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Total Physical Response

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Title: Total Physical Response


1
Total Physical Response
  • Dr. Chen Chin-fen

2
Introduction
  • TPR, Total Physical Response approach, founded by
    Dr. James J. Asher in 1970s is based on the
    premise that the human brains have a biological
    program for acquiring any natural language on
    earth.
  • The learning process is visible as infants
    internalize their first language through body
    conversation.

3
Process of NL Acquisition
  • At the beginning, Infants imprint the patterns
    and sounds of the target language in their
    minds. After the child decoded enough of the
    target language, speaking appears spontaneously.
  • At first, the infants speech might not be
    perfect, but gradually the childs utterance will
    approximate more and more that of a native
    language.

4
Four Basic Theories
  • Trace theory The oral repeat, gesture or body
    action can help the recall or association of
    memory.
  • Imperatives The language that kids contact most
    before they speak is the imperative that parents
    said. Thus Asher asserted that the adult should
    learn imperatives first.

5
Four Basic Theories
  • Emotion Asher thought emotion affected the
    result of learning, and in the process of
    learning, the tension should be lowered to
    promote learning effects.

6
Four Basic Theories
  • Comprehension Approach Comprehension should be
    formed before production. So, listening ability
    should be trained first in language teaching.
    Only after the students have developed cognitive
    listening ability can teachers start to train
    their oral expression ability.

7
Characteristics
  • Using comprehension as a means to speaking.
  • 1. To clarify meaning, the teacher issues
    commands then performs the actions alone.
    Learners just listen and do nothing
  • 2. Teachers issues the commands and learners
    demonstrate that they can understand the command
    by performing the actions.
  • 3. Switch roles and students give the commands.

8
Characteristics
  • Using imperatives to direct behavior The main
    technique to teach TPR
  • 1. Imperatives is a powerful tool that can be
    used to guide students to understand as it
    manipulates their behavior. The actions will make
    the meaning of the imperatives clear.
  • 2. Imperatives is an easy way to promote students
    to move about and to loosen up.

9
Characteristics
  • Movement and action sequences
  • Skills in SLA can be more rapidly assimilated if
    the teacher appeals to learners
    kinesthetic-sensory system. So understanding and
    retention is best achieved through total movement
    of the learners bodies in response to command
    sequences. For example Take out a pen-Take out
    a piece of paper Write a letter Fold the
    letter Put in the envelop Seal it Write the
    address.

10
Characteristics
  • Role Reversal The teacher interacts with the
    entire class through oral commands, to which they
    provide physical responses. After 10 to 20 hours
    of instruction, students begin to speak and they
    can also command their teacher and classmates to
    perform some actions. But students should not be
    encouraged to speak until they are ready.

11
TPR MI
Linguistic-verbal (listen speak)

  • TPR

Bodily-kinesthetic (perform actions)
Logical-mathematical (link up sequence)
Visual spatial (charts, samples, pictures)
Interpersonal /social (Role reversal)
12
Advantages
  • Long-term memory intensive listening, physical
    actions and response make learning more
    impressive.
  • Stress free- like playing a game, interesting
    comprehensible input
  • High speed instant understanding
  • Suitable for all levels
  • Useful for newly arrived ESL students direct
    and visual instruction

13
Disadvantages
  • TPR is magical to jump start people of all ages
    into the target language but repetitive practice
    will tire the learners.
  • It can not do entire job of language and need to
    cooperate with such other methods The use of
    language background and pictures, telling
    stories, extensive reading and sheltered subject
    matter teaching (content-based)

14
Is it hard? Of course not!
  • ????????!
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