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Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change

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Social Movement Theories Relative Deprivation People compare achievements, become discontent and join social movements to get their fair share . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change


1
Chapter 16
  • Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social
    Change

2
Questions for you
  • What social factors mobilize people to begin a
    social movement?
  • In your opinion, which social movement of the
    20th century had the greatest impact on social
    change?
  • How many social movements have you witnessed in
    your lifetime?
  • What are the different types of crowds?

3
Chapter Outline
  • Collective Behavior
  • Social Movements
  • Social Movement Theories
  • Social Change in the Future

4
Collective Behavior
  • Collective behavior is voluntary, often
    spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a
    large number of people and typically violates
    dominant-group norms and values.
  • Collective behavior can take various forms,
    including crowds, mobs, riots, panics, fads,
    fashions, and public opinion.
  • What forms of collective behavior have you taken
    part in?

5
Factors That Contribute to Collective Behavior
  1. Structural factors that increase the chances of
    people responding in a particular way.
  2. Timing in history of particular social event.
  3. Breakdown in social control mechanisms and
    corresponding feeling of normlessness.

6
How Much Do You Know About Collective Behavior
and Environmental Issues?
  • True or False?
  • The environmental movement in the United States
    started in the 1960s.

7
How Much Do You Know About Collective Behavior
and Environmental Issues?
  • False.
  • The environmental movement in the United States
    is the result of more than 100 years of
    collective action.
  • The first environmental organization, the
    American Forestry Association (now American
    Forests), originated in 1875.

8
How Much Do You Know About Collective Behavior
and Environmental Issues?
  • True or False?
  • Sociologists have found that people in a
    community respond very similarly to natural
    disasters and to disasters caused by
    technological failures.

9
How Much Do You Know About Collective Behavior
and Environmental Issues?
  • False.
  • Most sociological studies have found that people
    respond differently to natural disasters and to
    technological disasters.
  • One of the major differences is the communal
    bonding that tends to occur following natural
    disasters, as compared with the extreme social
    conflict that may follow technological disasters.

10
Types of Crowd Behavior
  • Casual crowds - people who happen to be in the
    same place at the same time.
  • Conventional crowds - people who come together
    for a scheduled event and share a common focus.
  • Protest crowds - crowds that engage in activities
    intended to achieve political goals.

11
Types of Crowd Behavior
  • Expressive crowds - people releasing emotions
    with others who experience similar emotions.
  • Acting crowds - collectivities so intensely
    focused that they may erupt into violent
    behavior.

12
Polling Question
  • Have you ever participated in an organized
    protest?
  • Yes
  • No

13
Explanations of Crowd Behavior
  • Contagion Theory
  • People are more likely to engage in antisocial
    behavior in a crowd because they are anonymous
    and feel invulnerable.
  • Le Bon asserted that emotions such as fear and
    hate are contagious in crowds because people
    experience a decline in personal responsibility
    they will do things as a collectivity that they
    would never do when acting alone.
  • Social unrest and circular reaction
  • Sociologist Robert E. Park was the first U.S.
    sociologist to investigate crowd behavior.
  • the discontent of one person is communicated to
    another who reflects it back to the first person.

14
Explanations of Crowd Behavior
  • Convergence theory
  • focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and
    beliefs people bring to crowd behavior (Turner
    and Killian,1993).
  • people with similar attributes find a
    collectivity of like-minded persons with whom
    they can express their underlying personal
    tendencies.
  •  Emergent norm theory -
  • crowds develop their own definition of the
    situation and establish norms for behavior that
    fits the occasion (Turner and Killian,1993).

15
Social Movement Theories
Relative Deprivation People compare achievements, become discontent and join social movements to get their fair share.
Resource Mobilization People participate in social movements when the movement has access to key resources.
16
Mass Behavior
  • Mass behavior is collective behavior that takes
    place when people (who often are geographically
    separated from one another) respond to the same
    event in much the same way.

17
Rumors and Gossip
  • Rumors are unsubstantiated reports on an issue or
    subject (Rosnow and Fine, 1976).
  • Rumors thrive when tensions are high and when
    little authentic information is available on an
    issue of great concern.
  • Whereas rumors deal with an issue or a subject,
    gossip refers to rumors about the personal lives
    of individuals.

18
Mass Hysteria and Panic
  • is a form of dispersed collective behavior that
    occurs when a large number of people react with
    strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to
    a real or perceived threat.
  • Although the term has been widely used, many
    sociologists believe that this behavior is best
    described as a panic with a dispersed audience.

19
Fads and Fashions
  • A fad is a temporary but widely copied activity
    enthusiastically followed by large numbers of
    people.
  • Fashion is defined as a currently valued style of
    behavior, thinking, or appearance.
  • Fashion also applies to art, music, drama,
    literature, architecture, interior design, and
    automobiles, among other things.
  • Unlike fads, fashions tend to be longer lasting.

20
Public Opinion
  • Public opinion consists of the attitudes and
    beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to
    decision makers (Greenberg and Page, 2002).
  • Scholars who examine public opinion are
    interested in the extent to which the publics
    attitudes are communicated to decision makers and
    the effect (if any) that public opinion has on
    policy making (Turner and Killian, 1993).
  • Propaganda is information provided by individuals
    or groups, that have a vested interest in
    furthering their own cause, or damaging an
    opposing one.

21
Social Movements
  • A social movement is an organized group that acts
    consciously to promote or resist change through
    collective action (Goldberg, 1991).
  • Because social movements have not become
    institutionalized and are outside the political
    mainstream, they offer outsiders an opportunity
    to have their voices heard.

22
Social Movement Theories
  • Relative Deprivation Theory
  • People who are satisfied with their present
    condition are less likely to seek social change.
    Social movements arise as a response to peoples
    perception that they have been deprived of their
    fair share (Rose,1982).

23
Value-Added Theory
  • Smelser asserted, six conditions are necessary
    and sufficient to produce social movements when
    they combine or interact in a particular
    situation
  • Structural conduciveness.
  • Structural strain.
  • Spread of a generalized belief.
  • Precipitating factors.
  • Mobilization for action.
  • Social control factors.

24
Social Constructionist Theory Frame Analysis
  • Based on the assumption that a social movement is
    an interactive, symbolically defined, and
    negotiated process that involves participants,
    opponents and bystanders (Buechler, 2000).
  • Our interpretation of the particulars of events
    and activities is dependent on the framework from
    which we perceive them.

25
Resource Mobilization Theory
  • Focuses on the ability of members of a social
    movement to acquire resources and mobilize people
    in order to advance their cause (Oberschall,
    1973 McCarthy and Zald, 1977).
  • Resources include money, peoples time and
    skills, access to the media, and material goods,
    such as property and equipment.
  • Assistance from outsiders is essential for social
    movements.

26
Political Opportunity Theory
  • Social protests are directly related to the
    political opportunities that potential protesters
    and movement organizers believe exist within the
    political system at any given point in time.
  • Based on the assumption that social protests that
    take place outside of mainstream political
    institutions are deeply intertwined with more
    conventional political activities that take place
    inside these institutions.

27
New Social Movement Theory
  • Looks at a diverse array of collective actions
    and the manner in which those actions are based
    on politics, ideology, and culture.
  • Examples of new social movements include
    ecofeminism and environmental justice movements.

28
Polling Question
  • Civil disobedience is better to use than militant
    activity for groups to get their point across for
    social change.
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree somewhat
  • Unsure
  • Disagree somewhat

29
Types of Social Movements
  • Reform movements seek to improve society by
    changing an aspect of the social structure.
  • Revolutionary movements seek to bring about a
    total change in society.
  • Religious movements seek to produce radical
    change in individuals and typically are based on
    spiritual or supernatural belief systems.

30
Types of Social Movements
  • Alternative movements seek limited change in some
    aspect of people's behavior.
  • Resistance movements seek to prevent or undo
    change that has already occurred.

31
Stages in Social Movements
  • Preliminary stage - people begin to become aware
    of a threatening problem.
  • Coalescence stage - people begin to organize and
    start making the threat known to the public.
  • Institutionalization stage - organizational
    structure develops.

32
Social Change in the Future
  • In this chapter, we have focused on collective
    behavior and social movements as potential forces
    for social change in contemporary societies.
  • A number of other factors also contribute to
    social change, including the physical
    environment, population trends, technological
    development, and social institutions.

33
Quick Quiz

34
  • 1. A relatively large number of people who are in
    one another's immediate vicinity is a
  • mass
  • crowd
  • collective
  • social group

35
Answer B
  • A relatively large number of people who are in
    one another's immediate vicinity is a crowd.

36
  • 2. Relatively large gatherings of people who
    happen to be in the same place at the same time
    are a(n)
  • acting crowd
  • expressive crowd
  • casual crowd
  • mob

37
Answer C
  • Relatively large gatherings of people who happen
    to be in the same place at the same time are a
    casual crowd.

38
  • 3. Movements that seek to prevent change or to
    undo change that has already occurred are
  • revolutionary movements
  • alternative movements
  • religious movements
  • resistance movements

39
Answer D
  • Movements that seek to prevent change or to undo
    change that has already occurred are resistance
    movements.

40
  • 4. Movements that seek limited change in some
    aspect of people's behavior are
  • alternative movements
  • revolutionary movements
  • religious movements
  • resistance movements

41
Answer A
  • Movements that seek limited change in some aspect
    of people's behavior are alternative movements.

42
  • 5. ________ is based on the assumption that
    participants in social movements are rational
    people.
  • Relative deprivation theory
  • Social constructionist theory
  • Value added theory
  • Resource mobilization theory

43
Answer D
  • Resource mobilization theory is based on the
    assumption that participants in social movements
    are rational people.
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