plan to help choose the topic, purpose,
    audience, and form or structure

Do not overlook prewriting activities
41
Drafting
  • As the first version of writing, the purpose of
    drafting is to put the thoughts onto paper
  • Writings recursive nature means that drafting
    will be revisited
    again

    and
    again

    and

    again.

42
Revising
  • Improves the composition so that the product is
    more interesting and understandable to the reader
  • Clarifies meaning and expands ideas
  • Helps writers learn the craft of writing

Revising means seeing again.
43
Editing
  • Helps the writer

Understand that conventions convey meaning
Make corrections to errors in the conventions of
writing, including spelling, grammar,
capitalization, and punctuation
44
Publishing
  • Helps the writer focus on the communication of
    meaning to a real audience, thus giving a purpose
    for writing efforts
  • Acknowledges that writing is genuine
    communication
  • Is an effective strategy for motivating writing
  • Practices the highest level of revising and
    editing skills

45
Positive Signs of the Writing Process
  • Intermediate writers still make frequent
    errors in punctuation, grammar, and usage. In
    fact, they may make more such errors than
    beginners because they are producing more
    writinga positive sign of the writing process.
    Recurrent errors may serve as the basis of an
    individual or group mini-lesson, so that students
    may correct such errors during editing.
  • (Peregoy and Boyle, 2001, p. 234)

46
Mini-Lessons in Writing
  • Are of short duration (1020 minutes)
  • Demonstrate important aspects of the writing
    process with clear, powerful examples
  • Focus on a specific writing principle or
    procedure
  • Are interactive and meet students needs

46
47
Mini-Lessons in Writing
Procedural Matters
Literary Concepts
Strategy and Skill Lessons
47
48
Mini-Lessons in Writing
Students should apply and be held accountable for
skills and strategies taught in
mini-lessons.
48
49
Sheltered Instruction andThe Writing Process
Preparation
Interaction
Building Background
Practice/ Application
Lesson Delivery
Comprehensible Input
Strategies
Review/ Assessment
50
Instructional Strategies for Intermediate Writers
  • Image Streaming
  • Paragraph Structures
  • Learning Logs
  • Concept of Definition Maps
  • Sentence and Word Expansion
  • Advanced Capsule Vocabulary
  • Semantic Features Analysis Chart for Conventions
  • RAFT
  • Graphic Organizers for Text Structures

51
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung Natasha Mark Lupe
52
Mustafa
Limited-English Speaking
Formally Schooled
Beginning Reader
Advanced Writer in Native Language
53
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung Natasha Mark Lupe Mustafa
54
Bjorn and José
55
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung Natasha Mark Lupe Mustafa Bjorn José
56
Advanced Writers Need
Transitions
Voice
Word Choice
Conventions
Discourse Patterns
Depth of Thoughts
57
The Process of Making Meaning
  • I was masticating my gum.
  • Dont throw a cow!
  • Im thawing out.
  • We need to get in sequence to come in from recess.

58
Building on Strengths
Name OLP Strengths Areas of Need Plan of Action
Habib Julia Troung Natasha Mark Lupe Mustafa Bjorn José
59
On Your Own
Four Case Studies
  • Working in groups of four
  • Each member should
  • Select writing samples to analyze
  • Identify strengths and an area of need
  • Develop a plan of action
  • Be prepared to share your findings with your
    group members

60
Hot Spot Area
Hot Spot Slides
61
Habib Habib moved to Texas with his family and
enrolled in school two weeks ago. He is in the
ninth grade and had been attending a school for
boys in his native country. He was one of the
top performing students in his class and was just
beginning to learn English when his family
relocated. When tested, he was found to be
non-English speaking. He also was unable to
produce any writing in English when asked to
provide a writing sample. He wrote in his native
language instead. Since it appeared that Habib
did not have a minimal command of the English
language, he was not tested in reading. Habibs
English teacher has noted a few things about him
since he first came to her class. He is very
inquisitive and learns quickly. He clutches his
Arabic/English dictionary everywhere he goes and
uses it to make requests. His math skills are
advanced as he has picked up many English words
related to his math class. He also loves his
science class. With the hands-on approach, he
easily recognizes key concepts he has already
learned in his native country.
62
Julia Julia is nine years old and has never been
to school. Her family fled their war-torn
country and moved to a small rural town in Texas.
When tested in English, she was identified as
limited-English speaking. However, she could not
read or write in English. Since the town does
not have a bilingual program, she was enrolled in
ESL. Her ESL teacher has a bilingual aide who
works with Julia daily, helping her to spell her
name and write her ABCs. Julia loves to listen
to stories and wants to read.
63
Troung Troung moved to Texas after living in
California for the past two years. When tested
for oral language proficiency, she was found to
be a fluent-English speaker. However, her
writing skills were very minimal. She produced
short sentences with many errors in spelling and
conventions. It seemed as if she was saying the
same things over and over again. When tested for
reading, she scored at the intermediate level of
the RPTE. Prior to moving to California, Troung
attended school for a short while. She moved
around often with her family as they struggled to
make ends meet. She had relatives in the states
that sent money to them to assist their departure
from their country. Later, the family moved to
Texas in hopes of building a better life for
themselves. Troung is in the seventh grade.
64
Natasha Natasha enrolled in a Texas school last
year after living in New York for three years. At
the end of the seventh grade, it was found that
she was limited-English speaking and an
intermediate reader according to the RPTE. There
have been some concerns with her progress, as it
appears that she has been at the intermediate
level for the past four years. As an eighth
grader, Natasha seems withdrawn and guarded.
When reviewing Natashas past, it was found that
she came to New York, fleeing her native Croatia
with her mother and her older sister. Her father
was last seen fighting with the Serbians. All of
her school, medical, and personal records were
destroyed in the war. Natasha reported that she
missed a year and a half of school while in
Croatia. When she was in school, she was
learning English as a second language since
kindergarten and excelled in her own native
language. Natashas writing samples indicate
that she has trouble with verb tenses, plural
forms, sequencing of events, and conventions.
Although these problems can be distracting to a
native reader of English, it is fairly easy to
decipher what she wishes to share and express
through her writing. Its obvious that she has
mixed feelings about her father.
65
Mark Mark came to Texas as a fifth grader right
before the administration of the RPTE. Although
he scored as a non-English speaker on his oral
language proficiency test, his teacher suggested
to the LPAC that he take the RPTE due to his
performance in the classroom. The results of the
RPTE indicated that Mark was an intermediate
reader. Now as a sixth grader, Mark is also an
intermediate writer. Mark attended school
regularly in Mexico and had taken classes in
English. His writing samples consist of
elaborate and flowery language. His teacher
describes his papers as full of extraneous
information.  
66
Lupe Lupe, Marks older sister, is in the
eleventh grade. She has been in the states since
she was in the third grade. She is a
fluent-English speaker and an advanced reader.
In past years, she hasnt been able to pass the
statewide assessment in order to exit the ESL
program. Now she needs to pass it in order to
graduate. Prior to her arrival in Texas, Lupe
had not been schooled. She participated in a
bilingual program in the third grade and then
moved into ESL in the fourth grade due to a move.
By the end of the ninth grade, Lupe had moved
another six times, in and out of the country and
in and out of a variety of schools and ESL
programs. Lupes writing samples indicate
difficulties with word choice, verb tense,
spelling, and conventions. Furthermore, she has
trouble developing a variety of sentences with
more complex structures. Her sentences are short
and terse. She also has a tendency to overuse
adjectives and is in need of expanding her
vocabulary.
67
Mustafa Mustafa came to Texas from his native
country of Liberia where he had attended school
and earned high marks. He spent much of his
summer hanging around his neighborhood and
shooting hoops. At the start of the new school
year, he was tested and was found to be
limited-English speaking and a beginning reader.
Mustafas writing, however, was at the advanced
level of the CALLA rubric. Like Habib, Mustafa
is very resourceful and has many transferable
skills from his native background. Much of the
population in Liberia speaks English, and Mustafa
had been exposed to short grammar lessons early
on in his education there. Mustafa is in the
fifth grade and is in a classroom in the United
States for the first time.
68
Bjorn Bjorn is a tenth grade foreign exchange
student from Sweden. He attended school in his
home country and was considered an overachiever
with a burning desire to master the English
language. So when the opportunity to come to the
United States was upon him, he jumped at the
chance to immerse himself in American culture.
When Bjorn filled out his home language survey,
he reported that he spoke Swedish and English.
The district chose to screen him for LEP status.
It was found that he was a fluent English
speaker, but he scored below the 40th percentile
on his academic achievement test in English in
reading. When he provided a writing sample, it
was described as advanced according to the CALLA
rubric. The LPAC chose to place Bjorn in a
regular sophomore English class. His teacher
noted that Bjorns writing appeared to need
continued support in the development of ideas,
word choice, and voice.
69
José José is an eleventh grade Mexican student
who was born and schooled in Texas. Over the
years, José has lived with different family
members. Early in his childhood, he lived with
his grandmother who only spoke Spanish. Later,
he moved to a house near his grandmothers to
live with his father who spoke Tex-Mex. After
the death of his father, he moved in with his
uncle who spoke both Spanish and English
fluently. As a result of these moves, José moved
in and out of a variety of programs for English
language learners. José reached the advanced
level of the RPTE two years ago and recently
scored as an advanced writer according to the
CALLA rubric. José loves rap music and writes
his own selections. Word choice and discourse
organization appear to be areas in which José
needs continued support.
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