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THE ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH Baptism Lord s Supper On the Lord s Supper: Laying on of Hands The Confession of the Philadelphia Association 1742 The laying on of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Lords Supper
  • I. An Overview of the Ordinances
  • A. No One Baptist Theology
  • 1. Anthony Cross
  • 2. R. Wayne Stacey
  • B. The Two Ordinances of the Church
  • C. Definition of Ordinance
  • 1. Henry Cook
  • 2. A.S. Langley
  • 3. Sacrament
  • D. Not Salvific
  • 1. Difference from a sacramental view
  • 2. A.T. Robertson
  • 3. R. Wayne Stacey
  • 4. G. Thomas Halbrooks

Anthony Cross
  • The present study has shown conclusively that
    there is no single Baptist theology or practice
    of baptism, only theologies and practices, and
    this diversity accords with Baptist ecclesiology
    which continues to tend towards independency . .
    . .

R. Wayne StaceyA Baptists Theology(NOTE the
emphasis in the title.)
  • There is something uniquely Baptist about a
    theology in which individual Baptists, rather
    than just one Baptist, express their own diverse
    views, not attempting to speak for all Baptists
    in these matterswhich no Baptist can (vii).

Bill J. Leonard
  • Baptists in general affirm Two
    sacraments/ordinances of baptism and the Lords
    Supper (some later include the washing of feet as
    a biblical mandate).

The nine Christian rites observed by Sandy Creek
Baptist Christ
  • Baptism
  • Feet washing
  • Lords Supper
  • Laying on of hands
  • Anointing the sick
  • Love feasts (or communal meals)
  • Right hand of fellowship
  • Kiss of charity
  • Devotion to children

Anthony CrossDefinitions of Ordinances
  • 1. something commanded, something that has
    authority behind it, and Baptism and the Lords
    Supper, we believe, have come down to us from the
    Christ Himself. (from Henry Cook)
  • 2. A.S. Langley, however, defined ordinance
    by what it was not. They were not sacraments
    because they did not convey saving grace,
    rather they were symbols observed and preserved
    by the churches and of value to those who
    observe them only as their meaning is discerned

Anthony Cross on Sacrament
  • Cross appears to conclude that usually it is
    used in the sense of being an outward and
    visible sign of an inward, spiritual grace.
  • More often than not Baptist authors meant the
    same thing by either word sacrament and

Ion Bria
  • Baptism with water, or the sacrament of
    initiation or birth in Christ through immersion
    in water and the invocation of the Holy Trinity.
  • . . . It is the beginning of new life in
    Christ. Baptism is not given merely for
    justification or only for the forgiveness of
    hereditary sin but especially as regeneration, as
    the restoration of fallen humanity, as the
    recuperation of positive identity. . . . Through
    triple immersion negative humanity is destroyed

Ludwig Ott
  • Baptism is that Sacrament in which man being
    washed with water in the name of the Three Divine
    Persons is spiritually reborn. . . . Baptism,
    provided that the proper dispositions (Faith and
    sorrow for sin) are present, effects a)
    eradication of sins, both original sin and, in
    the case of adults, also personal, mortal or
    venial sins b) inner sanctification by the
    infusion of sanctifying grace

A.T. Robertson
  • This is the one thing that Baptists stand for
    against the great mass of modern Christians. The
    Greek Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the
    Lutheran Church, the High Church Episcopalians,
    and the Sacramental wing of the Disciples attach
    a redemptive value to one or both of the
    ordinances. It is just here that the term
    Evangelical Christianity comes in to emphasize
    the spiritual side of religion independent of
    rite and ceremony.

R. Wayne Stacey
  • We must understand that a symbol without
    significance is meaningless at best, magic at
    worst . . . .
  • He (and I) prefers the use of sign rather
    than symbol because whereas a symbol can be
    arbitrary, a sign participates in the reality of
    that which it signifies.
  • Further, speaking specifically of baptism, he
    says, The act of being buried beneath the water
    and being raised from underneath the water is a
    sign of the very kind of death and life that
    conversion demands.

G. Thomas Halbrooks
  • Communion is more than a bare memorial that
    calls to remembrance something which happened
    long ago. It is a remembrance that draws the
    fullness of Gods past action in Christ into the
    present moment with power, so that believers
    experience anew Gods reconciling love.
  • Further, The bread and wine are far more than
    mere symbols. They are signs that point to
    Christs presence.

  • II. Historical View and Theology
  • A. The Emphasis on Believers Baptism
  • B. The General Baptists
  • 1. Smyth in 1609
  • 2. Helwys in 1611
  • C. The Particular Baptists
  • 1. A note on baptizo
  • 2. The turn to immersion
  • D. Later Sources
  • 1. Baptist Distinctives and
    Diversities and Differences of Emphasis Among
    Baptists 1964
  • 2. ABGTS Theological Principles

Affussion or Pouring
R. Wayne Stacey
  • The importance of baptism in Baptist life is
    addressed by Dr. Stacey . . . as such,
    baptisms centrality in Baptist life is indicated
    by the fact that the immersion pool (baptistery)
    typically occupies the highest, central, most
    visible place in a Baptist church.

John Smyth, 1609The Short Confession of Faith
in XX Articles
  • a. Article 12 affirms believers baptism That
    the church of Christ is a company of the
    faithful baptized after confession of sin and of
    faith, endowed with the power of Christ. The
    emphasis here is on defining the church.
  • b. Article 14 defines baptism and further
    affirms believers baptism That baptism is the
    external sign of the remission of sins, of dying
    and of being made alive, and therefore does not
    belong to infants.
  • c. Article 15 explains the Supper That the
    Lord's Supper is the external sign of the
    communion of Christ, and of the faithful amongst
    themselves by faith and love.

Thomas Helwys, 1611 A Declaration of Faith of
English Remaining at Amsterdam in Holland
  • a. Article 10 addresses believers baptism
    and the church That the church of CHRIST is a
    company of faithful people (1 Corinthians 12.
    Ephesians 11) separated from the world by the
    word Spirit of GOD (2 Corinthians 617) being
    knit unto the LORD, one unto another, by
    Baptism. (1 Corinthians 1213). Upon their own
    confession of the faith (Acts 837) and sins.
    (Matthew 36). Note again that the emphasis
    here is on defining the church.
  • Article 13 has the same subject That every
    Church is to receive in all their members by
    Baptism upon the Confession of their faith and
    sins wrought by the preaching of the Gospel,
    according to the primitive Institution, (Matthew
    2819) and practice, (Acts 241). And therefore
    Churches constituted after any other manner, or
    of any other persons are not according to CHRISTS
  • c. Article 15 is on the Supper That the
    LORDS Supper is the outward manifestation of the
    Spiritual communion between CHRIST and the
    faithful mutually (I Corinthians 1016, 17) to
    declare his death until he come. (I Corinthians

Baptizo means to dip, or to immerse
The 1644 London Confession of the Particular
  • Article 33 speaks on baptism JESUS Christ
    hath here on earth a spiritual kingdom, which is
    His Church, whom He hath purchased and redeemed
    to Himself as a peculiar inheritance which
    Church is a company of visible saints, called and
    separated from the world by the word and Spirit
    of God, to the visible profession of faith of
    the gospel, being baptized into that faith, and
    joined to the Lord, and each other, by mutual
    agreement in the practical enjoyment of the
    ordinances commanded by Christ their head and
    king.Matt.1111 2 Thess.11 1 Cor.12
    Eph.11 Rom.17 Acts 198,9,2618 2 Cor.617
    Rev.184 Acts 237,1037 Rom.1010
    Matt.1819.20 Acts 242, 9261 Pet.25.
  • Article 39 is also on baptism BAPTlSM is an
    ordinance of the New Testament, given by Christ,
    to be dispensed upon persons professing faith, or
    that are made disciples who upon profession of
    faith, ought to be baptized, and after to partake
    of the Lord's Supper.Matt.2818,19 John 41
    Mark 1615,16 Acts 237.38, 836,37,etc.
  • Article 40 marks the shift to believers baptism
    by immersion THAT the way and manner of
    dispensing this ordinance, is dipping or plunging
    the body under water it being a sign, must
    answer the things signified, which is, that
    interest the saints have in the death, burial,
    and resurrection of Christ And that as certainly
    as the body is buried under water, and risen
    again, so certainly shall the bodies of the
    saints be raised by the power of Christ, in the
    day of the resurrection, to reign with
    Christ.Matt.316 Mark 159 reads (into Jordan)
    in Greek John 323 Acts 838 Rev.15, 714
    Heb.1022 Rom.63,4,5.6 1 Cor.1528.29. The
    word baptizo signifies to dip or plunge (yet so
    as convenient garments be both upon the
    administrator and subject with all modesty).

Baptist Distinctives and Diversities and
Differences of Emphasis Among Baptists, 1964 On
  • Baptism by Immersion The ordinance of baptism
    is the act of entry into fellowship of the local
    church. Their study of the New Testament led
    Baptists to conclude that only immersion has
    Scriptural authority as a mode of baptism. The
    meaning of the originally-used Greek words, the
    contexts of Scriptural descriptions of the act,
    and the historic evidence of early church
    practice support this contention. The symbolism
    of baptism revealed in Scripture, which portrays
    death, burial and resurrection, has confirmed
    Baptists in their conviction that only
    immersion speaks clearly of the meaning of the
  • Baptists also baptize none but believers. Since
    baptism is an outward expression of an inward
    experience, the former has no meaning apart from
    the latter. Thus, baptism of infants who are
    incapable of personal faith, mass baptism of
    peoples without due regard for their personal
    relationship to God, and baptism of the
    unconscious or dead have not been practiced.
  • Baptism is not viewed by Baptists as mediating
    in any way the saving grace of God to the
    individual. It is seen rather as one of the
    significant first acts of obedience to be
    performed by the individual who has experienced
    spiritual rebirth. In the waters of baptism, one
    thus reveals symbolically death to an old life
    and resurrection by Gods Spirit to a new life in
    Christ. This act is attended by Gods blessing
    upon the one who so confesses faith and also upon
    the community of believers who witness this

Baptist Distinctives and Diversities and
Differences of Emphasis Among Baptists, 1964 On
the Lords Supper
  • The Lords Supper The second ordinance
    administered by the church is that of the Lords
    Supper. While Baptists reject doctrines of
    transubstantiation and consubstantiation, they,
    nevertheless, find genuine spiritual renewal
    through the observance of this memorial feast.
    The memory of Christs sufferings and death
    brings to the believer the wholesome experience
    of self examination, repentance, a new-found
    sense of communion with God, a purposeful
    dedication to the divine will, and a new loyalty
    to the body of Christ.

ABGTSTheological Principles
  • The churchs two ordinances are the baptism of
    believers by immersion and the Lords Supper. 
    They are symbolic expressions of the message of

  • III. Administration of the Ordinances
  • A. The Congregation
  • B. Church Officers
  • C. A Note on Congregational Autonomy and

Thomas Helwys 1611 Declaration of Faith,
Article 11
  • The congregation may, and ought, when they are
    come together, to Pray, Prophecy, break bread,
    and administer in all the holy ordinances,
    although as yet they have no Officers, or that
    their Officers should be in Prison, sick, or by
    any other means hindered from the Church

G. Thomas Halbrooks
  • Anyone who is designated by a body of believers
    can celebrate Communion. It is the prerogative
    of a body of believers to call forth one whom
    they believe to be appropriate to lead them in
    the celebration. . . . the congregation can
    celebrate it in any way they choose.
  • We are free to develop our own theological
    understanding in dialogue with other Baptists.

  • IV. Concluding Thoughts
  • A. On Baptism
  • 1. Bill J. Leonard
  • 2. R. Wayne Stacey
  • 3. Walter B. Shurden
  • 4. Rebaptism
  • 5. Open or closed membership
  • B. On the Lords Supper
  • 1. Laying on of hands
  • 2. Open or closed communion
  • 3. The presence of Christ in the

On BaptismBill J. Leonard
  • In the 20th century baptism is
  • a. a biblical act identifying believers with
    Jesus and the Kingdom of God
  • b. a conversion act demonstrating the new birth
    and incorporation into the Body of Christ, the
  • c. a churchly act marking the entry into the
    covenant community of a specific community, a
    sign of the covenant of grace in the life of the
    believer and the believing community
  • d. a dangerous and dissenting act that frees
    believers to challenge the power and
    principalities of church and culture
  • e. essential to Baptist identity so we should
    regularly examine our baptismal theology and

On BaptismR. Wayne Stacey
  • It is, by its very nature, an act of
  • Further The act of being buried beneath the
    water and being raised from underneath the water
    is a sign of the very kind of death and life
    that conversion demands.
  • Also, Its a powerful rite in which life and
    death, God and humanity, sin and grace meet in a
    cold, wet, cleansing bath.
  • In the act of baptizing we should, says
    Stacey, realize that in Christ we die daily and
    are raised again. Thus baptism is to be seen as
    the commencement into a life of faith.

On BaptismWalter B. Shurden
  • Early Baptists found in Acts 817 and Hebrews
    61-1, among other scriptures, biblical
    justification for laying on of hands on baptized
    believers. In his 1827 History of the General or
    Six Principle Baptists, Richard Knight held that
    this rite was of equal authority with
    baptism. Whether all Baptists considered it of
    equal authority with baptism is highly debatable,
    but it is not debatable that General
    Baptists, Calvinistic Baptists, and Separate
    Baptists at various time practiced this rite,

The Second London Confession1689
  • We believe that laying on of hands, with
    prayer, upon baptised believers, as such, is an
    ordinance of Christ, and ought to be submitted
    unto by all such persons that are admitted to
    partake of the Lord's Supper, and that the end of
    this ordinance is not for the extraordinary gifts
    of the Spirit, but for a farther reception of the
    Holy Spirit of promise, or for the addition of
    the graces of the Spirit, and the influences
    thereof to confirm, strengthen, and comfort them
    in Christ Jesus, it being ratified and
    established by the extraordinary gifts of the
    Spirit in the primitive times, to abide in the
    church as meeting together on the first day of
    the week was, that being the day of worship, or
    Christian sabbath, under the Gospel, and as
    preaching the word was, and as baptism was, and
    prayer was, and singing psalms, etc. was, so this
    laying on of hands was, for as the whole Gospel
    was confirmed by signs and wonders, and divers
    miracles and gifts of the Holy Ghost in general,
    so was every ordinance in like manner confirmed
    in particular.

On BaptismBill Leonard on Rebaptism
  • Theologically multiple immersions are highly
    problematic. Baptism is a sacred event, made
    especially holy because it is administered in the
    name of GodFather, Son, and Holy Spirit. Like
    a good Baptist, he leaves this up to the
    individual congregation, but stresses the
    necessity of serious theological reflection
    before proceeding.

On BaptismOpen or Closed Membership
On the Lords SupperLaying on of Hands
  • The Confession of the Philadelphia Association
  • 1742

The laying on of hands ought to be submitted
unto by all such persons that are admitted to
partake of the Lords Supper . . . .
On the Lords SupperOpen or Closed Communion
On the Lords SupperThe Presence of Christ in
the Elements
  • From the Second London Confession
  • Worthy receiver, outwardly partaking of the
    visible Elements of this Ordinance, do then also
    inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not
    carnally, and corporally, but spiritually receive
    and feed upon Christ crucified all the benefits
    of his death the Body and Blood of Christ,
    being then not corporally or carnally, but
    spiritually present to the faith of Believers, in
    that Ordinance, as the Elements themselves are to
    their outward senses.

On the Lords SupperThe Presence of Christ in
the Elements
  • From the Orthodox Creed
  • The supper of the Lord Jesus, was instituted by
    him . . . for the perpetual remembrance, and
    showing forth the sacrifice of himself in his
    death and for the confirmation of the faithful
    believers in all benefits of his death and
    resurrection, and spiritual nourishment and
    growth in him . . . The outward elements of bread
    and wine, after they are set apart by the hand of
    the minister, from common use, and blessed or
    consecrated by the word of God and prayer, the
    bread being broken, and wine poured forth,
    signify to the faithful, the body and blood of
    Christ, or holdeth fourth Christ, and him