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STATUS OF BANANA DISEASES RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA

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Tengku Ab. Malik T.M., Rozeita,L. ,Maimun,T., and Umikalsum, M.B. Horticulture Research Centre, MARDI, Malaysia Banana is the 2nd most important commercial fruit crop ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: STATUS OF BANANA DISEASES RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA


1
STATUS OF BANANA DISEASES RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA
Tengku Ab. Malik T.M., Rozeita,L. ,Maimun,T.,
and Umikalsum, M.B. Horticulture Research
Centre, MARDI, Malaysia
2
INTRODUCTION
  • Banana is the 2nd most important commercial fruit
    crop in Malaysia
  • Pisang Berangan and Cavendish are the most
    popular varieties
  • Other local varieties, including P. Mas, P.
    Rastali, P. Nangka, P. Raja, P. Tanduk, P. Abu,
    P. Awak- for domestic market

3
  • Cultivated as a backyard farm, small, medium and
    large for both domestic and export consumptions
  • Exported to Singapore, Brunei, Hong Kong and
    Middle East
  • Johor, Sabah and Sarawak served as major states
    in Malaysia producing banana-27,543 hectares
    (2009)
  • The area is expected to expand in future due to
    increasing local and foreign demand and newly
    implemented ETP by the government

4
  • Disease is one of the most important factors that
    can significantly limit the production of banana
    in Malaysia
  • Fusarium wilt is the single most devastating
    disease contributing to low production and
    economic loss
  • The emerging of new bacterial disease, Moko has
    further dampened the banana industry

5
  • A concerted effort by the Malaysian research
    institutes, universities and private agencies is
    very necessary by pooling their expertise and
    resources to find immediately solutions
  • This paper highlight the past and current
    research and discuss the strategies to be taken
    in managing these diseases in Malaysia

6
STATUS OF FUSARIUM WILT DISEASE RESEARCH IN
MALAYSIA
  • Fusarium wilt disease of banana is caused by
    Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubense (FOC)
  • FOC has been identified, based on race 1, 2, 3
    and 4
  • In Malaysia FOC has been identified as tropical
    race 4 (FOCTR4)

7
  • Cavendish, P. Berangan and P. Rastali are the
    most susceptible cultivars
  • Almost all the domestic and commercial cultivars
    are now infected to varying degrees of FOC
  • Epidermic of the disease can be due to
    mono-cultivar cultivation, poor field and crop
    management

8
  • Cultural Management
  • Studies on the use of chemical basamit
    fumigation, formalin and magnesium limestone were
    not effective to control FOC
  • However, other management practices such as
    organic cultivation, crop rotation can offer
    solution to control FOC

9
  • Screening For Resistance
  • Banana hybrids and somaclones performance and
    reaction to FOC
  • 23 varieties were evaluated
  • Cv Rose, P. Jari Buaya and Calcutta 4 were
    resistant with no economic value but can be
    sources of resistance
  • Hybrid FHIA-18, FHIA-21 and FHIA-25 were tolerant
    but not well accepted by consumers
  • Gross Michel, Cavendish (cv William), P. Berangan
    Intan and P. Mas were susceptible

10
IMTP-3 Project
  • Evaluate yield, quality, Foc resistance

Table 1. Percentage of plants with Fusarium wilt
symptoms (external and internal) for 23
varieties over 13 month-period
Variety Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting
Variety N 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1. FHIA-18 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2. FHIA-21 20 0 0 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10
3. FHIA-25 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4. SH-3640 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5. Cavendish GCTCV-106 20 0 0 0 5 10 10 10 10 10 10
6. Cavendish GCTCV-215 20 0 0 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 15
7. Cavendish GCTCV-247 20 0 0 0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8. CRBP-39 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9. BITA-3 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10. BITA-2 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 10 10
11. Gros Michel (P. Embun) 20 30 30 50 70 70 80 80 90 100 100
11
Cont. Table 1
Table 1. Percentage of plants with Fusarium wilt
symptoms (external and internal) for 23
varieties over 13 month-period
Variety Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting Months after planting
Variety N 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
12. Bluggoe 20 15 15 15 20 20 35 35 35 40 45
13. Cavendish cv. Williams 20 20 30 30 35 35 40 40 40 40 40
14. cv. Rose 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15. Yangambi km5 20 0 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
16. Calcutta 4 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17. Pisang Ceylan 20 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10
18. Pisang Berlin 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 10 15
19. Gran Enano 20 0 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 25 25
20. Pisang Jari Buaya 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
21. Pisang Mas 20 15 15 15 25 25 25 30 30 35 55
22. Pisang Tanduk 20 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 10 25 30
23. Pisang Berangan Intan 20 15 25 30 30 30 30 40 50 50 70
12
Cavendish cv william
cv Rose
P. Jari Buaya
FHIA-25
13
  • Selection of improved P. Raja
  • 144 accessions were collected
  • 15 accessions were short listed and evaluated for
    agronomic performances, reaction to FOC
  • 51B showed tolerant to FOC , early fruiting (235
    days) with high bunch weight (23.4 kg)

14
Agronomic characters of 15 selected Pisang Raja
accessions
Accession No. Days to shooting Plant height (cm) Bunch wt. (kg) Reaction to Fusarium wilt
51A 301 303 16.2 Good
51B 235 280 23.4 Good
54B 324 300 16.2 Moderate
55A 327 329 16.8 Good
55B 270 282 15.5 Good
66A 323 302 14.0 Poor
66B 308 300 15.2 Poor
70B 298 333 15.6 Moderate
70C 284 300 15.5 Moderate
71A 285 324 14.8 Moderate
72B 308 340 14.0 Moderate
72C 298 333 18.0 Moderate
78C 296 292 14.8 Moderate
91C 270 326 14.2 Moderate
106B 452 322 14.0 Moderate
  • Reaction to Fusarium wilt
  • Good Survive for 3 harvests
  • Moderate Survive for 2 harvests
  • Poor Survive for 1 harvest

15
  • Development of micosatellite marker for resistant
    to FOCTR4
  • Polymorphic microsatellite marker has been
    developed to determine resistance and susceptible
    individual
  • This marker will facilitate fast and early
    screening of FOCTR4 compared to conventional
    technique

16
Microsatellite polymorphism in commercial banana
cultivars, amplified by the primer set MYS 14.
Lane 13 refer to 100bp marker . Lane 1-12 refer
to the commercial cultivars. Band only showed on
susceptible individual which have been tested
earlier using double tray system at nursery stage.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13
17
STATUS OF MOKO DISEASE RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA
  • The disease was first detected in Malaysia in
    2007
  • Not much research has been carried out to address
    the problem due to low crop priority in 9th
    Malaysian Plan
  • Moko is another serious disease of banana in the
    world which can contribute to yield loss

18
  • Yield loss can be up to 100
  • This bacterial wilt is caused by Ralstonia
    solanacearum race 2
  • The symptom of Moko is easily distinguished from
    FOC
  • In Moko disease fruits were infected causing
    brown discoloration which does not appear in FOC

19
  • Transmitted by insect thus enable the disease to
    spread rapidly
  • P. Nipah known to be tolerant to FOCTR4 is
    observed to be susceptible to Moko
  • Currently, screening on the existing banana
    cultivars to Moko disease is not yet carried out

20
  • The disease is slowly spreading from Southern to
    Northern states of Peninsular thus warranting RD
    on the disease
  • MARDI has initiated RD on epidemiology and
    biological control agents to control the disease

21
  • FUTURE RD
  • Develop resistant varieties to FOCTR4 through in
    vitro mutagenesis and somaclonal variation,
    utilisation of microsatellite marker for rapid
    screening
  • Epidemiological study on Moko disease
  • Screen available banana varieties to Moko disease
    and develop molecular marker for resistance
  • Isolation of biological control agents from
    banana crop growing environment to control FOCTR4
    and Moko disease
  • Organic cultivation and crop rotation to prevent
    incident of the diseases

22
  • CONCLUSION
  • Based on varietal screening, the sources of
    resistance to FOCTR4 have been identified
  • These sources of resistance can be exploited by
    breeders to develop resistant variety
  • The molecular marker developed will facilitate
    fast and early screening compared to conventional
    technique

23
  • CONCLUSION (Cont..)
  • RD on Moko disease need to be intensified. This
    will include epidemiological study, source of
    resistance, marker development, biological
    control and cultural management
  • Sharing information and experiences on related
    issues and problems from local and foreign
    experts will expedite solution for disease
    control which can save the banana industry

24
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