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Unit 3: Sub-Saharan Africa

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Title: Chapter 5 West Africa Author: Administrator Last modified by: gurbani Created Date: 10/19/2007 1:03:34 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 3: Sub-Saharan Africa


1
Unit 3 Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Traders from faraway Europe, Asia, and the Middle
    East journeyed to the ancient trading empires of
    Africa seeking gold, ivory, and other exotic
    goods. (you already know this.)

2
Chapter 5 West Africa
3
Chapter 5, Lesson 1 The Roots of Mighty Empires
(pp. 108-111)
  • THINKING FOCUS
  • What are some of the ways the early West Africans
    developed prosperous cities in landscape with
    such varying climate?
  • KEY TERMS
  • savanna
  • Sahel
  • Delta
  • SALT (really important)

4
Chapter 5 The Roots of Mighty Empires
  • A Land of Many Climates
  • Dried-up riverbeds as well as cave paintings
    indicate that in 5000 B.C., the Sahara was indeed
    a land of flowing rivers, lush green pastures,
    and forests.
  • As the Sahara's climate changed, people who lived
    there migrated south to settle in more fertile
    areas -- the savannas and rain forests.

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Grass is gone
  • Some of those who migrated to West Africa settled
    on oases located along a strip of grasslands, or
    savanna, on the Sahara's southern border.
  • This region is known as the sahel, or "shore of
    the desert."

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8
A New Technology
  • In West Africa, the Nok people were the first to
    begin working iron, around 450 B.C., and were
    also skilled potters.
  • Archaeologists have found iron tools near the
    city of Nok in present-day Nigeria.
  • The Nok people shared their knowledge of iron
    making and pottery with the people they met.

9
Cooking Rocks
  • To make iron, the Nok placed rocks rich in iron
    ore in a clay furnace with charcoal.
  • They then heated the mixture to a high enough
    temperature to liquefy it.
  • After the wastes were poured off, a chunk of
    molten iron remained. A Nok iron maker would then
    shape that soft, red-hot iron into a tool or
    weapon.
  • This iron-making process is still used today in
    some parts of West Africa.

10
Nok sculpture terracotta circa 500 BC
11
Seated Dignitary, c. 250 B.C. Nok People, Africa,
Eastern Nigeria, Nok Plateau Fired Clay H. 36
1/4 x W. 10 7/8 x D.14 in.
12
Area of Nigeria where terracotta heads were first
discovered
13
An Ancient Trade Center
  • In 1977, the remains of an ancient city were
    discovered on the inland delta of the Niger
    River. A delta is a triangular-shaped landform
    made by mud and silt deposited at a river's
    mouth.
  • The iron and clay artifacts found among the
    remains of the city closely resembled the
    articles made by Nok
  • The ancient trading city, Jenne-jeno, on the
    Niger River, was inhabited from 250 B.C. to A.D.
    1400.
  • Think about the timelines that we have been
    doing, this lasted longer than any of the empires
    that we have studied so far.

14
Jenne- jeno
15
Jenne today
16
Jenne- jeno
  • The Inland Niger Delta is located between the
    Bani and Niger rivers in present-day southwestern
    Mali.
  • These waterways have provided the region with a
    fertile floodplain and a natural thoroughfare for
    trade, both of which helped secure the area's
    central position in the economic, social, and
    urban histories of the western Sudan.

17
Female Statue 48 cm tall Age 900 to 1,500 years
18
http//www.artofancientafrica.com/page4.html
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20
more
  • Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne" Djenne-jeno), site of
    the oldest known city of sub-Saharan Africa, was
    populated as early as 250 B.C. and expanded to
    become a major urban center by 850 A.D.
  • Archaeologists have determined from slag deposits
    that the original inhabitants of Jenne-jeno
    worked iron from the earliest days of the site's
    occupation.
  • This iron industry is among the earliest known in
    sub-Saharan Africa, antedated only by that of the
    Nok culture.

21
Nok rider and horse 53 cm tall Age 1,400 to
2,000 years
22
Trade always important
  • Traveling by river or by camel caravan, people
    brought food, metal, minerals, and a variety of
    wares to trade in the city.
  • People carried rice, fish, baskets, and pottery
    to river cities in the north and brought back
    salt, copper, and stone. Traders went south on
    the river to bring back gold.
  • Jenne - jeno was completely abandoned by 1400.
    (WHY?)

23
Well
  • Archaeologists do not know why this happened.
    However, at about this time, the nearby city of
    Jenne was founded.
  • I am guessing this is what happened.

24
Lesson 2 The Empire of Ghana (pp. 112-117)
  • THINKING FOCUS
  • What effect did trade have on the people of
    Ghana?
  • KEY TERMS
  • Matrilineal
  • Patrilineal
  • (Mom Pop)

25
A New Trade Center
  • Between the 700s and 1500s, large trading empires
    flourished in West Africa.
  • Ghana was an ancient agricultural kingdom of the
    Soninke people.
  • Berber tribes from North Africa raised horses and
    camels.

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27
More trade
  • Rich in gold and centrally-located, Ghana became
    the first of the African trading empires, lasting
    from around A.D. 300 to 1235.
  • From the south came kola nuts, palm oil, copper,
    and gold. From the north, came imported items
    like ceramics, glass and oil lamps--and, of
    course, salt.
  • Taxes collected on goods passing through Ghana
    allowed the empire to grow wealthy.

28
Iron helps
  • Under the Soninke kings, Ghana became a wealthy
    trading empire. The Soninke easily conquered
    neighboring peoples because their iron weapons
    were far superior to the stone ones of their
    opponents.
  • (How will they stand up against guns!)

29
A Divided Capital
  • In Koumbi, Ghana's capital, the gold and salt
    trade created the wealthiest marketplace in West
    Africa.
  • Koumbi's market people also bought and sold
    cattle, honey, dates, cloth, ivory, and ebony.
  • In other shops at the market, local farmers sold
    their produce and craftspeople sold their wares.

30
More
  • The city of Koumbi, like many Ghana trading
    cities, was divided into two sections -- one to
    house the Muslim traders, the other to house
    local people.
  • A six-mile-long boulevard linked the two sections
    of Koumbi.

31
A Tale of Two Cities
  • The Muslim side had 12 mosques and the homes of
    Muslim traders.
  • Many of the buildings there were constructed of
    stone, and some had two stories.
  • This section was also home to the huge Koumbi
    market.
  • The Soninke section of the capital looked very
    different. It was a walled city, and most of its
    one-story houses were made of wood or clay, with
    straw roofs.
  • The king lived in this section in a large wood
    and stone palace.

32
The former capital of the Ghana Empire. It lies
in what is now south east Mauritania.
33
New Religion
  • Arab merchants trading in West Africa brought not
    only valuable goods, but also new ideas about
    writing, numbers, and religion.
  • Arab traders brought the first system of writing
    and numbers to West Africa.
  • Many West Africans converted to Islam, and some
    who did still did not give up all of their
    traditional beliefs and practices.

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35
Conversion to Islam
  • Among the first of the converts to Islam were the
    Mandinke people from the southern Sahara, who
    served as middlemen in trade between Arab
    caravans and Wangara gold miners.
  • The Mandinke formed small trade companies that
    made contact with many different people.
  • They spread Islamic ideas throughout West Africa.

36
Mosque in Timbuktu
37
Traditions
  • Other Islamic practices were harder for the
    Ghanaians to accept. Muslims, for example, had
    their own idea about the succession of kings. In
    Ghana when a king died, he was not succeeded by
    his own son but by the son of his sister. This
    system of tracing succession through the females
    of the family is known as matrilineal succession.
    Muslims, on the other hand, practiced patrilineal
    succession, in which the throne passes from
    father to son.

38
Grand Mosque in Mali
39
A Fallen Empire
  • Along the northernmost coast of Africa, Berber
    peoples ruled the region called the Maghreb.
  • In the mid-1000s, invaders made war for control
    of Ghana.
  • Eventually, the neighboring kingdom of Mali
    overthrew the Soninke king and became the major
    power in West Africa.

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42
More
  • King Sumanguru, who wanted to rebuild Ghana's
    empire, ruled one of these kingdoms.
  • In 1203, he overthrew the Soninke king and took
    over Koumbi. Meanwhile, a new kingdom to the east
    called Mali, ruled by the Mandinke, was steadily
    gaining power.
  • In 1235, the king of Mali defeated Sumanguru and
    Mali replaced Ghana as the major power in West
    Africa.

43
Lesson 3 The Empires of Mali and Songhai (pp.
118-122)
  • THINKING FOCUS
  • What events led to the great trade empires of
    Mali and Songhai?
  • KEY TERM
  • griot

44
Mali Develops a Prosperous Trade
  • In 1235, King Sundiata of Mali defeated King
    Sumanguru of Ghana and established his capital at
    Niani, on the Niger River.

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46
GOLD SALT
  • Sundiata improved agriculture and restored the
    region's gold and salt trade, making Mali the
    most powerful kingdom in Africa.

47
The Book Map
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49
Mandinke griot, or storyteller.
  • Example
  • The vanquished Sumanguru looked up towards the
    sun. A great black bird flew over above the
    fray...."The bird of Kirina," the king
    muttered. Sumanguru let out a great cry and,
    turning his horse's head, he took to flight.

50
Mali Develops a Prosperous Trade
  • Sundiata became king of the new empire of Mali,
    which had once been a part of Ghana.
  • Sundiata first concentrated on improving
    agriculture. His soldiers cleared land for
    farming, and they planted rice, yams, onions,
    beans, grains, and cotton.
  • In a few years, Mali became a productive farming
    region.

51
Camels are still important
  • Sundiata and his successors expanded Mali's trade
    routes north and east across the Sahara to Cairo,
    Egypt, and to Tunis in Tunisia.
  • Less than 100 years after the victory at Kirina,
    Mali had become the most powerful kingdom in
    Africa. By the late 1300s, Mali was three times
    as large as Ghana had ever been.

52
The Desert of Mali today
53
Mansa Musa Enriches the Empire
  • Mali's greatest ruler, Mansa Musa, expanded
    trade, encouraged Islam, and enlarged the empire.
  • Under Mansa Musa, rich trading cities such as
    Timbuktu and Niani became centers of culture and
    learning.

54
Mansa Musa(1312-1337)
55
Mansu Musa was a Muslim
  • in accordance with Islamic teachings, some of
    Mali's rulers made pilgrimages to the holy city
    of Mecca in the Middle East. Mansa Musa made the
    3,500-mile journey in 1324.
  • According to some accounts, which may have become
    exaggerated over time, Mansa Musa was accompanied
    on this journey by as many as 50,000
    people--friends, family members, doctors,
    advisers, and 500 slaves carrying golden staffs.
    In addition, 80 to 100 camels, each loaded with
    100 pounds of gold dust, are said to have
    traveled with him to Mecca. Hundreds of other
    camels carried the other supplies.

56
  • Even Mali's borders expanded under Mansa Musa's
    rule. New land was acquired both peacefully and
    as the result of war. Most of Mali was divided
    into states, which were under Musa's control.
  • Other religions had to pay taxes (not religious
    freedom)

57
Power Shifts to Songhai
  • After Mansa Musa died in 1332, Mali was ruled by
    a series of kings who were unable to protect its
    vast territory.
  • Mali gradually weakened and eventually was taken
    over by neighboring Songhai, a former province of
    Mali.
  • The Songhai were a mixture of farmers, traders,
    fishermen, and warriors who lived along the Niger
    near the city of Gao.

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59
Daily Life Here in Songhai
60
Songhai grows
  • Under Muslim kings, Songhai became the greatest
    trade empire of West Africa by the late 1500s.
  • A new Songhai empire thus grew out of a region
    that had once been part of Mali, just as Mali had
    grown out of a state in the empire of Ghana.

61
But then Songhai Collapses
  • Eventually, Songhai was weakened Songhai by the
    local people's resentment of the Muslim ruling
    class.
  • Morocco's military campaign to capture Songhai's
    salt and gold mines also contributed to Songhai's
    collapse.
  • Pasha (Moroccan) arrived in Songhai with only
    1,000 men. But his soldiers carried something new
    to the region, something they had acquired in the
    Middle East--guns.
  • Songhai's soldiers outnumbered Pasha's by at
    least 25,000 men.

62
End of the Empire
  • But swords and arrows were no match for guns.
  • Pasha destroyed the Gold producing system.
  • What had once been a peaceful, well-organized
    empire became a series of military camps.
  • Songhai was the last great trading empire of West
    Africa.

63
Ewe Proverbs, Ghana
The blacksmith in one village becomes a
blacksmith's apprentice in another. If a Whiteman
wants to give you a hat, look at the one he is
wearing before you accept it. You do not become a
chief simply by sitting on a big stool. A stump
that stays in a river for a hundred years does
not become a crocodile.
64
Lesson 4 Village Society in West Africa (pp.
124-127)
  • THINKING FOCUS
  • How did the people in the rural villages of West
    Africa survive in their often unpredictable
    environment?
  • KEY TERMS
  • diviner
  • ancestor worship
  • kinship

65
Farming A Way of Life
  • The most important activity in every village was
    raising food.
  • People who fished the Niger River also cultivated
    gardens.
  • Skilled iron makers and blacksmiths also raised
    crops, chickens, and goats.
  • Even cattle-raising nomads grew a wheat-like
    grain called millet.
  • In the dry regions of the Sahel, farmers grew
    millet and sorghum. Rice in the river delta.

66
MILLET
67
Farming Trade
  • Most farmers grew a small surplus of crops to
    trade for food they could not produce in their
    region.
  • Surplus is what they had left over This has a
    different meaning in Economics.

68
Religion, Dance, and Music
  • African villagers believed in pleasing their gods
    with ritual, music, and dance.
  • African villagers believed in worshipping their
    ancestors. They believed that the spirit of their
    ancestors would influence the gods.
  • Priests and diviners, they believed, helped
    people interact with the gods. Diviners
    communicated with the spirit world and had
    healing powers. Diviners also knew how to please
    the gods through rituals and dancing.

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71
Keeping in touch with the past
  • The people of the villages also believed in
    honoring their relatives through ancestor
    worship.
  • ancestors lived on after death and could
    influence the gods in their favor--or punish the
    living with bad luck, sickness, or even death.

72
Village Life
  • Kinship, or family relationship, was the basis of
    village government.
  • Kinship, or family relationship, was the basis of
    government. The male head of each clan became one
    of the village chiefs and often one of the
    religious leaders.

73
Slavery
  • Under extreme hardship, if a clan was in debt or
    had promised to provide workers, members could be
    loaned out to fulfill the family's obligations.
  • When the debt was paid, the worker was returned.
  • If the debt was not paid off, however, the status
    of temporary "slave" became permanent. Even then,
    individuals were still people, never property.

74
Slavery in West Africa
75
Not Property
  • Slavery was a way of paying off debts between
    clans. Captives of war also became slaves.
  • While today we find slavery unthinkable,
    historians remind us that for ancient peoples
    around the world, slavery was an improvement over
    death after capture.

76
Europeans come in
77
Until
  • Some African states exported slaves.
  • Between 1200 and 1500, about 2.5 million Africans
    were taken across the Sahara or the Red Sea bound
    for slavery.
  • It was not just the labor of the slaves that made
    them valuable but their skills and talents.

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79
Chapter Review
  • REVIEWING KEY TERMS
  • For each key term, turn to the indicated page in
    Across the Centuries.
  • ancestor worship (p. 126)
  • delta (p. 110)
  • diviner (p. 126)
  • griot (p. 118)
  • kinship (p. 127)
  • matrilineal (p. 117)
  • patrilineal (p. 117)
  • sahel (p. 109)
  • savanna (p. 109)

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