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Prosthetic Ethics

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Prosthetic Ethics James J. Hughes Ph.D. Executive Director, Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies Public Policy Studies, Trinity College, Hartford CT – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prosthetic Ethics


1
Prosthetic Ethics
  • James J. Hughes Ph.D.
  • Executive Director, Institute for Ethics and
    Emerging Technologies
  • Public Policy Studies, Trinity College, Hartford
    CT
  • James.Hughes_at_trincoll.edu

Committee on Ethical and Societal Issues in
National Security Applications of Emerging
Technologies November 2-3, 2011 Beckman Center,
National Academy of Sciences Irvine, CA
http//ieet.org/archive/20111102-ProstheticEthics.
ppt
2
Non-Problems Old Problems
  • Some ethical issues are false problems, at least
    from an Enlightenment POV
  • Others are old problems, like ensuring safety and
    access
  • A few are novel because of the efficacy of
    neuroprosthetics

3
Non-Problems
  • Supersoldiers
  • Sports enhancement
  • Disappearing disabled cultures
  • Authenticity

4
SuperSoldiers
  • Ethics of military force, or of military
    applications
  • Do prosthetics change
  • likelihood of exploiting soldiers as guinea pigs
    or in the field
  • ability to exercise judgment in field, reduce
    collateral damage (drones)
  • likelihood of engaging in conflicts

5
Sports Enhancement
  • Oscar Pistorius
  • Sports is a rule-governed game
  • If athletes with prosthetics want to compete they
    can start their own leagues
  • Not relevant to society

6
Disappearing Disabilities
  • 99 of disabled happy to give up their
    disabilities
  • Only children forced to use
  • Last century dramatic decline in veteran and
    civilian amputees
  • 1000 amputees from Iraq/Afghan vets
  • 1000 surgeons in Civil War, 60,000 amputees
  • Changes cost-benefit analysis for social
    priority-setting (Loeb)
  • Difficulty in commercializing the direct neural
    control prosthethics developed by DARPA or others

7
Authenticity
  • Not human, not me
  • But
  • Body image is malleable
  • Prosthetics easily incorporated, even made a
    valued aesthetic feature

8
Aestheticizing Prosthetics
  • Aimee Mullins

Smartphone dock installed in prosthetic
9
Anyway We Are All Cyborgs
  • Since literacy we have become dependent on brain
    prosthetics on paper
  • Shoes, clothing, tools
  • The idea of prosthetic enhancement is ancient
    Icarus
  • Central to the Enlightenment project

10
Old Problems
  • Safety of devices
  • Moving line between disability/normal/enhanced
  • Unequal access
  • Ownership intellectual property
  • Privacy cybersecurity

11
Safety
  • Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act covers all
    implants and other devices "intended to affect
    the structure or any function of the body of man
    or other animals
  • But FDAs
  • 510k (similar to prior approval) loophole
  • Center for Devices and Radiological Health
    underfunded to handle scope and pace of
    innovation
  • Authority inadequate to gather clinical trial
    information or compel reporting of post-approval
    adverse events

Are military IRBs reviews adequate to protect
soldiers from experimental technologies
12
Defining Disabled/Enhanced
  • When Medicare changed its definition for
    coverable cochlear implants from deafness to
    severe hearing loss it expanded coverage for
    millions of seniors
  • 25 million people in the U.S. have hearing loss
  • Of those, 2.4 million have severe to profound
    deafness
  • 25 of those aged 65 to 74 have hearing
    impairments
  • 40 over age 75 have hearing impairments

13
Superhuman Abilities
  • Tuneable cochlear and visual nerve implants, or
    prosthetics with greater than human strength
  • Turning point when people want to replace limb,
    eyes or organs with prosthetics

14
Unequal Access
  • In every other industrialized country the debate
    is what should be in or out of the plan
  • Here it is up to 1500 private and 60 or so public
    insurance plans
  • Critical Speed of innovation of cheap versions

15
Ownership Property
  • Devices given to wounded warriors that have
    restricted civilian uses (akin to allowing them
    to take home weapons)
  • Repossession of a device for lack of payment
    (RepoMen)
  • Restricted travel to countries that are on a
    proscribed export list
  • Violating IP by allowing someone to examine,
    sharing details about device

16
Privacy and Cybersecurity
National security secrecy and corporate IP
inhibit open source innovation, translation to
application
  • Already issue with mobile technology and RFID
  • Privacy of biometric information - controversy in
    2002 over the VeriChip patient ID and tracking
    system
  • Implanted medical records, e-cash, telecom
  • Wireless hacking of prosthetics (Jay Radcliffe
    insulin pump hacking)
  • Self-hacking to control drug administration
  • Required registration of high-power prosthetics

See 2005 EU Report Ethical Aspects of ICT
Implants in the Human Body
17
Newer Problems
  • Timing of implants and upgradeability
  • Brain-machine interfaces
  • Structural unemployment
  • Remote behavior control
  • Mood control
  • Blurred culpability

18
Timing of Implants
  • Accelerating pace of innovation
  • Especially rapid advances in biocompatible
    materials
  • Cochlear implants
  • Critical language window
  • Destruction of cochlear tissue

19
Artificial Pancreas
  • Diabetes growing rapidly
  • Realtime blood sugar monitoring
  • Automated release of insulin
  • Implanted

20
Brain-Machine Interfaces
  • Prosthetic bodies human brains (Robocop) versus
    robot brains in human bodies (Terminator)
  • All neural prosthetic research from peripheral
    nerves to cerebral on the Kurzweilian trajectory
    to nanoneural BCIs

21
Nathan Kline and Manfred Clynes
  • 1960. Cyborgs and Space, Astronautics, Sept.
  • Monitoring and controlling the body/brain of the
    astronaut from ground control

22
Implants for Depression OCD
  • Depression
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

23
Brain-Computer Interfaces
24
NanoNeural Network
  • Self-replicating
  • Two-way communication with trillions of
    neurons
  • Networked inside and out
  • Perfect virtual reality, mind back-up, upload

25
Structural Unemployment
  • Prior cases
  • literate/numerate workers
  • smartphones
  • Competing not only against automation and
    globalization, but also against brain-machine
    enhanced workers (vets?)
  • AugCog

26
Autonomy Addiction
  • Remote behavior control of criminals, soldiers,
    astronauts
  • Wireheading mood control
  • Blurred culpability developer, software, user

27
For more information
  • Institute for Ethics and Emerging
    Technologiesieet.org
  • Me director_at_ieet.org
  • These slides

http//ieet.org/archive/20111102-ProstheticEthics.
ppt
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