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IMPERIALISM

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IMPERIALISM What is Imperialism? Imperialism the domination of one country s political, economic, or cultural way of life by another country or region. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IMPERIALISM


1
IMPERIALISM
2
What is Imperialism?
  • Imperialism the domination of one
  • countrys political, economic, or cultural
  • way of life by another country or region.

3
Timeline of Events
  • 1400 s 1700s European countries
  • sent explorers, missionaries, and
  • traders to places they had never been
  • before Africa, India, Asia

4
Timeline of Events
  • 1870s 1914 As a direct result of the
  • Industrial Revolution European nations
  • became involved in a new kind of empire
  • building to expand their spheres of influence.
  • Known as New Imperialism

5
New Imperialism
  • The period of New Imperialism took place during
    the 18th and 19th centuries, but the period of
    modern imperialism peaked between 1870-1930.

6
  • Causes of New Imperialism

7
Economic Causes
  1. Need for Natural Resources
  2. Desire to expand markets
  3. Desire to invest profits
  4. Outlet needed for growing population
  5. Economies strengthened by the Industrial
    Revolution

8
Political and Military Causes
  1. Bases needed for merchant and naval vessels
  2. National security
  3. Nationalism
  4. Prestige and global empire
  5. Strong centrally-governed nation-states

9
Social Causes
  • Desire to spread Christianity
  • Desire to share Western civilization
  • Belief in Social Darwinism
  • Increased European self-confidence

10
Technological Causes
  1. Medical knowledge
  2. Advances in weaponry
  3. Advances in overseas travel

11
Reasons for Imperialism
  • Desire for Self-Sufficiency
  • A. After 1850 Industrial Revolution created
    new sources of power, machinery, new industries,
    led to more goods produced.
  • Result Need for more raw materials iron,
    coal,
  • copper, etc.
  • Increase in demand for products in Europe that
  • were not readily available Coffee, Tea, Spices.
  • No one country had all of these things

12
Need for New Markets
  • After 1870s mass production, assembly lines,
  • interchangeable parts, increased speed.
  • Goods in large quantities are produced in Europe
    and
  • the U.S. cannot buy all of the goods that are
    produced
  • New machinery must be used to full capacity in
    order to
  • pay for itself.
  • Go to under developed regions find new
    outlets/markets

13
Investing Surplus Capital
  • Industry Owners Great Wealth
  • Need to Invest
  • In order to make more money -
  • they invest surplus capital
  • Underdeveloped regions a
  • great place to do this.

14
Outlets for Population
  • Industry causes people to move to cities,
  • this leads to overcrowding of cities.
  • Greater amount of space and opportunities
  • U.S., Africa

15
Nationalism
  • A strong feeling for ones country, particularly
    strong 1870 1914
  • Having colonies meant power and prestige
  • Colonies are a source of manpower Army i.e.
    Senegalese West Africa fought loyally for the
    French
  • To protect colonies naval stations, coaling
    stations, refueling of warships, merchant ships,
    make repairs

16
Major Imperial Players
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • Netherlands

17
  • Imperialism began when these countries began
    sending people to other parts of the world to
    find valuables such as gold and the hope of
    profiting from trade.

18
Types of European Ambassadors
  1. Missionaries
  2. Explorers
  3. Traders

19
Missionaries
  • Religious authorities and the church had their
    own sense of Imperialism.
  • They sent out their own representatives known as
    missionaries.
  • Missionaries were responsible for bringing
    Christianity to the godless people outside of
    Europe.

20
Missionaries
  • Spread the Christian Religion
  • Educated Natives
  • Built Churches and Schools
  • Taught medicine, hygiene, sanitation

21
Explorers
  1. Hired by European Powers, to find things of
    value.
  2. Made maps, made allies out of African Tribes
  3. Explored African Interior, river systems

22
Notable Explorers
  • David Livingstone
  • Henry Stanley

23
Traders
  • Trailblazers who established contact with natives
  • Established ports
  • Acted as middlemen between Europeans and Africans
  • Trying to get rich

24
White Mans Burden
  • European attitude that people of advanced
  • nations should help the less fortunate in the
  • world. It was their responsibility to educate
  • natives or savages. Bring religion,
  • medicine and technology to various regions.

25
Rudyard Kipling
  • Wrote a poem entitled White Mans Burden.

26
Division of the World
  • During the period of Imperialism, European
    countries divided up the globe.
  • Japan was the only non-European power that began
    building an empire.

27
Berlin Conference
  • Otto Von Bismarck Ruler of Germany calls the
    meeting.
  • All European Powers send representatives,
    including the United States, to the conference in
    Berlin.

28
Reason to Meet
  • The reason given for the conference is to discuss
    the navigation and exploration of the Niger and
    Congo rivers.

29
Real Reason
  • Real reason for the conference is to divide
    Africa among the powers.

30
A Gift for a King
  • King Leopold is officially
  • given the Congo basin.
  • One stipulation was that
  • he must let in missionaries
  • and traders.

31
Reason for Colonization
  • Adding territories or colonies to its
    possession made European countries feel superior
    to their neighbors and gave them a sense of
    national pride.

32
Reason for Colonization
  • The Industrial Revolution in Europe increased
    economic competition between nations.

33
Reason for Colonization
  • Imperialism allowed European countries to expand
    their colonial armies, develop new trade
    partners, capitalize on cheap resources,
    consolidate state power and insure national
    prosperity.

34
Reason for Colonization
  • European countries began to believe that having
    large empires would secure their status for the
    future.

35
The Rules of Colonization
  • Claims on African territories will not be
    recognized unless inhabited by Europeans,
    eliminates spheres of influence.

36
Positive Effects of Colonialism
  • Introduced modern forms of transportation.
  • Christian Missionaries built schools and churches
  • Many African leaders attended mission schools

37
Positive Effects of Colonialism
  • Thousands of Africans converted to Christianity
  • Helped fight illiteracy
  • Built cities, bridges, roads, industries

38
Positive Effects of Colonialism
  • Introduced commercial agriculture not just grow
    food to live on, but grow food to make money.
  • Coffee-rice-sugar-palm oil-rubber
  • Before, profits went to the ruling government
  • Stopped tribal/ethnic warfare
  • Helped fight diseases

39
Negative Effects of Colonialism
  • Exploited African labor
  • Uprooted villages
  • Forced labor
  • Heavy taxes
  • Took lands away
  • Brutal punishments to increase production
    (whipping, torture, execution)

40
Advantages Europeans had over Africans
  • Strong home economies
  • Well organized governments
  • Powerful armies and navies
  • Superior technology
  • Improved medical technology

41
  • Forms of Imperialism

42
Leasehold
  • Leasehold- Property acquired under a lease
    agreement. (like renting)

43
Protectorate
  • Protectorate- country whose national policy is
    controlled by a foreign government (local rulers
    left in place).

44
Sphere of Influence
  • Sphere of Influence- Regions dominated but not
    directly ruled by foreign nations. (exploitation)

45
Annexation
  • Annexation- Acquisition of another state or
    territory by a larger country.

46
Concession
  • Concession- Right granted to engage in activity
    for profit on grantors premises (helped avoid
    conflicts among European nations, like a traders
    license).

47
Colonies
  • Colonies- A territory settled and ruled by people
    from another land.

48
Direct vs. Indirect
  • Direct Rule (French)
  • Officials administer their rule.
  • Imposed their culture on locals.
  • Indirect Rule (British)
  • Used local rulers as agents to govern for
    Britain.
  • Encouraged British education.

49
  • Imperialism
  • in North Africa

50
North Africa
  • North Africa Coast is made up of 4 Muslim States
    Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Libya and Egypt.

51
Algeria
  • Home of
  • the Barbary
  • Pirates
  • French complain about the Barbary Pirates.

52
Algeria
  • The Algerian Ruler hits the French Consul with a
    fly swatter.
  • Becomes a national insult to the French and they
    use it as an excuse to move troops into Algeria.

53
Algeria
  • Pirates raid and sink merchant ships and give
    France an excuse to intervene.

54
Algeria
  • France invades Algeria to stop pirates and finds
    rich land export farm products, wine and meat.

55
Algeria
  • French take over the best land and develop
    businesses on the Mediterranean.

56
Morocco
  • Very strategic location
  • Control the Straits of Gibraltar
  • Open to the Mediterranean

57
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58
Morocco
  • Good for Trade
  • Re-supply Ships
  • Time of War
  • Western border to
  • Algeria
  • France also takes
  • control of Morocco

59
Competition
  • European rivalries flared in North Africa because
    of the strategic importance of the countries on
    the Mediterranean and proximity to Europe.
  • France calls a conference in Algiers with other
    powers to determine protectorates.

60
Algiers Conference
  • Spain ----- Spanish Morocco
  • France ------ Algeria, Tunisia
  • Italy -------- Libya
  • Britain -------- Egypt, Cyprus, Sudan
  • Germany ------- Gets Nothing, gets really upset
    until France gives them Southwest Africa

61
Tunisia
  • Poor backward nation
  • The leader constantly borrows money and is always
    in debt.
  • Britain and France both interested in Tunisia
  • They strike a deal and France gets Tunisia,
    Britain gets island of Cyprus

62
Tunisia
  • Tunisia situation brings out 2 characteristics of
    Imperialism
  • 1. Dangerous rivalry among European
  • Powers
  • 2. Using loans and incidents to justify
  • adding territories

63
Tunisia
  • The Suez Canal is sold by Egypt to the British
    because the Egyptians needed money.
  • The Suez Canal gave the British a short cut for
    trade from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea in
    order to reach India faster.

64
Suez Canal
  • This short cut gives the British a huge advantage
    over other European powers.

65
  • Sub-Sahara Africa

66
Belgian Congo
  • Explored by Henry Stanley
  • (British Reporter/Explorer)
  • Discovers Dr. David Livingstone
  • in the jungle

67
Belgian Congo
  • King Leopold II of Belgium annexed this territory
    as his personal property because he dreamed of
    controlling a vast African Empire

68
Belgian Congo
  • Stanley signed treaties with the natives for
    small gifts, tricking them into giving up their
    territories to Belgium. When they refused he
    imposed brutal force to get his way.

69
Belgian Congo
  • The most valuable resource in the Congo was
    rubber plants.
  • These plants were harvested on large plantations
    and sent back to Europe to be used in factories.

70
Belgian Congo
  • The Belgians set unrealistic quotas for rubber in
    the Congo.
  • If the Africans were caught stealing, trying to
    escape or missed their quotas they would have
    their hands chopped off.

71
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72
Belgian Congo
  • Belgian Government took control in 1908 because
    of Leopolds cruel treatment of the natives

73
Union of South Africa
74
Union of South Africa
  • First settled by the
  • Dutch called
  • Boers
  • in 1632

75
Boers
  • Similar to American pioneers ? moved inland in
    covered wagons
  • Known as the Great Trek

76
Boers
  • Fought against the Zulu tribesmen instead of
    Indians

77
Boers
  • After gold and diamonds were discovered the
    British wanted the territory

78
Boer War
  • The Boer War was significant because it was one
    of the first European wars fought in separate
    country and with modern weapons.

79
Boer War
  • The British prevailed in the Boer War and took
    control of South Africa.

80
Cecil Rhodes
  • British Imperialist who became the Prime Minister
    of the Colony of South Africa.
  • He had a grand plan for British empire throughout
    the world.

81
Cecil Rhodes
  • Cecil Rhodes British Imperialist believed that
    Britain should control all of Africa From Cairo
    to Capetown
  • He planned to build a railroad across the
    continent.
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