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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II

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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II Section 1: Early Difficulties Section 2: The Home Front Section 3: Victory in Europe Section 4: Victory in Asia – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II


1
Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II
  • Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • Section 2 The Home Front
  • Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • Section 4 Victory in Asia

2
Objectives
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the
    Allied Powers and Axis Powers in 1941?
  • What steps did the United States take to prepare
    for war?
  • Where did the Japanese military attack after
    Pearl Harbor?
  • What were the early turning points of the war in
    the Pacific?
  • What were the major battles in Europe and North
    Africa in 1942?

3
Allied Powers
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • Production capacity of U.S. and manpower of
    Soviet Union were advantages.
  • Disadvantages included the enormous amount of
    land in enemy hands, the multi-front aspect of
    the war, and the long fight that had to be faced.

4
Axis Powers
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • Axis was better prepared economically and had
    been rearmed since the 1930s.
  • Axis had firm control over invaded areas and
    already had airfields, barracks, and military
    training centers.
  • Axis powers main difficulty was defending
    multiple fronts.

5
U.S. preparations for war
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • increased production
  • expanded the government
  • began to direct the economy
  • began to raise the army

6
Japanese attacks after Pearl Harbor
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • Clark Airforce Base in the Philippines
  • Burma
  • Borneo
  • the Netherlands East Indies
  • Wake Island
  • Hong Kong

7
Early turning points of war in Pacific
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • Battle of the Coral Sea
  • Battle of Midway
  • Guadalcanal

8
Major battles of 1942 in Europe and North Africa
Section 1 Early Difficulties
  • Battle of El Alamein
  • Battle of Stalingrad

9
Objectives
Section 2 The Home Front
  • How did the U.S. government try to keep wartime
    morale high?
  • What was life like in the United States during
    World War II?
  • How did women contribute to the war effort?
  • What actions did the government take to protect
    the rights of minority groups?
  • How were Japanese Americans affected by the war?

10
Keeping wartime morale high
Section 2 The Home Front
  • Office of War Information
  • radio programs
  • movies

11
Life in the U.S. during WWII
Section 2 The Home Front
  • long work hours and many sacrifices
  • restrictions
  • blackouts
  • air-raid drills
  • victory gardens

12
Contributions of women
Section 2 The Home Front
  • entered job market to replace soldiers
  • worked in plants
  • produced war products

13
Government actions to protect minority rights
Section 2 The Home Front
  • Fair Employment Practices Committee
  • attempts to end discrimination in businesses with
    federal contracts

14
Effects on Japanese Americans
Section 2 The Home Front
  • Many were relocated and interned.
  • Interned people lost their property.
  • Hawaiian islands put under martial law because
    Japanese population was too large to relocate.
  • Some Japanese received limited military service
    opportunities.

15
Objectives
Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • Where did the Allied offensive in Europe begin?
  • How did fighting in the Atlantic and in the air
    influence the land war in Europe?
  • How did the Allies successfully carry out the
    Normandy invasion?
  • What was the Holocaust?
  • How did the Allies finally defeat Germany?

16
Allied offensive in Europe
Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • The Allied offensive in Europe began in Sicily
    and Italy.

17
Effects of fighting in the Atlantic and in the
air on the land war
Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • Sea dominance allowed the Allies to protect cargo
    ships and bomb Axis vessels.
  • Strategic bombing from the air helped destroy
    German military factories and centers.

18
The Normandy Invasion
Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • invasion of German-occupied France
  • disinformation campaign to distract Germans
  • dummy invasion used as a decoy
  • initial storming of beach caused high casualties
  • ultimately successful

19
The Holocaust
Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys slaughter of
    European Jews. The Germans took advantage of
    long-standing anti-Semitism and Allied inaction
    to do it.

20
Final defeat of Germany
Section 3 Victory in Europe
  • September, 1944 Battle of the Bulge
  • February, 1945 Yalta Conference
  • early 1945 Allies bomb Germany
  • March, 1945 Allies invade Germany
  • April, 1945 Hitler commits suicide
  • May, 1945 Germany surrenders

21
Objectives
Section 4 Victory in Asia
  • How did the United States carry out its
    island-hopping plan?
  • How did the battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa
    affect the war?
  • What led the United States to use atomic weapons
    against Japan?
  • What were the human and economic costs of World
    War II?

22
Island-hopping
Section 4 Victory in Asia
  • conquered strategically important islands
  • cut off other islands
  • some islands chosen as launching pads for
    invasion of Japan

23
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Section 4 Victory in Asia
  • These two battles were incredibly difficult and
    bloody, and though the U.S. won, the fighting
    demonstrated that the Japanese would not
    surrender.

24
Reasons for use of the atomic bomb
Section 4 Victory in Asia
  • enormous cost of an invasion
  • continued Japanese resistance
  • desire to demonstrate U.S. power to the Soviet
    Union

25
Costs of World War II
Section 4 Victory in Asia
  • killed millions of people and wounded many more
  • resulted in the Holocaust
  • destroyed economies of many nations
  • ruined countless cities
  • destroyed national infrastructures
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