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The Cold War

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Title: 1950 s Author: CCSD Last modified by: localuser Created Date: 5/6/2005 8:26:02 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: CCSD – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The Cold War
  • 9.1-9.5
  • USHC-9The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the social, economic, and
    political events that impacted the United States
    during the Cold War era.

2
The Atomic Bomb-a Cold War weapon
Reason FOR DROPPING the bomb
Reason AGAINST DROPPING the bomb
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3.
Critical ramifications for the US and the world
1. 2. 3.
3
Post WII Cold War 1945-53
4
9.2 Post WWII 1945-1950 Origins of the Cold War
USSR v. US
  • 1. communism v. capitalism
  • Why?
  • 2. no help in Pacific during WWII v. Delay in
    2nd front
  • Why?
  • 3. Berlin Blockade v. Airlift, 1949
  • Why/How?
  • 4. Buffer Zone or Iron Curtain?
  • Why?
  • 5. No free elections in Eastern Europe v.
    Marshall Plan-aid to
  • Western Europe to rebuild, no aid to USSR
  • Why?
  • 6. Truman Doctrine (containment) established
  • Why?
  • 7. US used a threat of A-Bomb during talks, USSR
    built one
  • Why?
  • 8. Eisenhower Doctrine-no USSR intervention in
    the Middle East
  • Why?
  • 9. US formed NATO military alliance v. USSR
    formed Warsaw Pact
  • Why?

5
1950s video
  • 1. Korean War 1950-53 (3)
  • 2. 1950s consumer culture (3)
  • 3. suburbia/baby boom (5)
  • 4. Music/teen culture (5)
  • 5. Civil Rights movement (5)
  • 6. Cold War (3)

6
9.2 1950s Fear and Conformity
  • Fear-the Red Scare
  • 1. Joseph McCarthy, HUAC led the anti-communist
  • crusade.
  • How?
  • 2. Americans soft on communism were victims of
  • witch hunts.
  • How?
  • 3. The Space Race/Nuclear Arms Race became a
  • competition between the US and USSR.
  • How?
  • 4. Mao Zedong completes his communist takeover
    in
  • China. Chiang Kai-shek flees to Taiwan.
  • How?

7
1950s-1960s
  • 9.2-9.5
  • Civil Rights Movement

8
9.5 failed promises turn into hope
  • 1. 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments were not fully
    enforced
  • How?
  • Many Southern people accepted pre-Civil War ways
    without regard
  • 2. Jim Crow/lynching was in place in the 1960s
  • Why?
  • They were local laws enforced by racists
  • 3. Brown v. Board of Ed desegregated schools
  • How?
  • 4. Desegregation of the military/Civil Rights
    Commission
  • appointed by Truman led to the Dixiecrats
    (segregationists)
  • were formed to resist him.
  • How?
  • Truman appealed to Blacks, alienating the
    traditional segregationist
  • whites in the Democratic Party.
  • 5. Nixon turned a Democratic South to
    Republican.
  • How?
  • By being conservative, not totally against
    integration and an alternative
  • to Democratic Party filling up with Southern
    Whites.

9
Civil Rights Events
  • Desegregation
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott used peaceful, mass
    boycott
  • Why?
  • Sit-ins forced the face of racism
  • Why?
  • Freedom Riders tested Supreme Court Decision
  • Why?
  • Voter registration
  • Birmingham Campaign used direct action
  • How and Why?
  • Marches -Selma, AL exposed the violence and
    discord in the South
  • Why?
  • Freedom Summer designed to draw attention to the
    extreme racism
  • Why?
  • Civil Rights Bill
  • March on Washington was successful in getting
    presidential and the
  • majority support of the voting public.
  • How?

10
Malcolm X
  • Impatient about Kings nonviolent approach,
  • Malcolm X stated
  • The day of nonviolent resistance is over, If
    they have the KKK nonviolent, Ill be nonviolent
    But as long as youve got somebody else not being
    nonviolent, I dont want anybody coming to me
    talking any nonviolent talk.

11
by any means necessary
  • "When a person places the proper value on
    freedom, there is nothing under the sun that he
    will not do to acquire that freedom. Whenever you
    hear a man saying he wants freedom, but in the
    next breath he is going to tell you what he won't
    do to get it, or what he doesn't believe in doing
    in order to get it, he doesn't believe in
    freedom. A man who believes in freedom will do
    anything under the sun to acquire . . . or
    preserve his freedom." Malcolm X

12
  • "I believe in the brotherhood of man, all men,
    but I dont believe in brotherhood with anybody
    who doesnt want brotherhood with me. I believe
    in treating people right, but Im not going to
    waste my time trying to treat somebody right who
    doesnt know how to return the treatment."
    Speech, Dec. 12 1964, New York City

13
from nonviolence to empowerment
  • MLK
  • Malcolm X
  • Black Panthers
  • De jure-Jim Crow
  • De facto-by default

14
Black Panther Partyfor Self-Defense, 1966
  • Oakland, CA
  • 5,000 members/chapters in half of US
  • Decline in 1970s
  • Violent statements, militant behavior, socialism,
  • mass organization, political office
  • Ex-SNCC members and founders
  • Bobby Seale
  • H. Rap Brown
  • Huey Newton
  • Stokely Carmichael led SNCC away from non-violent
    approach

15
Black Power
  • Black Power
  • The development of Black businesses in black
    communities.
  • Local control of schools in Black communities
  • The use of black police force in black
    communities.
  • Bloc voting to elect black representatives who
    would give priority to the needs of the black
    community.
  • Development of black pride.

16
John F. Kennedy 1960-1963The New Frontier
  • Supported civil rights through proposing a Civil
    Rights Bill
  • Raised the minimum wage, funding for unemployment
    and inner-cities
  • Space Race
  • Peace Corps
  • Alliance for Progress
  • Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
  • Assassinated, November 22, 1963 Lee Harvey
    Oswald, Jack Ruby

17
9.2 The USSR and Cuba 1961-63
  • 1. Bay of Pigs, 1961 was hoped to initiate a
  • popular uprising.
  • How?
  • 2. USSR ordered the building of the Berlin Wall,
    1961-1989
  • Why?
  • 3. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1963 averted nuclear
  • Confrontation.
  • How?

18
9.4 Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969The Great
SocietyThe War on Poverty
  • Passed the Civil Rights Bill, 1964
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Fair Housing Act 1968
  • Miranda v. AZ, 1966
  • Head Start, domestic Peace Corps,
  • supported desegregation, and Medicare, Medicaid
  • Great Society and War on Poverty never happened
  • Did not seek second term

19
Vietnam War-an instrument of the Cold War 9.3
  • 1954-1975

20
Support and Opposition
  • Hawks
  • Containing communism, security
  • Mostly middle aged to older
  • Doves
  • Picketed, burned draft cards, strikes, sit-ins
  • By 1968 10,000 emigrated to Canada
  • Argued-civil war, not the police of the war,
    taking strength from other important areas in the
    world, deaths and dollars
  • Mostly young, college students

21
American Response Truman-Kennedy
  • 1. 1954 French lost colonization, signed a treaty
    dividing NS, Truman supports South Vietnam
  • Why?
  • 2. Eisenhower warns against the Domino Theory,
    aids S. Vietnam after the split
  • Why?
  • 3. Kennedy sends 16,000 military advisors to
    support
  • South Vietnam, supports assassination of corrupt
    S.V.
  • pres, began Strategic Hamlet Program
  • Why?

22
American Response Johnson
  • 1. Johnson-escalates to full scale engagement by
    bombing N. Vietnam.
  • How?
  • 2. Operation Rolling Thunder
  • How?
  • 3. Tet Offensive, 1968 hundreds of towns and 12
    US airbases attacked by N.V. and Vietcong decline
    in public support.
  • Why?
  • 4. Defoliants used to clear jungle-agent orange
    and napalm ruined environment, Vietnamese,
    soldiers.
  • Why? How?

23
  • Nixon
  • 1. 1969 begins Vietnamization- Peace with honor
  • How?
  • 2. 1970, after secret bombing of Cambodia/Ho Chi
    Minh Trail led to massive protests on college
    campuses
  • Why?
  • 3. Ended draft, calmed protest
  • Why?
  • 4. Opened talks with China (rapprochement)
  • Why?
  • 5. 1973 cease-fire, POWs released
  • How?
  • 6. 1975 Saigon falls to N. Vietnam-victory and
    reunification declared
  • How?

24
Results of Vietnam 9.3
  • Vietnam led to a cultural shift People
    questioned American values for the 1st time in
    the US.
  • Why?
  • 1. use of the toxic Agent Orange/ Napalm
  • 2. fragging
  • 3. heavy drug use among soldiers in Vietnam
  • 4. mistreatment of returning Vets
  • 5. My Lai Massacre
  • All led to distrust, between generations, people
  • and government.

25
Consequences
  • -3,330,000 Americans served, 58,000
  • soldiers dead, 303,713 Americans wounded
  • 839 Americans taken as prisoner
  • 24 billion in aid (food, supplies, structures)
  • 165 billion in direct aid (military, weapons)
  • -The Vietnam Syndrome
  • -War Powers Act
  • -South Vietnamese imprisoned, re-educated,
    refugees
  • -boat people exodus to US (Vietnamese)
  • -Cambodia civil war/massacres

26
1970sChaos and Crisis
  • 9.2, 9. 3, 9.4, 10.1

27
Nixon 1969-74 9.3
  • Nixon 1968, Promised Law and Order
  • Passed Clean Air and Clean Water Act, Endangered
    Species Act,
  • Environmental Protection Agency, Earth Day
  • Why?
  • Pursued Détente with USSR
  • Why?
  • Angola, 1970 was protected by CIA from USSR/Cuba
    backed takeover.
  • Why?
  • 1960s-70s Secularization of society-outlawing
    prayer in public school (Engel v. Vital)
  • Why?
  • Watergate, resignation
  • Why?

28
Ford 1974-77, Carter 1977-81
  • Civil Rights Movement leads to minority equality
  • Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique
  • Row v. Wade - abortion legalized under right to
    privacy and due process according to the 14th
    amendment.
  • ERA (Equal Right Amendment) based on
  • gender, did not pass
  • Latinos
  • Native Americans

29
9.2 and 9.4 Middle East in the Cold War
  • 1. USSR and US compete for ME allies. 1950s
  • Why?
  • 2. Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, Eisenhower
    (1950s)
  • ended crisis by telling France, GB and Israel to
    exit
  • Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Why?
  • 3. 6 Day War, 1967 Israel defended against
    Egypt, Syria.
  • Why?
  • 4. Arab nationalists (i.e. Palestine)
    challenged American
  • interests in the Middle East. PLO Formed 1960s
  • Why?
  • 5. US often supports undemocratic governments in
  • South Africa, Angola, Iran. 1970s
  • Why?

30
9.2 Middle East in the Cold War-1970s
  • 1. OPEC issued an Oil Embargo causing an
  • energy crisis, recession in the1970s.
  • Why?
  • 2. President Carter Camp David Accords
  • made temporary peace between Israel and
  • Egypt.
  • How?
  • 3. The Iran Hostage (179) crisis ruined
  • US/Iran relations and led to Carters defeat in
  • 1980.
  • How?

31
Reagan 1981-89 10.2
  • 1. Budget deficits, national debt led to
    recession
  • How?
  • 2. Moral Majority, Christian Coalition backs
    Reagan
  • Why?
  • 3. Ended the Cold War leaving the US as the
  • worlds only Super Power.
  • How?

32
The US The Middle Man of the 1990s
  • 1. Persian Gulf War, the rescue of Kuwait
  • 2. US bases in Saudi Arabia
  • 3. Taliban/Al Qaeda
  • 4. Somalia, Black Hawk Down
  • 5. Northern Ireland
  • 6. Haiti
  • 7. ethnic cleansing in the Balkans

33
10.2 Clinton and GW Bush
Clinton 1. tax increases, spending cuts, earned
income credit Why? 2. EEU, NAFTA, GATT,
outsourcing, mechanization, globalization,
immigration, unionization, gentrification,
revitalization GW Bush 3. 9/11/2001, War on
Terror begins (Bush Doctrine)-should have begun
in 1970s Why? 4. tax cuts, wars in Afghanistan
and Iraq leads to debt and deficit How?
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