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AUTISM: Methodologies and Recent research

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AUTISM: Methodologies and Recent research Ilene S. Schwartz University of Washington ilene_at_u.washington.edu Autism is a collection of overlapping groups of symptoms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AUTISM: Methodologies and Recent research


1
AUTISM Methodologies and Recent research
  • Ilene S. Schwartz
  • University of Washington
  • ilene_at_u.washington.edu

2
Autism is a collection of overlapping groups of
symptoms that vary from child to childSiegel,
1996, p.301
3
There is no one right way to educate children
with autism
4
Three important questions
  • What are you going to teach?
  • How are you going to teach those skills and
    behaviors?
  • How will you know that your teaching has been
    effective?

5
Structural Base to Effective Programs
  • Functional objectives and meaningful activities
  • Frequent reinforcement and effective motivational
    systems
  • Functional communication systems
  • Behavior intervention system

6
Programs should include
  • Curriculum content in
  • attending
  • imitation
  • communication
  • play
  • social interaction
  • Supportive teaching and generalization
    environments
  • Predictability and routine
  • Functional approach to problem behaviors
  • Transition support
  • Family involvement

7
Critical Features, NRC 2001
  • Entry to program asap
  • Program 5 days a week, 25 hours a week, full year
  • 11 and small group
  • Family involvement
  • Low student-teacher ratio
  • On-going evaluation and assessment

8
6 types of intervention should have priority
  • Functional, spontaneous communication
  • Embedded social instruction
  • Play skills with peers
  • Embedded cognitive instruction
  • Positive behavior support
  • Functional academics

9
Appropriate Curriculum Content
  • Age appropriate and developmentally appropriate
  • Important to family
  • Addresses strengths and weaknesses
  • Considers general education curriculum
  • Scope and sequence across domains

10
Supportive teaching environments
  • Uses evidence-based instructional practices
  • Uses data-based decision making
  • Staff have appropriate training
  • Staff had adequate support and consultation
  • Instruction is explicit
  • Generalization is planned for facilitated

11
Predictability and Routine
  • Uses schedules to help students be more
    independent
  • Teach students how to deal with changes to
    schedules and routine
  • Be careful not to make students more rigid
  • Use visual supports to teach and facilitate
    independence
  • Use technology as appropriate

12
Functional Approach to Behavior Problems
  • PBS
  • FBA
  • Teach alternatives
  • Prevention is the best solution
  • Need to understand what is motivating and
    maintaining the inappropriate behavior
  • Remember to consider context

13
Transition Support
  • Sending programs
  • Receiving programs
  • Family
  • Student

14
Family Involvement
  • Information
  • Communication
  • Support
  • Share the data

15
How do we know if programs work?
  • Are goals and objectives clearly stated?
  • Are they important to you?
  • Are the procedures clearly stated?
  • Are they acceptable to you?
  • What data are collected about this procedure in
    general? What data are collected in your
    classroom or on your child?
  • Are they convincing to you?
  • How does this procedure affect your family?
  • Is this acceptable to you?

16
What common elements exist?
  • Individualization
  • Sufficient intensity to result in meaningful
    outcomes toward important outcomes.
  • Data-based decision making
  • Emphasis on functional skills (including social
    skills, leisure, independence, and academics).
  • Family involvement.

17
Project DATA
18
What does this look like in preschool?
  • Begin intervention as early as possible
  • 20-25 hours a week
  • Most children are best served with blended
    approaches by multi-disciplinary teams
  • Opportunities to interact successfully with
    typically developing children.

19
What does this look like for older children?
  • High quality models are not as well developed.
  • Need to be embedded in a high quality general
    education program.
  • Strengths, as well as deficits, must be
    addressed.
  • Social skills must be taught systematically and
    intensively.

20
Preventing Violent and Destructive Behavior in
SchoolsPrimary, Secondary and Tertiary Systems
of Intervention
Intervention Types
  • Target Interventions
  • Individual Student Services
  • Wraparound Services
  • (Family/Community)

Tertiary Prevention
  • Selected Interventions
  • Adult Mentors (frequent monitoring)
  • Self-Management Support
  • Scheduling Changes
  • Additional Support

Secondary Prevention
  • Universal Interventions
  • Violence Prevention Skills Training
  • Effective Academic Instructions
  • Schoolwide Behavior Expectations

Primary Prevention
Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis,
M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., Kaufman, M.J.
(1996). Integrated approaches to preventing
antisocial behavior patterns among school-age
children and youth. Journal of Emotional and
Behavioral Disorders, 4, 194-209.
21
How can we help?
  • Professional Development in Autism (PDA) Center
  • Funded by OSEP
  • Training, consultation, and follow-up for school
    districts
  • Contact us at www.pdacenter.org

22
Start up Menu
  • Identify team members
  • Establish priorities
  • Identify needs and supports
  • Develop measurable goals for every member of the
    team
  • Evaluate progress
  • Have fun
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