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Engineering History

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Engineering History When did engineering begin? Who were the first engineers? What were the first engineering designs? The Beginnings of Engineering: 6000 - 3000 B.C ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Engineering History


1
EngineeringHistory
2
When did engineering begin? Who were the first
engineers? What were the first engineering
designs?
3
The Beginnings of Engineering 6000 - 3000 B.C.
  • Probably occurred in Asia Minor or Africa 8000
    years ago
  • Change from nomadic life (hunter - gatherers)
  • The Agrarian Society (agriculture)
  • forms the basis of civilization
  • cultivate plants - the need for increased food
    production
  • domesticate animals - for food and work
  • build permanent houses in community group

4
The Beginnings of Engineering6000 - 3000 B.C.
  • Increased food production permitted time to
    engage in other activities such as
  • Rulers - to stabilize community life land
    ownership
  • - to complete work
  • - organize work force
  • - beginnings of a class society
  • supervisors
  • foremen
  • workers - artisans
  • Artisans - considered to be the first engineers

5
The Beginnings of Engineering6000 - 3000 B.C.
  • Early Achievements in this Era
  • Methods of producing fire at will
  • Melting certain rocklike materials to produce
    copper and bronze tools
  • Development of a system of symbols for written
    communications

6
The Beginning of Engineering6000 - 3000 B.C.
  • Major Engineering Projects or Inventions
  • Irrigation systems to promote crop growth
  • Animal-, water-, and wind-driven gristmills
  • The wheel and axle
  • Plow
  • Yoke

7
The Beginning of Engineering6000 - 3000 B.C.
  • Mesopotamia cradle of civilization
  • Clay tile material used for permanent
    documentation
  • Clay tablets unearthed which show
  • maps of caravan routes including mountains,
    cities and water
  • city plans
  • irrigation systems
  • water supply systems
  • road maps (networks)

Euphrates-Tigris river
8
The Beginning of Engineering6000 - 3000 B.C.
  • Outstanding contributions of mathematics
  • Sexagesimal system
  • divided circle into 360 degrees
  • hour into 60 minutes
  • minute into 60 seconds

9
Engineering in Early Civilizations3000 -600 B.C.
  • Babylonian engineers
  • Familiar with basic arithmetic and algebra
    computing areas and volumes of land excavations
  • Number system based on 60 instead of 10
  • Buildings were constructed using basic
    engineering principles still used today
  • Primitive arches used in hydraulic works
  • Bridges were built with stone piers carrying
    wooden stringers
  • Roads were surfaced with a naturally occurring
    asphalt, a construction system not used again
    until the nineteenth century

10
Engineering in Early Civilizations3000 -600 B.C.
  • Egyptian Engineers
  • Pyramid Age - 2900 B.C and lasts 1000 years
  • 2,300,000 building stones (2.5 tons each) used to
    build the Great Pyramid of Cheops
  • Outstanding examples of engineering skills in
    land measurement and building layout -transit and
    level
  • Irrigation systems

11
Science of the Greeks and Romans 600 B.C. - 400
A.D.
  • Engineering in Greece
  • Had its origin in Egypt
  • Better known for the intensive development of
    borrowed ideas than for creativity and invention
  • Famous for outstanding philosophers
  • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle (physical scientist)
    and Archimedes (mathematics)

12
Science of the Greeks and Romans 600 B.C. - 400
A.D.
  • Engineering in Greece
  • Use of ideas was retarded because of the belief
    that verification and experimentation, which
    required manual labor, were only fit for slaves.
  • Archimedes water screw
  • Crossbow
  • Catapult

13
Science of the Greeks and Romans 600 B.C. - 400
A.D.
  • Roman Engineering
  • Borrowed scientific and engineering knowledge
    from the conquered countries for use in warfare
    and in their public works
  • Superior in the application of ideas and
    techniques
  • Heros Inventions
  • Gear driven odometer on chariot
  • Steam turbine
  • Hydraulic clock
  • Fire engine

14
Science of the Greeks and Romans 600 B.C. - 400
A.D.
  • Roman Engineering
  • Roman road systems- subbase, compact base,
    topcoat 180,000 miles
  • Aqueducts for water supply
  • Sanitary systems
  • Engineering principles applies
  • to military tactics

15
Engineering in the Middle Ages 1st to 16th
Centuries
  • Collapse of the Roman Empire 4th and 5th
    centuries A.D. was known as the Dark Ages, but
    was it?
  • The word engineer began to appear. Its root lies
    in the Latin word ingeniare, to design or
    devise
  • Animals and waterwheels began to replace humans
    as the power source
  • Arabs were developing paper making, chemistry,
    and optics
  • Sugar refining, soap making, and perfume
    distilling became part of the culture
  • Chinese were developing clocks, astronomical
    instruments, the loom and spinning wheel, and
    gunpowder

16
Engineering in the Middle Ages 1st to 16th
Centuries
  • Johann Gutenburg - movable type produced the
    first books printed on paper
  • Leonardo da Vinci - acclaimed as a great artist,
    was also an engineer, inventor and architect
  • Military and civil engineering feats such as
    catapults bridges and buildings
  • Sketches of future engineering
  • devices such as
  • Machine Gun Helicopter
  • Drawbridge Breach-loading
  • Cannon Roller Bearings
  • Universal Joint Tanks

17
The Revival of Science17th and 18th Centuries
  • Galileo Discovers
  • Gravitational acceleration- velocity a body
    achieves while falling, is independent of weight
  • Earth moves around the sun
  • Torricelli and Pascal Discovers
  • hydrostatics and dynamics develop the barometer
  • Boyle Discovers
  • expansion quality of air and the correlation
    between temperature, volume, and pressure

18
The Revival of Science17th and 18th Centuries
  • Hooke Discovers
  • material lengthens in proportion to the force
    exerted on it, up to the elastic limit, and in
    compression it shortens in a similar fashion
  • Huygens develops
  • spiral watch spring and the pendulum clock and
    measures gravitational acceleration
  • Newton who is famous for his three basic laws of
    motion
  • developed differential calculus, essential to
    mathematical analysis of most physical systems

19
The Revival of Science17th and 18th Centuries
  • The Developing Industrial Age
  • James Watt - steam engine for textile mills, iron
    furnaces, rolling mills and other industries
  • Hargreaves, Crampton, and Jurgen develops the
    spinning and weaving machinery
  • Pieter van Musschenbroek develops a device to
    hold a static electrical charge, now called the
    leyden jar forerunner to the capacitor
  • Luigi Galvani- principles of electrical
    conduction
  • Alessandro Volta - principles of the electric
    battery

20
Beginnings of Modern Science 19th Century
  • Andre-Marie Ampere confirms the flow of
    electrical current, leading to the science of
    electrodynamics
  • Michael Faraday found the means to generate
    electricity by moving a conductor through a
    magnetic field
  • Jagadis Chandra Bose demonstrated the
    transmission of electric signals through space
    Marconi was awarded a patent for the same
    achievement a year later
  • Henry Cort develops a method of refining iron
  • James Watt refines and produces an efficient
    steam engine
  • At last good iron for machines and power plants
    to operate the machinery

21
20th Century Technology
  • Henry Ford- Builds and sells automobiles
  • and mass production emerges
  • Nikola Tesla introduces the first practical
    application of alternating current, the polyphase
    induction motor
  • Orville Wilbur Wright develop powered aircraft
  • Wallace Carothers leads a team of organic
    chemists and chemical engineer researchers at
    duPont to develop NYLON the first of many
    synthetic fibers. The beginnings of polymer
    research

22
20th Century Technology
  • Using Albert Einstein's model Emc2 scientists
    from Europe and the United States at the
    University of Chicago produce the first nuclear
    pile. The age of controlled nuclear reaction
    begins.
  • John Brainerd , at the University of
    Pennsylvanias Moore School of Engineering
    develop the first computer called the ENIAC.
    It weighted over 30 tons and occupied over 1500
    square feet.
  • John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William
    Shockley, discovered that current changes in one
    part of a diode caused current changes in another
    part of a diode and create the transistor.

23
20th Century Technology
  • Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor
    discovers that the transistors silicon crystal
    could be made to be its own circuit board.
    transistors - the switch that controls the
    world
  • Pratt Whitney develop turbojet engines
  • Boeing Airplane Company develop the Boeing 707
    capable of transporting 180 passengers at speeds
    of 600 mph
  • Theodore Maiman produces the first working laser
    which has mushroomed to encompass surgeons,
    transmit telephone calls, track storms, to
    checkout in supermarkets, to weld steel, to cut
    fabric and to produce holograms

24
20th Century Technology
  • Communication Satellites - now handle more than
    half of all transoceanic telephone, television
    and audio network program distribution
  • And the list goes ON AND
  • ON
  • AND
  • ON
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