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Title: Lindsay Blair, Jane Duffy, Stefanie Landsman, Colleen Ruppert


1
The Evolution of Technology and Student Affairs
  • Lindsay Blair, Jane Duffy, Stefanie Landsman,
    Colleen Ruppert
  • University of Connecticut

2
  • In order to foster student development,
    information technology must encourage and foster
    the development of social connections between and
    among individuals and groups. Rather than replace
    the college campuses, information technology must
    be designed to strengthen and expand on the
    college learning community. -Treue Belote,
    1997, p. 22

3
Program Overview
  • Introduction
  • Technology and its Impact on Student Affairs
  • Marketing
  • Customer Service
  • Community Building
  • Interactive Multimedia
  • Assessment and Evaluation
  • Closing Thoughts

4
Computer Technology Timeline
  • 1984 Apple introduces the Macintosh computer
  • 1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released
  • 1987 Email link established between Germany and
    China
  • 1990 Toshiba announces the SPARC LT, the first
    SPARC laptop computer
  • 1990 First Microsoft Windows of PowerPoint
    created
  • 1991 World Wide Web launched to the public
  • 1992 Jean Armour Polly coins the term surfing
    the Internet
  • 1994 Yahoo! created
  • 1995 DVDs invented
  • 1996 More email is sent than postal mail in the
    US Google created
  • 1997 America Online Instant Messenger (AIM)
    launched
  • 1998 Internet weblogs (blogs) begin to appear
  • 1999 Napster created
  • 2001 iPod introduced by Apple
  • 2004 Facebook.com created
  • 2007 Microsoft SharePoint Server created

5
Introduction
  • Todays Students
  • The use of technology is a key characteristic of
    the millennial generation, students born between
    1980 and 2000 (Raines, 2002).
  • Today, traditionally-aged college students often
    have technology seamlessly woven into their daily
    lives and take it for granted.
  • The Numbers
  • In a 2007 study conducted by the EDUCAUSE Center
    for Applied Research (ECAR), 98 of the 27,846
    college student respondents reported owning at
    least two technological devices, most typically a
    cell phone and computer (Caruso Salaway, 2007).
  • In respect to using these forms of technology,
    students reported a mean of 18 hours per week and
    median of 14 hours per week.
  • Approximately 6 spend more than 40 hours per
    week engaging in some type of online activity
    (Caruso Salaway, 2007).
  • Professional Considerations
  • For student affairs professionals today, this
    creates both challenges and opportunities for
    engaging students and enhancing current programs
    and services.

6
Reaching Students
7
Marketing
  • Purpose
  • According to the American Marketing Association
    (AMA), marketing is the process of planning and
    executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and
    distribution of ideas, goods, and services to
    create exchanges that satisfy individual and
    organizational goals.
  • Marketing is the wide range of activities
    involved in making sure that the organization
    continues to meet the needs of customers and
    benefits from the relationship with the customer.
  • Marketing is usually focused on one product or
    service. Thus, a marketing plan for one product
    might be very different than that for another
    product.
  • Each student service is a product whose value is
    determined by the marketplace, college students
    who frequently question the purpose of these
    services and other administrators who wonder how
    to measure their effectiveness (Culp, 1987).

8
Marketing
  • Past
  • In the past materials promoting student services
    included brochures and flyers, reaching students
    and parents through direct mailings and postings.
  • However, printing is expensive and wastes both
    human and environmental resources. Posting
    flyers is not an effective way to reach students,
    and this static form of marketing may not be
    accessible to the entire student population.
  • Present
  • The interactivity of websites allow for
    bi-directional communication between students and
    student affairs professionals. Now, a larger
    number of students can have access to the
    information provided by a department website.
  • Customers know where to go and expect to find
    information about services on designated sites.
  • College networked sites give access to multiple
    services in one location.
  • Emails, list-serv information, online college
    events calendars, and advertisements on
    student-run television and radio stations are
    effective marketing methods of increasing student
    awareness about available programs and services.

9
Using Web Sites for Marketing
  • Today, the internet is the first place people
    look to find information about a college.
  • Mission statements, services, locations, and
    professionals can all be located on a college
    website (Greenfield, 2007).

10
Successful Student-First Websites
  • Developing a successful website to promote
    student services requires three distinctly
    different skill sets (1) Excellent technology
    (2) Superb graphics (3) Meaningful content.
  • Typically one individual would not possess all of
    these. For example, an IT specialist, graphic
    designer, marketing specialist, and Director of
    Student Activities all contribute specific
    knowledge.
  • Creating a cross-functional web-management
    leadership team with a variety of skill sets
    enables a college to incorporate various skills
    and talents in order to provide students am
    effective centralized location for receiving
    information.
  • For example, creating a common user-friendly
    website where each student can personalize the
    information they wish to receive. In addition,
    designing one format for all websites at the
    college would create a streamlined visual
    experience for users.
  • However, the challenge is to make it easy to do
    business with the organization in any way they
    want, at any time, through any channel, in any
    language or currency and to make students feel
    that they are dealing with a single unified
    organization that recognizes them at any touch
    point (Pirani and Salaway, 2005, p 9).

11
From Static to?
Why do I have to print this form? Why cant I
fill it out on the website and email it to you?
Four stages of website development on a college
campus
  • Stage One ? Websites include the conversion of
    static brochures and program information to
    electronic formats. This is also known as one-way
    publishing. Anything in paper format can be
    posted online. Many departments create separate
    sites with little coordination between other
    departments and services (Kleeman, 2005).

12
Where Many Colleges Are Today
This is fine, but I just want to talk to someone
online right now!
  • Stage Two ? Websites become more interactive and
    transactional. The ability to conduct business,
    such as filling out forms, ordering and receiving
    services, and paying fees are incorporated.
    Information is still organized based on
    departments and not personalized for each user.
  • Stage Three ? Websites are experienced
    differently by each student. Personalized and
    customized websites allow the user to receive
    information based on their needs and wants. This
    begins to establish a more personal relationship
    between the student and the institution.

13
Customizable Websites and Beyond
  • Fourth Stage ? Websites are highly customized.
    The use of interactive formats such as
    e-portfolios, video demonstrations, and instant
    messaging with student affairs professionals
    allow for the development of relationships and an
    enhanced community (Kleeman, 2005).

This is great! The website lets me access the
information I need and chat with a career
consultant.
14
Serving our Students
15
Customer Service
  • Customer Service assistance and other resources
    that a company provides to the people who buy or
    use its products or services.
  • Role in Student Affairs
  • Personal interaction has been the main means of
    providing student services.
  • This is a crucial feature however, technology
    offers many opportunities to complement and
    streamline some aspects of student affairs work,
    which would result in more quality time to
    interact with students (Moreno, 2007).
  • This enables customer access at the students
    convenience. This is particularly important with
    the millennial generation.
  • With increasingly more online course offerings,
    providing adequate student services through
    technology is necessary.

16
Customer Service and Technology
  • Past
  • Many services were provided by paper and pencil,
    such as record keeping, copying, database
    management, and registration forms.
  • These have been moved to digital platforms. While
    the process has not changed, the use of
    technology has increased efficiency of these
    processes (Barrett, 2001).
  • Systems and services need to appear
    seamless... Students need to be able to access
    their personal information on-line through some
    self-service technology students can have access
    to their personal records and information 24
    hours a day 7 days a week. This reengineering of
    service processes gives the student access to the
    right information quickly and efficiently. -
    Aoki Pogroszewski, 1998, p. 5

17
Student Affairs Examples
  • Career Services Alumni network
  • Create an alumni network for career
    opportunities, internships and job postings for
    alumni and current students.
  • Counseling and Mental Health Virtual counseling
    center
  • Provide students, faculty, and staff with an
    increasingly important resource for efficiently
    delivering content and services.
  • Student Activities Club and organization
    information
  • Provide online resources for student
    organizations and advisors.
  • Student Activities Scheduling events
  • Provide direct access to students to post events
    on a campus-wide activities calendar.
  • Student Affairs Student involvement transcripts
  • Create an application to track student
    involvement with clubs and organizations.
  • Utilize online portfolios.
  • Student Affairs Information Technology
    Customized homepage
  • Create website based on an individuals interest
    For example, a psychology major can have the
    department news and updates on the side of his or
    her homepage.
  • Student Health Services Appointment scheduling
  • For example, provide direct access to students to
    schedule appointments with student health
    services.
  • Student Union Online room booking
  • Provide direct access to students to book rooms.
  • This increases student involvement and
    empowerment.

18
Customer Service and Technology
  • Additional benefit
  • In addition to increasing efficiency, many
    offices have saved paper products and money on
    mailings because information and services have
    been moved online (Barratt, 2001).
  • Potential challenges
  • Student affairs professionals may not be
    adequately trained to incorporate technology into
    their work to the degree of expertise that
    students expect.
  • Need for improved speed, reliability, and support
    of services provided online.
  • Increase awareness about how students differ in
    their technological ability and ensuring that
    resources are accessible to all students (Caruso
    Salaway, 2007).
  • Often there is limited communication and
    coordination between offices, with some offices
    lacking strength in providing customer-service.
  • Typically academic and service units are
    organized into vertical functional silos, but
    students are best served across horizontal
    functional silos (Kleeman, 2005).
  • If that experience is convenient,
    efficient, and student-centered, they have a
    positive reaction. If it provides a virtual
    runaround and inaccurate or outdated information,
    they have a negative one. - Shea, 2005, p. 15

19
Building the Campus Community
20
Community Building
  • Community is no longer defined as a physical
    place, but as a set of relationships where people
    interact socially for mutual benefit
  • - Andrews, 2002, p. 64
  • Purpose
  • Community building happens in the context of
    interactions between student affairs
    professionals and students on a campus. It is
    important in the higher education realm to
    improve student engagement and retention as well
    as information sharing between professionals.
  • Key reasons people participated in community
    activities in person or online were to fulfill
    personal needs, to learn, and to advance the
    common good (Ludford et. al, 2004, p. 632).
  • Cohesive web-based services and
    community-building tools are no longer a
    convenience they are a necessity that is
    critical to student achievement (Blackboard,
    2007, n.p.).

21
Evolution of Community Building
  • Past
  • Social networking was limited to primarily your
    own physical community prior to the wave of
    technology and computer access.
  • According to Mitrano (2006), initial forms of
    social networking technologies included programs
    such as online multiplayer games, bulletin
    boards, news groups, and mailing lists.
  • Present
  • These initial technologies are nearly outdated,
    but provide a relevant backdrop to newer websites
    such as MySpace, Friendster, and Facebook.
  • As technology advances, people continue to have
    the opportunity to make connections around the
    world.
  • Online communities have become a social norm
    among students.

22
Student Affairs Examples
  • Blackboard/Vista
  • Online training for judicial affairs and resident
    assistance courses.
  • Facebook, MySpace, Friendster
  • Student organizations can advertise events on
    Facebook.
  • Many new student orientation programs discuss the
    ethical components of online social networking.
  • Customized Websites
  • Resident assistants can create their own webpage
    to advertise events, send updates, and collect
    feedback from residents.
  • iStudentAffairs.com, LinkedIn
  • Student affairs professionals at different
    institutions can share resources and discuss hot
    topics.
  • Departmental Software Judicial Action, The
    Housing Director, etc.
  • These programs are used within a department to
    share information regarding students housing or
    judicial standings.
  • Microsoft SharePoint
  • A new tool used across institutions that enables
    file sharing, online committee work, group
    discussions, and blogs.
  • Second Life
  • An online 3D virtual community that allows
    students to simulate interactions with others
    through personal avatars (virtual personas).

23
A Closer Look
  • Facebook is nonetheless the most significant
    social networking technology to higher
    education because of its original focus on the
    college or university market. - Tracy Mitrano,
    2006, p. 22
  • Facebook
  • Prior to online social networking, students came
    to college and had a bound face book for all
    first-year students including name, photo,
    area(s) of interest, and hometown.
  • Today students typically set-up an account on
    Facebook before they even arrive on campus for
    first-year move-in.
  • Areas of Interest for Student Affairs
    Professionals
  • Online social networking raises questions about
    personal safety, content moderation, and the
    relationship between institutional missions and
    the millennial generations expectations of
    privacy.
  • Institutions are receiving many roommate change
    requests before students arrive on campus based
    on Facebook impression of the assigned roommate,
    resulting in some institutions placing a
    moratorium on roommate change requestsuntil a
    required period of time spent living together
    has been met (Mitrano, 2006).
  • Colleges need to be clear about how these social
    networking sites may impact their student
    employee hiring process.
  • Administrators need to be upfront with the
    consequences of online computer policy violations
    for both students as well as faculty and staff.
  • Student engagement can be enhanced by utilizing
    social networking technologies such as Facebook
    because of students reliance on technology.

24
The Wired Campus
  • The only way to discover the limits of the
    possible is to go beyond them into the
    impossible.
  • - Arthur C. Clarke, Technology and the Future

25
Interactive Multimedia
  • Purpose
  • Student affairs utilizes interactive multimedia
    to engage various learning styles by presenting
    information in ways that stimulate different
    senses.
  • Past
  • Programs, services, and information were
    presented through lecture, one-way, and linear
    communication techniques.
  • Present
  • Computer programs (PowerPoint), multimedia
    downloads, blogs, vlogs, instant messaging,
    podcasts, webinars, touch screens, interactive
    kiosks, and online trainings all promote active
    learning.
  • Companies such as e2Campus provide colleges with
    a mass notification system utilizing text
    messages, emails, digital signage throughout
    campus, loudspeakers, PA systems, and school
    websites in order to create a safer and more
    connected campus community.

26
Multimedia Definitions
  • Blog provide commentary or news on a particular
    subject others function as personal online
    diaries. A typical blog combines text, images,
    and links to other blogs, web pages, and other
    media related to its topic.
  • Vlog a blog whose medium is video.
  • Instant messaging a form of real-time
    communication between two or more people based on
    typed text. The text is conveyed via computers
    connected over a network such as the internet.
  • Podcast a collection of digital media files
    which is distributed over the internet, often
    using syndication feeds, for playback on portable
    media players and personal computers.
  • Webinars a type of web conference that can
    include polling and question and answer sessions
    to allow full participation between the audience
    and the presenter.
  • Why are these useful?
  • Provide bi-directional forms of communication,
    which allows for opinions and immediate feedback.
  • The language used can be more informal and
    digestible (Dowdell, 2006).

27
Blogging Limitations
  • Time can be wasted reading and creating
    ineffective blogs.
  • Validity of source
  • authors opinions may be biased.
  • posting may not always be appropriate and/or
    reflect the views of the institution.
  • information may be incorrect (Dowdell, 2006).

28
Student Affairs Examples
  • Orientation Services
  • Student orientation leaders blog about their
    experiences on campus.
  • Judicial Affairs
  • Downloadable video segments help students
    understand the judicial process.
  • Career Services
  • Students can blog about their internship
    experience or use instant messaging to receive
    immediate feedback on questions.
  • Student Health Services
  • Staff create podcasts of quick recipes for
    healthy eating.
  • Residence Life
  • Downloadable PowerPoint presentation about life
    on campus with movie clips.

29
The Evolution of Assessment
30
Assessment and Evaluation
  • Purpose
  • Assessment is a means for focusing our
    collective attention, examining our assumptions,
    and creating a shared culture dedicated to
    continuously improving the quality of higher
    learning (Angelo, 1995, p. 11).
  • Assessment is critical for student affairs
    professionals in order to demonstrate the value
    of their programs and to continue to receive
    funding, support, and room for growth in their
    institution.
  • Technology has revolutionized the way student
    affairs professionals 1. Evaluate programs and
    services. 2. Provide assessments for students.

31
Assessment Areas
  • Program Assessment provides the opportunity for
    the evaluation of what services and programs are
    currently doing, how well they are accomplishing
    goals, what is still needed for students, and the
    potential for growth in their program.
  • Web-based Surveys
  • Utilized by student activities, residential life,
    dining services, academic departments, and other
    student services programs to obtain feedback from
    students on programs and services.
  • Statistical analysis programs, such as SPSS,
    revolutionized the ability for professionals to
    assess greater numbers of respondents and utilize
    the information more efficiently.

32
Assessment Areas
  • Individual/Self Assessment is the process of
    gathering information about yourself or an
    individual in order to make an informed decision.
    An individualized assessment could include
    reviewing the following values, interests,
    personality, skills, ability, at-risk status, or
    mental health conditions.
  • Online Screening and Evaluation Assessments
  • Often utilized by career services, counseling and
    mental health, student health, disability
    services, and orientation services.
  • Provides faculty and staff the ability to review
    warning signs or to assist students in
    identifying their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Provides students the ability to identify their
    own struggles and/or areas for improvement.
  • Also provides appropriate resources in a timely
    manner for students to access both on-campus and
    off-campus.

33
The Evolution of Assessment
  • Assessment has grown tremendously through
    technology advancements over the last twenty-five
    years.
  • Past Assessments were paper-based or
    face-to-face interactions.
  • Required experts to collect data, analyze data,
    create feedback and reports all by hand.
  • A great deal of time from one employee or
    department needed to be dedicated to the process
    to collect the information and to utilize it
    properly.
  • Examples
  • Resident assistants handing out floor surveys to
    ask for programming ideas or feedback.
  • Orientation leaders handing out paper-based
    evaluations to assess the effectiveness of the
    orientation sessions.

34
The Evolution of Assessment
  • Present The internet has impacted the
    distribution, presentation, and quality of
    assessment of student services.
  • Characteristics of Online Assessment
  • Survey large numbers of students quickly and
    accurately.
  • Receive timely feedback and opportunity for
    improvement of services.
  • Responses can be monitored on an ongoing basis
    and collectively at the end of the assessment
    with ease.
  • Assessments can be stored and used again in the
    future.
  • Result comparisons can be done more efficiently
    and with more flexibility by the assessment team.
  • More sustainable and cost effective option for
    institutions to gather information.
  • Web-based surveys do not over extend the
    information technology department or monopolize
    the time of one individual or department to do
    the process well.
  • More departments and individuals have the ability
    to create assessment tools.
  • Survey anonymity and security are issues that
    must be controlled (Moneta, 2005).

35
Closing Thoughts
  • As technology continues to evolve, student
    affairs professionals need to stay current with
    technological advances in order to provide the
    most efficient service to meet students evolving
    needs.
  • Although technological advances provide
    opportunities for a new delivery of services, it
    is important to remember that technology can
    never completely replace face-to-face interaction
    and interpersonal relationships.
  • An effective student affairs professional will
    need to maintain a balance of both technological
    and personal interaction when working with
    students.
  • Information technology in student affairs
    has the potential to provide student services,
    programs, and activities that promote learning
    while also improving the quality, efficiency, and
    effectiveness of administrative operations. The
    senior students affairs staff set the tone for
    how information technology is introduced in the
    division and possibly the greater campus
    community.
  • - Karley Ausiello, 1997, p. 79

36
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