WELCOME TO THE COURSE WORK STUDY (IE 341) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: WELCOME TO THE COURSE WORK STUDY (IE 341)


1
WELCOME TO THE COURSEWORK STUDY(IE 341)
  • OFFERED BY
  • SAYED ALIUL HASAN RIZVI, PhD PROFESSOR
  • DEPT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
  • KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY, JEDDAH

2
INTRODUCTION
  • With increasing complexities of the technological
    world,need to simplify the work system has been
    increasing day by day.
  • Work study is an area of knowledge that addresses
    the problem of work simplification with the basic
    objectives of
  • PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT, and
  • HUMAN COMFORT SAFETY

3
WORK STYDY HAS MANY OTHER NAMES FOR EXAMPLE
  • METHODS ENGINEERING,
  • WORK SCIENCE,
  • WORK DESIGN,
  • JOB ESIGN
  • WORK METHODS DESIGN WORK MEASUREMENT
  • MOTION TIME STUDY
  • Original names were
  • Motion study,Time Study
  • then, Motion Time Study


4
DEFINITION
  • It is the systematic study of work systems with
    the purposes of
  • Developing the preferred system and Method

  • ( with lowest cost)
  • 2. Standardizing this system and method
  • 3. Determining standard time for the task
  • 4. Assisting in training the worker in the
    preferred Method

5
EXPLANATION
  • Above stated definition has FOUR parts. However,
    the TWO most important for WORK STUDY are
  • 1.MOTION STUDY
  • (or Work Methods Design)
  • 2. TIME STUDY
  • (or Work Measurement)

6
ILO DEFINITION
  • It is the systematic examination of carrying on
    activities so as to improve the effective use of
    resources and to set standards of performance for
    the activities being carried out.

7
LECTURE 3-4CHAPTER 2WORK STUDY
PRODUCTIVITY
8
HUMANS BASIC NEEDS PRODUCTIVITY
  • In 1950 world population was 2.5 b
  • Now it is of the order of 6.5 b
  • 90 increase has occurred in developing
    nations.

9
CONTD.
  • Out of these people, more than
  • 1 b are below poverty line, struggling for
    the
  • BASIC NEEDS which are
  • food,
  • clothing,
  • shelter,
  • security,
  • health and
  • essentials like water, sanitation etc.

10
CONTD.
  • For Improving the STANDARD OF LIVING, of its
    citizens, the concerned nation must raise its
    PRODUCTIVITY for economic growth. For any
    organization, its input-output system can be
    represented as follows
  • INPUT
    OUTPUT

PROCESS
11

CONTD.
  • INPUTS may be in the form of different Ms
  • man, material, machine,
    method, management, market, message ( i.e.
    information), moment (i.e. time )
  • OUTPUT may be a
  • product or
  • service.
  • PRODUCTIVITY may be defined as follows

12
MATHEMATICALLY PRODUCTIVITY
OUTPUT / INPUTTHUS PRODUCTIVITY measures
the extent to which a certain OUTPUT can be
extracted FROM A GIVEN INPUT.It may be noted
that PRODUCTION ( which is number of products)
is different from PRODUCTIVITY.
13

CONTD.
  • WORK STUDY IS A TOOL OF PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT.
  • It simplifies a job TO REDUCE UNNECESSARY OR
    EXCESS WORK,WASTEFUL USE OF RESOURCESand sets
    up STANDARD TIME for performing that job.

14

CONTD.
  • THIS IMPLIES THAT
  • THERE IS A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK STUDY
    AND PRODUCTIVITY.
  • THUS, BY APPLYING WS PRINCIPLES IF THE COST IS
    REDUCED BY 20, THEN, WE CAN SAY THAT
    PRODUCTIVITY HAS GONE UP BY 20.

15
WORK CONTENT OF A JOB
  • WORK CONTENT
  • It means the amount of work contained in a given
    job/work/product/process.
  • It is measured in MAN-HOURS/ WORK-HOURS (effort
    or labor of ONE person for ONE hour), or MACHINE
    HOURS (running of a machine/plant for ONE hour).

16
TOTAL TIME OF A JOB
  • TOTAL TIME OFA JOB COMPRISES OF
  • 1. BASIC WORK CONTENT
  • 2. EXCESS WORK CONTENT
  • BASIC WORK CONTENT is irreducible minimum
    time required theoretically to produce one unit
    of productIn REAL LIFE WORLD, actual operation
    times are FAR MORE IN EXCESS due to the EXCESS
    WORK CONTENT.

17

CONTD.
  • EXCESS WORK CONTENT may be due to following
  • THREE CATEGORIES of factors
  • (i) A-category
  • A1 POOR DESIGN FREQUENT
  • DESIGN CHANGESA2 WASTE OF
    MATERIALSA3 INAPPROPRIATE QUALITY
  • STANDARDS

18

CONTD.
  • (ii) B-category
  • B1 POOR LAYOUT POOR
  • UTILISATION OF SPACEB2 INADEQUATE
    MATERIAL
  • HANDLINGB3 FREQUENT STOPPAGES AS
  • PRODUCTION CHANGES FROM
  • ONE PRODUCT TO ANOTHER

19

CONTD.
  • B4 INEFFECTIVE METHOD OF WORK
    B5 POOR PLANNING OF INVENTORY
    B6 FREQUENT BREAKDOWN OF MACHINES
    AND EQUIPMENT

20
iii) C-categoryC1 ABSENTEEISM AND
LATENESSC2 POOR WORKMANSHIP, ANDC3 ACCIDENTS
AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
TOTAL TIME OF A JOB
BASIC WORK CONTENT EXCESS
WORK CONTENT ( A B C )

(OR, TOTAL INEFFECTIVE TIME)
21
LECTURE 5-8
  • CHAPTER 3
  • WORK STUDY ,THE APPROACH

22
WS IS VALUABLE because By carrying out its
systematic procedures,one can get results as good
as or even better than the less systematic genius
would have been able to achieve in the past.It
is systematic both in the investigation of the
problem and in the development of its solution.
23

CONTD.
  • It raises productivity of the plant /unit by
    simply reorganization of the work, with either a
    nominal or no extra input.It sets the
    performance standards on which the effectiveness
    of the production planning and control depends.

24

CONTD.It contributes to
human safety by providing safer methods of work,
and allows for better working conditions by
exposing the hazardous situations.Its
application starts providing savings immediately,
and continues till the operation continues.
25

CONTD.
  • It is a tool that can be used every where, be it
    industrial or non-industrial environment.
  • It is easy and relatively cheaper in its
    application.It is an excellent weapon for
    starting an attack on the inefficient system.
  • HOWEVER, WS SPECIALISTS SHOULD APPLY IT
    TACTFULLY, SO THAT WORKERS REMAIN CO-OPERATIVE
    WHILE STUDIES ARE CONDUCTED IN THE PLANT.

26
TECHNIQUES OF WORK STUDY These
are1. METHOD STUDY is the systematic recording
and critical examination of ways of doing things
in order to make improvements. THUS it
simplifies the job and develops more economical
method of doing it.2.WORK MEASUREMENT is the
application of techniques designed to establish
the time for a qualified worker to carry out a
task at a defined rate of working.THUS it
determines how long it should take to carry out
the work.
27
BASIC PROCEDURE OF WS comprise of following

STEPS1.SELECT the
job/task/process to be studied.2.RECORD all
the relevant data/facts about the
selected job.3.EXAMINE the recorded
facts critically by challenging
its purpose, place, sequence, person, and
method.4.DEVELOP new
methods,as alternative methods, of
doing the selected job. 5.EVALUATE
results of different alternative solutions.
6.DEFINE the new method and present it to
the concerned people.
7.INSTAL the new method and provide
training to the concerned
staff . 8.MAINTAIN the new standard practice
and establish control
procedures.
28
ACCORDING TO BARNES Since Methods Engineering is
a form of CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING, THE GENERAL
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESSES can be employed in WS
also. Accordingly, following FIVE STEPS can
be used 1.Problem definition Statement of
the purpose/goal 2. Analysis of the problem
Fact-recording no evaluation 3.Search for
possible solutions Finding several

alternative solutions. 4. Evaluation of
alternatives Examining which
alternative meets the goal/criteria most, in
order to evolve the preferred
solution. 5. Recommendation for action
Communicating the details ,related to the
preferred method to all concerned.
29
LECTURE 9-10
  • CHAPTER 6
  • METHOD STUDY JOB SELECTION

30
STEP I JOB/TASK/PROCESS SELECTION
  • It involves following considerations
  • 1. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • 2. TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS and
  • 3. HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS

31

Contd.
  • 1.ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • Cost effectiveness i.e. to check whether or
    not the WS application would pay. For this,
    key-profit giving/ costliest operations with
    largest waste/scrap should be attacked first.
    Next bottleneck operations, repetitive
    operations, repeated material handling operations
    should be studied. For locating most important
    operations, PARETO ANALYSIS could be used.

32
2.TECHNICAL/TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • The analysis involves application of WS for
    the selection of the operations/processes where
    new technology e.g. automation/ robotisation
    should be introduced.

33
3.HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS
  • Analysis involves location of those
    operations which present the sources of
    dissatisfaction and/or annoyance to the workers
    due to fatigue or monotony or unsafe environment
    or a work which is clumsy in nature.

34
LECTURE 11-12CHAPTER 7RECORDING THE FACTS
DIAGRAMS CHARTS
35
STEP II RECORDING THE FACTS
  • Related to the existing process/ job ALL THE
    FACTS should be recorded ACCURATELY.
  • TOOLS OF FACT-RECORDING are
  • (A) CHARTS, which may be of two types
  • (i) Based on SEQUENCE
  • (a) Outline Process Chart
  • (b) Flow Process Chart
  • (c) Two-Handed Chart ( or Operation
  • Chart / Left Hand Right
    Hand chart)

36

CONTD.
  • (ii ) Based on TIME scale
  • (a) Multiple Activity Chart
  • (b) SIMO ( SImultaneous MOtion) Chart
  • (B) DIAGRAMS which may be of the following
    types
  • Flow diagram, String Diagram, Travel Chart,
  • Cyclegraph, Chronocyclegraph,

37
PROCESS CHART SYMBOLS
  • ASME has recommended FIVE standard symbols to be
    used on

  • Process Charts, given below
  • OPERATION Main steps of the
  • task /job involving
    modification /change.
  • 2. INSPECTION Checking
    quality / quantity.
  • TRANSPORTATION For movement of

  • persons/materials.
  • DELAY (TEMPORARY) For waiting
    time of

  • operators or materials.
  • 5. STORAGE (PERMANENT DELAY) For
  • controlled storage involving
    authorized
  • issue/receipt of material etc.
  • NOTE FOR TWO PARALLEL EVENTS, BOTH ARE
  • SHOWN IN ONE JOINT OR COMBINED
    SYMBOL e. g.
  • operation inspection ,jointly are
    shown
  • by symbol, indicated in the figure.

38
THE OUTLINE FLOW PROCESS CHART
  • It uses ONLY TWO SYMBOLS

  • It provides an OVERALL PICTURE of the process /
    job / task.
  • Primarily it is used to show the sequence of
    operations inspections for a MANUFACTURING or
    an ASSEMBLY kind of jobs.

39
FLOW PROCESSCHART
  • It uses ALL THE FIVE SYMBOLS and provides the
    total sum details of the process/job under
    study.
  • A Flow Process chart may be of the following
    types
  • 1.MAN-TYPE in which every symbol is
  • related to his/her activity
    only.
  • 2.MATERIAL TYPE in which every symbol
  • is related to the material
    of the job
  • or a document (e.g. in
    offices) or a
  • machine/equipment.
  • Data / information in a flow process chart are
    recorded in specifically designed FORM, as given
    in the TEXT BOOK / CLASS ROOM.

40
LECTURE 13-14CHAPTER 7 (CONTD)
41
STEP III CRITICAL EXAMINATION
  • The facts recorded in the Flow Process Chart are
    now EXAMINED CRITICALLY
  • by applying the
  • QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE,
  • which involves the following SEQUENCE

42
CONTD.
  • PURPOSE for which the activity is done
  • PLACE at ,, ,, ,, ,,
    ,,
  • SEQUENCE in ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
  • PERSON by whom ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
  • MEANS by which ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
  • WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF ELIMINATING/
  • COMBINING/ REARRANGING/ SIMPLIFYING THE
    ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS.
  • QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE involves
  • 1. PRIMARY QUESTIONS and
  • 2. SECONDARY QUESTIONS explained
    below

43
PRIMARY QUESTIONS
  • According to the QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE the
    PRIMARY QUESTIONS are as follows
  • Purpose-based WHAT is actually done?
  • WHY is the
    activity ELIMINATE
  • necessary, at
    all?
  • Place-based WHERE is it being done?
  • WHY at this
    place?
  • Sequence-based WHEN is it done?
  • WHY at that
    time? COMBINE or
  • Person-based WHO is doing it ?
    REARRANGE
  • WHY by this
    person?
  • Means-based HOW is it being done?
    SIMPLIFY
  • WHY in that
    particular way?

44
SECONDARY QUESTIONS
  • Corresponding to each answer obtained through the
    PRIMARY QUESTIONS further questions are raised to
    explore about the
  • ALTERNATIVES
  • i. e. alternate purpose, place, sequence,
    person means.
  • This methodology makes use of the SECONDARY
    QUESTIONS given as follows

45

Contd.
  • WHAT ELSE might be done?
  • WHERE ELSE might it be done?
  • WHEN ELSE might it be done?
  • WHO ELSE might do it?
  • HOW ELSE might it be done?
  • BY ANSWERING THE PRIMARY SECONDARY QUESTIONS WE
    USE THE SYSTEMATIC CRITICAL EXAMINATION IN ORDER
    TO EVOLVE A BETTER METHOD OF DOING THE WORK.

46
Contd.
  • AS A RESULT, ONE CAN DEVELOP A BETTER METHOD IN
    LIGHT OF THE OBTAINED ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING
    QUESTIONS
  • WHAT should be done?
  • WHERE should it be done?
  • WHEN should it be done?
  • WHO should do it ?
  • HOW should it be done?

47
LECTURE 15-17CHAPTER 8RECORDING
MOVEMENT OF WORKERS/MATERIALS
48
RECORDINGMOVEMENT OF WORKERS/
MATERIALS
  • TOOLS USED FOR THIS PURPOSE ARE
  • STRING DIAGRAM
  • FLOW DIAGRAM
  • TRAVEL CHART

49
STRING DIAGRAM
  • IT IS A SCALE PLAN OR MODEL ON WHICH A THREAD OR
    STRING IS USED TO TRACE AND MEASURE THE PATH OF
    WORKERS/ MATERIALS DURING A SPECIFIED SEQUENCE OF
    EVENTS.
  • LENGTH OF THE THREAD/STRING MEASURES THE DISTANCE
    MOVED.

50
FLOW DIAGRAM
  • It is a FLOOR-PLAN showing the path of travel of
    the operator or the material, through the plant.
  • It ALSO indicates the direction of travel by
    means of arrows, drawn on the diagram.

51
TRAVEL CHART ( or, FROM-TO CHART)
  • It is a tabular record of quantitative data about
    movement of workers/materials/equipment between
    any number of places over a given period of time.
    It is always in the form of a SQUIRE, having
    within it the squires.
  • EACH SMALL SQUIRE REPRESENTS A STATION.
  • Along the TOP, squires from left to right
    represent the stations FROM where movement or
    travel occurs.
  • Along those DOWN THE LEFT HAND, the squires
    represent the stations TO which the movement is
    made.

52
MAN-MACHINE CHART (MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART)
  • This kind of process chart records the
    activities of the operator as well as the machine
    on the same chart against a common time scale.
  • Separate vertical columns ( in the form of bars)
    are used for both.
  • The chart clearly indicates the IDLENESS (or
    UTILISATION) of operator as well as the machine.
  • On the basis of the recorded events in the chart,
    one can rearrange the process so that IDLE-TIME
    is reduced, or BETTER UTILISATION of the
    operator/machine is achieved.
  • It is used for balancing the work between man and
    machine proper utilization of maintenance crew
    /team-activities in mass production.

53
LECTURE 18-24
  • CHAPTER 9
  • METHODS MOVEMENTS AT THE WORKPLACE

54
METHODS MOVEMENTS AT THE WORKPLACEPRINCIPLES
OF MOTION ECONOMY
  • These principles can be helpful in work design,
    in reducing the human fatigue and in improving
    the work efficiency. According to Barnes, these
    can be presented under following THREE
    subgroups
  • 1.Principles of motion economy as related to the
    USE OF HUMAN BODY
  • 2.Principles of motion economy as related to the
    ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORKPLACE
  • 3.Principles of motion economy as related to the
    DESIGN OF TOOLS EQUIPMENT

55
A .Principles of motion economy as related to
the USE OF HUMAN BODY
  • 1.The two hands should begin and complete their
    movements at the same time.
  • 2. The two hands should not be idle at the same
    time.
  • 3.Motions of the arms should be symmetrical and
    in opposite direction and should be made
    simultaneously.

56


Principles Contd
  • 4.Hand and body motions should be made at the
    lowest classification at which it is possible to
    do the work satisfactorily.
  • The term CLASSIFICATION OF HAND
  • MOTION is explained as follows

57
CLASSIFICATION OF HAND MOTIONS
  • CLASS PIVOT BODY MEMBERS MOVED
  • 1 Knuckle Finger (F)
  • 2 Wrist Hand (H) F
  • 3 Elbow Fore Arm (FA) H F
  • 4 Shoulder Upper Arm (UA) FAHF
  • 5 Trunk Torso UA FA H F

58
Principles
CONTD.
  • 5. Momentum should be employed to help the worker
    ,but should be reduced to a minimum whenever it
    is to overcome by muscular effort.
  • 6.Continuous curved motions are to be preferred
    to straight line motion involving sudden and
    sharp changes in direction.
  • 7. Ballistic (free-swinging) motions are faster,
    easier, and more accurate than restricted or
    controlled motions.

59
Principles
CONTD.
  • 8.Rhythm is essential to the smooth and automatic
    performance of a repetitive operation. The work
    should be arranged to permit an easy and natural
    rhythm whenever it is possible.
  • 9.Work should be arranged so that eye-movements
    are confined to a comfortable area, without the
    need for frequent changes of the focus.

60
B.Principles of motion economy as related to
the ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORKPLACE
  • 1.Definite and fixed positions/stations should be
    provided for all tools and materials to permit
    habit formation.
  • 2.Tools and materials should be pre-positioned to
    reduce searching.

61

CONTD.
  • 3.Gravity-feed, bins and containers should be
    used to deliver the materials as close to the
    point of use as possible.
  • 4.Tools, materials, and controls should be
    located within the maximum working area and as
    near to the worker as possible.
  • WORKING AREA (WA) may be divided into
  • 1.NORMAL WA
  • 2.MAXIMUM WA explained below

62
Cotd.
  • Normal Working Area (WA)
  • ( Finger wrist elbow) Movement
  • MOST
    CONVENIENT ZONE
  • Edge
  • of bench
    operator

  • operator
  • Maximum WA (Shoulder Movement)

63
DIMENSIONS FOR SEATED TASKS
  • 1.SEAT HEIGHT should be adjustable
  • (
    range36-45 )
  • 2. WORK SURFACE HEIGHT should be around
  • elbow
    level (range65-72 cm)
  • 3.LEG CLEARANCE 40 cm at knee level
  • 60
    cm for the feet
  • 4.THIGH CLEARANCE 20 cm minimum
  • 5.WORK SURFACE THICKNESS 5cm max.

64
Principles CONTD.
  • 5.Materials and tools should be arranged to
    permit the best sequence of motions.
  • 6.Drop deliveries or ejectors should be used
    wherever possible, so that operators do not have
    to use his/her hands to dispose of the finished
    work.

65

Principles
CONTD.
  • 7.Provision should be made for adequate lighting
    and, a chair of the type of height to permit good
    posture should be provided. The height of the
    workplace and seat should be arranged to allow
    alternate standing and sitting.
  • 8.The color of the workplace should contrast with
    that of the work and thus reduce the eye-fatigue.

66
C. Principles of motion economy as related to
the the DESIGN OF TOOLS EQUIPMENT
  • 1.The hands should be relieved of all work of
    holding the work-piece where this can be done
    by a jig, fixture or foot-operated device.
  • 2.Two or more tools should be combined wherever
    possible.
  • 3.Where each finger performs some specific
    movement, as in typewriting, the load should be
    distributed in accordance with the inherent
    capacities of the fingers.

67
Principles CONTD.
  • 4.Handles such as those on cranks and large screw
    divers should be so designed that as much surface
    of the hand as possible can come in contact with
    the handle. This is specially necessary when
    considerable force has to be used on the handle.
  • 5.Levers crossbars and hand-wheels should be so
    placed that the operator can use them with the
    least change in body position and the largest
    mechanical advantage.

68
TWO-HANDED PROCESS CHART (OPERATION
CHART/LEFT-HAND RIGHT-HAND CHART)
  • It shows the activities of the two hands in
    relation to one another.
  • ACCORDING TO BARNES
  • It uses ONLY TWO SYMBOLS
  • Small circle for TRANSPORTATION
  • Big circle for OPERATION.
  • ACCORDING TO ILO
  • It uses ALL process chart symbols EXCEPT
    INSPECTION
  • After studying a few cycles recording is done.
  • ONLY ONE HAND is charted AT A TIME.

69
FUNDAMENTAL HAND MOTIONS
  • Gilbreth observed that most work done by two
    hands consists of a few fundamental motions.
  • He called EACH ONE of them as THERBLIG. (name of
    GILBRETH ,read in reverse order).
  • THERBLIG G I L B R E T H
  • ( read in reverse
    order)

70

contd.
  • Today we have 17 Therbligs as follows
  • Search, select,
    grasp, transport empty,
    transport loaded, hold,
    release load position,
    preposition, inspect,
    assemble, disassemble, use,
    unavoidable delay avoidable delay,
    plan, rest for
    overcoming fatigue.
  • THESE ARE USED IN MICROMOTION STUDIES (FACTS
    RECORDED ON FILMS)

71
MICROMOTION STUDIES
  • Operations with very short cycles repetitive
    cycles need greater details to analyze it for
    saving motions and effort( i.e. planning for
    lesser fatigue). This goal can be achieved
    through Micro-motion Studies.
  • MICRO means small. Thus here we study the
    motions in terms of THERBLIGS.

72

CONTD.
  • Such a study involves the use of
  • FILM and VIDEO
    when operator performs the job.
  • Later on the film/video can be run slowly THROUGH
    A PROJECTOR and
  • Frame by frame analysis of the work can be
    carried out.
  • Film provides greater flexibility of filming and
    playback speeds WHEREAS video is easier in use.

73

Contd.
  • STEPS
  • 1. Filming the job
  • 2. Analysis of the film,
  • 3. Presenting DATA/FACTS
  • graphically through
  • SIMO chart.
  • (SImultaneous Motion Chart)

74

CONTD.
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Camera, Film,
    Micro-chronometer,
  • Exposure meter, Flood lights,
  • Reflectors, Tripod,,
    Projector etc.
  • OR,
  • VIDEOCAMERA plus its
  • accessories for filming
  • operation.

75
CONTD.
  • ADVANTAGES OF MICROMOTION STUDIES OVER DIRECT
    OBSERVATION.
  • Greater details are made availalble
  • More accurate
  • Easier in data collection
  • Better for record keeping
  • Help in work study personnel's development

76
FILM ANALYSIS
  • Film is run on projector,
  • Details of the work-cycle are identified in terms
    of THERBLIGS, first for
  • Left hand
  • and then for
  • Right hand,
  • TIME ( in WINK) is noted from the
  • Chronometer readings of the film for each
  • therblig.
  • 1 WINK (1/2000) OF A MINUTE

77

CONTD.
  • With these data SIMO (Simultaneous Motion) chart
    is made as shown below
  • LH Activities Therblig Time
    Therblig RH Activity

78
MEMOMOTION ANALYSIS
  • It was introduced by MUNDEL.
  • It is a special type of micro-motion study in
    which activities are FILMED AT MUCH SLOWER SPEED
    (60 to 100 frames per minute) i.e. at longer
    intervals than normal (intervals being between
    0.5 to 4 s).
  • Thus a general pattern of movements can be
    obtained and avoidable motions can be
    identified.

79

contd.
  • STEPS Study the operation to be filmed
  • Prepare the film Analyze the film
  • Develop a better method.
  • ADVANTAGES More economical (less film consumed)
    and Long sequence of activities can be recorded
  • APPLICATIONS
  • Team-work studies
  • Material flow studies ( e.g. baggage
  • movement at the
    airports )
  • Long cycle job studies
  • Study of artificial limbs motions etc

80
CYCLEGRAPH
  • It was introduced by Gilbreth.
  • It is a photographic record of the path of
    movement of the operator doing a job.
  • Little source of light (bulb) is attached to the
    hand or finger or any other body part, whose
    motions are to be analyzed. When he/she performs
    the operation and photograph is taken
    continuously, the path of motions is recorded on
    the film as CONTINUOUS STREAK OF LIGHT as shown
    below

  • OPERATO R

81
CHRONOCYCLEGRAPH
  • It is a special type of cycle-graph in which the
    light source (bulb) is suitably INTERRUPTED
    ELECTRICALLY so that the path of motion in the
    photograph appears as a SERIES OF PEAR-SHAPED
    SPOTS instead of continuous streak of light as
    shown below

  • PEAR-SHAPED SPOTS
  • MOTION DIRECTION
  • The pointed end of the pear shows the direction
    of movement.
  • More elongated and spaced pear-spots indicate
    higher speed of operation..
  • It helps in studying the complex and restricted
    motions also.
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Title:

WELCOME TO THE COURSE WORK STUDY (IE 341)

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Title: WELCOME TO THE COURSE WORK STUDY (IE 341)


1
WELCOME TO THE COURSEWORK STUDY(IE 341)
  • OFFERED BY
  • SAYED ALIUL HASAN RIZVI, PhD PROFESSOR
  • DEPT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
  • KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY, JEDDAH

2
INTRODUCTION
  • With increasing complexities of the technological
    world,need to simplify the work system has been
    increasing day by day.
  • Work study is an area of knowledge that addresses
    the problem of work simplification with the basic
    objectives of
  • PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT, and
  • HUMAN COMFORT SAFETY

3
WORK STYDY HAS MANY OTHER NAMES FOR EXAMPLE
  • METHODS ENGINEERING,
  • WORK SCIENCE,
  • WORK DESIGN,
  • JOB ESIGN
  • WORK METHODS DESIGN WORK MEASUREMENT
  • MOTION TIME STUDY
  • Original names were
  • Motion study,Time Study
  • then, Motion Time Study


4
DEFINITION
  • It is the systematic study of work systems with
    the purposes of
  • Developing the preferred system and Method

  • ( with lowest cost)
  • 2. Standardizing this system and method
  • 3. Determining standard time for the task
  • 4. Assisting in training the worker in the
    preferred Method

5
EXPLANATION
  • Above stated definition has FOUR parts. However,
    the TWO most important for WORK STUDY are
  • 1.MOTION STUDY
  • (or Work Methods Design)
  • 2. TIME STUDY
  • (or Work Measurement)

6
ILO DEFINITION
  • It is the systematic examination of carrying on
    activities so as to improve the effective use of
    resources and to set standards of performance for
    the activities being carried out.

7
LECTURE 3-4CHAPTER 2WORK STUDY
PRODUCTIVITY
8
HUMANS BASIC NEEDS PRODUCTIVITY
  • In 1950 world population was 2.5 b
  • Now it is of the order of 6.5 b
  • 90 increase has occurred in developing
    nations.

9
CONTD.
  • Out of these people, more than
  • 1 b are below poverty line, struggling for
    the
  • BASIC NEEDS which are
  • food,
  • clothing,
  • shelter,
  • security,
  • health and
  • essentials like water, sanitation etc.

10
CONTD.
  • For Improving the STANDARD OF LIVING, of its
    citizens, the concerned nation must raise its
    PRODUCTIVITY for economic growth. For any
    organization, its input-output system can be
    represented as follows
  • INPUT
    OUTPUT

PROCESS
11

CONTD.
  • INPUTS may be in the form of different Ms
  • man, material, machine,
    method, management, market, message ( i.e.
    information), moment (i.e. time )
  • OUTPUT may be a
  • product or
  • service.
  • PRODUCTIVITY may be defined as follows

12
MATHEMATICALLY PRODUCTIVITY
OUTPUT / INPUTTHUS PRODUCTIVITY measures
the extent to which a certain OUTPUT can be
extracted FROM A GIVEN INPUT.It may be noted
that PRODUCTION ( which is number of products)
is different from PRODUCTIVITY.
13

CONTD.
  • WORK STUDY IS A TOOL OF PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT.
  • It simplifies a job TO REDUCE UNNECESSARY OR
    EXCESS WORK,WASTEFUL USE OF RESOURCESand sets
    up STANDARD TIME for performing that job.

14

CONTD.
  • THIS IMPLIES THAT
  • THERE IS A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK STUDY
    AND PRODUCTIVITY.
  • THUS, BY APPLYING WS PRINCIPLES IF THE COST IS
    REDUCED BY 20, THEN, WE CAN SAY THAT
    PRODUCTIVITY HAS GONE UP BY 20.

15
WORK CONTENT OF A JOB
  • WORK CONTENT
  • It means the amount of work contained in a given
    job/work/product/process.
  • It is measured in MAN-HOURS/ WORK-HOURS (effort
    or labor of ONE person for ONE hour), or MACHINE
    HOURS (running of a machine/plant for ONE hour).

16
TOTAL TIME OF A JOB
  • TOTAL TIME OFA JOB COMPRISES OF
  • 1. BASIC WORK CONTENT
  • 2. EXCESS WORK CONTENT
  • BASIC WORK CONTENT is irreducible minimum
    time required theoretically to produce one unit
    of productIn REAL LIFE WORLD, actual operation
    times are FAR MORE IN EXCESS due to the EXCESS
    WORK CONTENT.

17

CONTD.
  • EXCESS WORK CONTENT may be due to following
  • THREE CATEGORIES of factors
  • (i) A-category
  • A1 POOR DESIGN FREQUENT
  • DESIGN CHANGESA2 WASTE OF
    MATERIALSA3 INAPPROPRIATE QUALITY
  • STANDARDS

18

CONTD.
  • (ii) B-category
  • B1 POOR LAYOUT POOR
  • UTILISATION OF SPACEB2 INADEQUATE
    MATERIAL
  • HANDLINGB3 FREQUENT STOPPAGES AS
  • PRODUCTION CHANGES FROM
  • ONE PRODUCT TO ANOTHER

19

CONTD.
  • B4 INEFFECTIVE METHOD OF WORK
    B5 POOR PLANNING OF INVENTORY
    B6 FREQUENT BREAKDOWN OF MACHINES
    AND EQUIPMENT

20
iii) C-categoryC1 ABSENTEEISM AND
LATENESSC2 POOR WORKMANSHIP, ANDC3 ACCIDENTS
AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
TOTAL TIME OF A JOB
BASIC WORK CONTENT EXCESS
WORK CONTENT ( A B C )

(OR, TOTAL INEFFECTIVE TIME)
21
LECTURE 5-8
  • CHAPTER 3
  • WORK STUDY ,THE APPROACH

22
WS IS VALUABLE because By carrying out its
systematic procedures,one can get results as good
as or even better than the less systematic genius
would have been able to achieve in the past.It
is systematic both in the investigation of the
problem and in the development of its solution.
23

CONTD.
  • It raises productivity of the plant /unit by
    simply reorganization of the work, with either a
    nominal or no extra input.It sets the
    performance standards on which the effectiveness
    of the production planning and control depends.

24

CONTD.It contributes to
human safety by providing safer methods of work,
and allows for better working conditions by
exposing the hazardous situations.Its
application starts providing savings immediately,
and continues till the operation continues.
25

CONTD.
  • It is a tool that can be used every where, be it
    industrial or non-industrial environment.
  • It is easy and relatively cheaper in its
    application.It is an excellent weapon for
    starting an attack on the inefficient system.
  • HOWEVER, WS SPECIALISTS SHOULD APPLY IT
    TACTFULLY, SO THAT WORKERS REMAIN CO-OPERATIVE
    WHILE STUDIES ARE CONDUCTED IN THE PLANT.

26
TECHNIQUES OF WORK STUDY These
are1. METHOD STUDY is the systematic recording
and critical examination of ways of doing things
in order to make improvements. THUS it
simplifies the job and develops more economical
method of doing it.2.WORK MEASUREMENT is the
application of techniques designed to establish
the time for a qualified worker to carry out a
task at a defined rate of working.THUS it
determines how long it should take to carry out
the work.
27
BASIC PROCEDURE OF WS comprise of following

STEPS1.SELECT the
job/task/process to be studied.2.RECORD all
the relevant data/facts about the
selected job.3.EXAMINE the recorded
facts critically by challenging
its purpose, place, sequence, person, and
method.4.DEVELOP new
methods,as alternative methods, of
doing the selected job. 5.EVALUATE
results of different alternative solutions.
6.DEFINE the new method and present it to
the concerned people.
7.INSTAL the new method and provide
training to the concerned
staff . 8.MAINTAIN the new standard practice
and establish control
procedures.
28
ACCORDING TO BARNES Since Methods Engineering is
a form of CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING, THE GENERAL
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESSES can be employed in WS
also. Accordingly, following FIVE STEPS can
be used 1.Problem definition Statement of
the purpose/goal 2. Analysis of the problem
Fact-recording no evaluation 3.Search for
possible solutions Finding several

alternative solutions. 4. Evaluation of
alternatives Examining which
alternative meets the goal/criteria most, in
order to evolve the preferred
solution. 5. Recommendation for action
Communicating the details ,related to the
preferred method to all concerned.
29
LECTURE 9-10
  • CHAPTER 6
  • METHOD STUDY JOB SELECTION

30
STEP I JOB/TASK/PROCESS SELECTION
  • It involves following considerations
  • 1. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • 2. TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS and
  • 3. HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS

31

Contd.
  • 1.ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • Cost effectiveness i.e. to check whether or
    not the WS application would pay. For this,
    key-profit giving/ costliest operations with
    largest waste/scrap should be attacked first.
    Next bottleneck operations, repetitive
    operations, repeated material handling operations
    should be studied. For locating most important
    operations, PARETO ANALYSIS could be used.

32
2.TECHNICAL/TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • The analysis involves application of WS for
    the selection of the operations/processes where
    new technology e.g. automation/ robotisation
    should be introduced.

33
3.HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS
  • Analysis involves location of those
    operations which present the sources of
    dissatisfaction and/or annoyance to the workers
    due to fatigue or monotony or unsafe environment
    or a work which is clumsy in nature.

34
LECTURE 11-12CHAPTER 7RECORDING THE FACTS
DIAGRAMS CHARTS
35
STEP II RECORDING THE FACTS
  • Related to the existing process/ job ALL THE
    FACTS should be recorded ACCURATELY.
  • TOOLS OF FACT-RECORDING are
  • (A) CHARTS, which may be of two types
  • (i) Based on SEQUENCE
  • (a) Outline Process Chart
  • (b) Flow Process Chart
  • (c) Two-Handed Chart ( or Operation
  • Chart / Left Hand Right
    Hand chart)

36

CONTD.
  • (ii ) Based on TIME scale
  • (a) Multiple Activity Chart
  • (b) SIMO ( SImultaneous MOtion) Chart
  • (B) DIAGRAMS which may be of the following
    types
  • Flow diagram, String Diagram, Travel Chart,
  • Cyclegraph, Chronocyclegraph,

37
PROCESS CHART SYMBOLS
  • ASME has recommended FIVE standard symbols to be
    used on

  • Process Charts, given below
  • OPERATION Main steps of the
  • task /job involving
    modification /change.
  • 2. INSPECTION Checking
    quality / quantity.
  • TRANSPORTATION For movement of

  • persons/materials.
  • DELAY (TEMPORARY) For waiting
    time of

  • operators or materials.
  • 5. STORAGE (PERMANENT DELAY) For
  • controlled storage involving
    authorized
  • issue/receipt of material etc.
  • NOTE FOR TWO PARALLEL EVENTS, BOTH ARE
  • SHOWN IN ONE JOINT OR COMBINED
    SYMBOL e. g.
  • operation inspection ,jointly are
    shown
  • by symbol, indicated in the figure.

38
THE OUTLINE FLOW PROCESS CHART
  • It uses ONLY TWO SYMBOLS

  • It provides an OVERALL PICTURE of the process /
    job / task.
  • Primarily it is used to show the sequence of
    operations inspections for a MANUFACTURING or
    an ASSEMBLY kind of jobs.

39
FLOW PROCESSCHART
  • It uses ALL THE FIVE SYMBOLS and provides the
    total sum details of the process/job under
    study.
  • A Flow Process chart may be of the following
    types
  • 1.MAN-TYPE in which every symbol is
  • related to his/her activity
    only.
  • 2.MATERIAL TYPE in which every symbol
  • is related to the material
    of the job
  • or a document (e.g. in
    offices) or a
  • machine/equipment.
  • Data / information in a flow process chart are
    recorded in specifically designed FORM, as given
    in the TEXT BOOK / CLASS ROOM.

40
LECTURE 13-14CHAPTER 7 (CONTD)
41
STEP III CRITICAL EXAMINATION
  • The facts recorded in the Flow Process Chart are
    now EXAMINED CRITICALLY
  • by applying the
  • QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE,
  • which involves the following SEQUENCE

42
CONTD.
  • PURPOSE for which the activity is done
  • PLACE at ,, ,, ,, ,,
    ,,
  • SEQUENCE in ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
  • PERSON by whom ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
  • MEANS by which ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
  • WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF ELIMINATING/
  • COMBINING/ REARRANGING/ SIMPLIFYING THE
    ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS.
  • QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE involves
  • 1. PRIMARY QUESTIONS and
  • 2. SECONDARY QUESTIONS explained
    below

43
PRIMARY QUESTIONS
  • According to the QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE the
    PRIMARY QUESTIONS are as follows
  • Purpose-based WHAT is actually done?
  • WHY is the
    activity ELIMINATE
  • necessary, at
    all?
  • Place-based WHERE is it being done?
  • WHY at this
    place?
  • Sequence-based WHEN is it done?
  • WHY at that
    time? COMBINE or
  • Person-based WHO is doing it ?
    REARRANGE
  • WHY by this
    person?
  • Means-based HOW is it being done?
    SIMPLIFY
  • WHY in that
    particular way?

44
SECONDARY QUESTIONS
  • Corresponding to each answer obtained through the
    PRIMARY QUESTIONS further questions are raised to
    explore about the
  • ALTERNATIVES
  • i. e. alternate purpose, place, sequence,
    person means.
  • This methodology makes use of the SECONDARY
    QUESTIONS given as follows

45

Contd.
  • WHAT ELSE might be done?
  • WHERE ELSE might it be done?
  • WHEN ELSE might it be done?
  • WHO ELSE might do it?
  • HOW ELSE might it be done?
  • BY ANSWERING THE PRIMARY SECONDARY QUESTIONS WE
    USE THE SYSTEMATIC CRITICAL EXAMINATION IN ORDER
    TO EVOLVE A BETTER METHOD OF DOING THE WORK.

46
Contd.
  • AS A RESULT, ONE CAN DEVELOP A BETTER METHOD IN
    LIGHT OF THE OBTAINED ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING
    QUESTIONS
  • WHAT should be done?
  • WHERE should it be done?
  • WHEN should it be done?
  • WHO should do it ?
  • HOW should it be done?

47
LECTURE 15-17CHAPTER 8RECORDING
MOVEMENT OF WORKERS/MATERIALS
48
RECORDINGMOVEMENT OF WORKERS/
MATERIALS
  • TOOLS USED FOR THIS PURPOSE ARE
  • STRING DIAGRAM
  • FLOW DIAGRAM
  • TRAVEL CHART

49
STRING DIAGRAM
  • IT IS A SCALE PLAN OR MODEL ON WHICH A THREAD OR
    STRING IS USED TO TRACE AND MEASURE THE PATH OF
    WORKERS/ MATERIALS DURING A SPECIFIED SEQUENCE OF
    EVENTS.
  • LENGTH OF THE THREAD/STRING MEASURES THE DISTANCE
    MOVED.

50
FLOW DIAGRAM
  • It is a FLOOR-PLAN showing the path of travel of
    the operator or the material, through the plant.
  • It ALSO indicates the direction of travel by
    means of arrows, drawn on the diagram.

51
TRAVEL CHART ( or, FROM-TO CHART)
  • It is a tabular record of quantitative data about
    movement of workers/materials/equipment between
    any number of places over a given period of time.
    It is always in the form of a SQUIRE, having
    within it the squires.
  • EACH SMALL SQUIRE REPRESENTS A STATION.
  • Along the TOP, squires from left to right
    represent the stations FROM where movement or
    travel occurs.
  • Along those DOWN THE LEFT HAND, the squires
    represent the stations TO which the movement is
    made.

52
MAN-MACHINE CHART (MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART)
  • This kind of process chart records the
    activities of the operator as well as the machine
    on the same chart against a common time scale.
  • Separate vertical columns ( in the form of bars)
    are used for both.
  • The chart clearly indicates the IDLENESS (or
    UTILISATION) of operator as well as the machine.
  • On the basis of the recorded events in the chart,
    one can rearrange the process so that IDLE-TIME
    is reduced, or BETTER UTILISATION of the
    operator/machine is achieved.
  • It is used for balancing the work between man and
    machine proper utilization of maintenance crew
    /team-activities in mass production.

53
LECTURE 18-24
  • CHAPTER 9
  • METHODS MOVEMENTS AT THE WORKPLACE

54
METHODS MOVEMENTS AT THE WORKPLACEPRINCIPLES
OF MOTION ECONOMY
  • These principles can be helpful in work design,
    in reducing the human fatigue and in improving
    the work efficiency. According to Barnes, these
    can be presented under following THREE
    subgroups
  • 1.Principles of motion economy as related to the
    USE OF HUMAN BODY
  • 2.Principles of motion economy as related to the
    ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORKPLACE
  • 3.Principles of motion economy as related to the
    DESIGN OF TOOLS EQUIPMENT

55
A .Principles of motion economy as related to
the USE OF HUMAN BODY
  • 1.The two hands should begin and complete their
    movements at the same time.
  • 2. The two hands should not be idle at the same
    time.
  • 3.Motions of the arms should be symmetrical and
    in opposite direction and should be made
    simultaneously.

56


Principles Contd
  • 4.Hand and body motions should be made at the
    lowest classification at which it is possible to
    do the work satisfactorily.
  • The term CLASSIFICATION OF HAND
  • MOTION is explained as follows

57
CLASSIFICATION OF HAND MOTIONS
  • CLASS PIVOT BODY MEMBERS MOVED
  • 1 Knuckle Finger (F)
  • 2 Wrist Hand (H) F
  • 3 Elbow Fore Arm (FA) H F
  • 4 Shoulder Upper Arm (UA) FAHF
  • 5 Trunk Torso UA FA H F

58
Principles
CONTD.
  • 5. Momentum should be employed to help the worker
    ,but should be reduced to a minimum whenever it
    is to overcome by muscular effort.
  • 6.Continuous curved motions are to be preferred
    to straight line motion involving sudden and
    sharp changes in direction.
  • 7. Ballistic (free-swinging) motions are faster,
    easier, and more accurate than restricted or
    controlled motions.

59
Principles
CONTD.
  • 8.Rhythm is essential to the smooth and automatic
    performance of a repetitive operation. The work
    should be arranged to permit an easy and natural
    rhythm whenever it is possible.
  • 9.Work should be arranged so that eye-movements
    are confined to a comfortable area, without the
    need for frequent changes of the focus.

60
B.Principles of motion economy as related to
the ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORKPLACE
  • 1.Definite and fixed positions/stations should be
    provided for all tools and materials to permit
    habit formation.
  • 2.Tools and materials should be pre-positioned to
    reduce searching.

61

CONTD.
  • 3.Gravity-feed, bins and containers should be
    used to deliver the materials as close to the
    point of use as possible.
  • 4.Tools, materials, and controls should be
    located within the maximum working area and as
    near to the worker as possible.
  • WORKING AREA (WA) may be divided into
  • 1.NORMAL WA
  • 2.MAXIMUM WA explained below

62
Cotd.
  • Normal Working Area (WA)
  • ( Finger wrist elbow) Movement
  • MOST
    CONVENIENT ZONE
  • Edge
  • of bench
    operator

  • operator
  • Maximum WA (Shoulder Movement)

63
DIMENSIONS FOR SEATED TASKS
  • 1.SEAT HEIGHT should be adjustable
  • (
    range36-45 )
  • 2. WORK SURFACE HEIGHT should be around
  • elbow
    level (range65-72 cm)
  • 3.LEG CLEARANCE 40 cm at knee level
  • 60
    cm for the feet
  • 4.THIGH CLEARANCE 20 cm minimum
  • 5.WORK SURFACE THICKNESS 5cm max.

64
Principles CONTD.
  • 5.Materials and tools should be arranged to
    permit the best sequence of motions.
  • 6.Drop deliveries or ejectors should be used
    wherever possible, so that operators do not have
    to use his/her hands to dispose of the finished
    work.

65

Principles
CONTD.
  • 7.Provision should be made for adequate lighting
    and, a chair of the type of height to permit good
    posture should be provided. The height of the
    workplace and seat should be arranged to allow
    alternate standing and sitting.
  • 8.The color of the workplace should contrast with
    that of the work and thus reduce the eye-fatigue.

66
C. Principles of motion economy as related to
the the DESIGN OF TOOLS EQUIPMENT
  • 1.The hands should be relieved of all work of
    holding the work-piece where this can be done
    by a jig, fixture or foot-operated device.
  • 2.Two or more tools should be combined wherever
    possible.
  • 3.Where each finger performs some specific
    movement, as in typewriting, the load should be
    distributed in accordance with the inherent
    capacities of the fingers.

67
Principles CONTD.
  • 4.Handles such as those on cranks and large screw
    divers should be so designed that as much surface
    of the hand as possible can come in contact with
    the handle. This is specially necessary when
    considerable force has to be used on the handle.
  • 5.Levers crossbars and hand-wheels should be so
    placed that the operator can use them with the
    least change in body position and the largest
    mechanical advantage.

68
TWO-HANDED PROCESS CHART (OPERATION
CHART/LEFT-HAND RIGHT-HAND CHART)
  • It shows the activities of the two hands in
    relation to one another.
  • ACCORDING TO BARNES
  • It uses ONLY TWO SYMBOLS
  • Small circle for TRANSPORTATION
  • Big circle for OPERATION.
  • ACCORDING TO ILO
  • It uses ALL process chart symbols EXCEPT
    INSPECTION
  • After studying a few cycles recording is done.
  • ONLY ONE HAND is charted AT A TIME.

69
FUNDAMENTAL HAND MOTIONS
  • Gilbreth observed that most work done by two
    hands consists of a few fundamental motions.
  • He called EACH ONE of them as THERBLIG. (name of
    GILBRETH ,read in reverse order).
  • THERBLIG G I L B R E T H
  • ( read in reverse
    order)

70

contd.
  • Today we have 17 Therbligs as follows
  • Search, select,
    grasp, transport empty,
    transport loaded, hold,
    release load position,
    preposition, inspect,
    assemble, disassemble, use,
    unavoidable delay avoidable delay,
    plan, rest for
    overcoming fatigue.
  • THESE ARE USED IN MICROMOTION STUDIES (FACTS
    RECORDED ON FILMS)

71
MICROMOTION STUDIES
  • Operations with very short cycles repetitive
    cycles need greater details to analyze it for
    saving motions and effort( i.e. planning for
    lesser fatigue). This goal can be achieved
    through Micro-motion Studies.
  • MICRO means small. Thus here we study the
    motions in terms of THERBLIGS.

72

CONTD.
  • Such a study involves the use of
  • FILM and VIDEO
    when operator performs the job.
  • Later on the film/video can be run slowly THROUGH
    A PROJECTOR and
  • Frame by frame analysis of the work can be
    carried out.
  • Film provides greater flexibility of filming and
    playback speeds WHEREAS video is easier in use.

73

Contd.
  • STEPS
  • 1. Filming the job
  • 2. Analysis of the film,
  • 3. Presenting DATA/FACTS
  • graphically through
  • SIMO chart.
  • (SImultaneous Motion Chart)

74

CONTD.
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Camera, Film,
    Micro-chronometer,
  • Exposure meter, Flood lights,
  • Reflectors, Tripod,,
    Projector etc.
  • OR,
  • VIDEOCAMERA plus its
  • accessories for filming
  • operation.

75
CONTD.
  • ADVANTAGES OF MICROMOTION STUDIES OVER DIRECT
    OBSERVATION.
  • Greater details are made availalble
  • More accurate
  • Easier in data collection
  • Better for record keeping
  • Help in work study personnel's development

76
FILM ANALYSIS
  • Film is run on projector,
  • Details of the work-cycle are identified in terms
    of THERBLIGS, first for
  • Left hand
  • and then for
  • Right hand,
  • TIME ( in WINK) is noted from the
  • Chronometer readings of the film for each
  • therblig.
  • 1 WINK (1/2000) OF A MINUTE

77

CONTD.
  • With these data SIMO (Simultaneous Motion) chart
    is made as shown below
  • LH Activities Therblig Time
    Therblig RH Activity

78
MEMOMOTION ANALYSIS
  • It was introduced by MUNDEL.
  • It is a special type of micro-motion study in
    which activities are FILMED AT MUCH SLOWER SPEED
    (60 to 100 frames per minute) i.e. at longer
    intervals than normal (intervals being between
    0.5 to 4 s).
  • Thus a general pattern of movements can be
    obtained and avoidable motions can be
    identified.

79

contd.
  • STEPS Study the operation to be filmed
  • Prepare the film Analyze the film
  • Develop a better method.
  • ADVANTAGES More economical (less film consumed)
    and Long sequence of activities can be recorded
  • APPLICATIONS
  • Team-work studies
  • Material flow studies ( e.g. baggage
  • movement at the
    airports )
  • Long cycle job studies
  • Study of artificial limbs motions etc

80
CYCLEGRAPH
  • It was introduced by Gilbreth.
  • It is a photographic record of the path of
    movement of the operator doing a job.
  • Little source of light (bulb) is attached to the
    hand or finger or any other body part, whose
    motions are to be analyzed. When he/she performs
    the operation and photograph is taken
    continuously, the path of motions is recorded on
    the film as CONTINUOUS STREAK OF LIGHT as shown
    below

  • OPERATO R

81
CHRONOCYCLEGRAPH
  • It is a special type of cycle-graph in which the
    light source (bulb) is suitably INTERRUPTED
    ELECTRICALLY so that the path of motion in the
    photograph appears as a SERIES OF PEAR-SHAPED
    SPOTS instead of continuous streak of light as
    shown below

  • PEAR-SHAPED SPOTS
  • MOTION DIRECTION
  • The pointed end of the pear shows the direction
    of movement.
  • More elongated and spaced pear-spots indicate
    higher speed of operation..
  • It helps in studying the complex and restricted
    motions also.
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