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Title: B R _ main1


1
B R _ main1
Fable
Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations
U.C.L.A.

2
B R _ Fable
Fable
A Brief Introduction to Fable

Two Famous Fables
Some Famous English Sayings from Fables
3
B R _ Adam
Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith
1. A Brief Introduction to Adam Smith

2. Chronology of Adam Smith
The Wealth of Nations
4
B R _ A Brief Introduction to Fable 1
A Brief Introduction to Fable
The term fable refers to a short story in
which animals or inanimate objects speak and
behave like humans, usually to give a moral
point. The term comes from the Latin fabula, a
telling. The greatest teller of fables was
Aesop. He was believed to be a Greek slave who
lived in the 6th century B.C. Another great
teller of fables was Jean de La Fontaine. He
wrote in France in the 17th century. La Fontaine
based many of his fables on those of Aesop.
5
B R _ A Brief Introduction to Fable 2
Some of their best-known fables are The Lion
and the Mouse, The Hare and the Tortoise, The Fox
and the Grapes, The Shepherd Boy and the Wolf,
The Fox and the Crow, The Dove and the Ant, and
The Fox and the Stork. In the Chinese
language, some idioms come from fables such as
The Frog in the Shallow Well (????), His Spear
against His Shield (????), Making His Mark
(????), Ostrich Logic (????) and Blessing or Bane
(????).
6
B R _ A Brief Introduction to Fable 2
A Brief Introduction to Fable
Aesop (620?560? B.C.) ancient Greek writer of
fables
7
B R _ A Brief Introduction to Fable 3
A Brief Introduction to Fable
Jean de La Fontaine (16211695) French writer
8
B R _ Two Famous Fables 1
Two Famous Fables
Here are some pictures about two famous fables.
One is an Aesops fable the other is a Chinese
one. In small groups, students are required to
talk about the pictures and think of the
following questions. 1. What are the names of
the fables? 2. What lessons can we draw from the
fables?
Fable 1
Fable 2
9
B R _ Two Famous Fables 2
The Fox and the Grapes
One day a fox passed under a vine. From
the vine a lot of grapes were hanging. He was
very hungry and thirsty. He said, What a fine
vine it is! The grapes on the vine look very nice
and sweet.
10
B R _ Two Famous Fables 3
The color of the grapes was green. The
grapes were very big. And the grapes were so big
and beautiful that the fox wanted to eat them.
The fox said, I am thirsty and hungry. I want
to eat the grapes now. The fox jumped. The
grapes were too high. He tried everything to get
the grapes. But it was in vain. At last the
fox said, The grapes are too sour to eat. I
dont want to get the poor grapes.
11
B R _ Two Famous Fables 4
Making His Mark
12
B R _ Two Famous Fables 5
Making His Mark
A man from the state of Chu was crossing a
river. In the boat, his sword fell into the
water. Immediately he made a mark on the boat.
This is where my sword fell off, he said.
When the boat stopped moving, he went into the
water to look for his sword at the place where he
had marked the boat. The boat had moved but
the sword had not. Is this not a very foolish way
to look for a sword?
13
B R _ Some Famous English Sayings from Fables
Some Famous English Sayings from Fables
Here are some famous sayings in English. You are
required to answer the following questions and
then tell each fable as briefly as possible. 1.
What are the Chinese equivalents of these
sayings? 2. From which fable does each saying
come?
Sour grapes.
Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs.
One good turn deserves another.
Dont count your chickens before theyre hatched.
Click the sayings to see the details!
14
B R _ Sour grapes
Sour grapes.
It means ??? in Chinese. This saying comes
from the fable The Fox and the Grapes. In it the
fox cannot reach the grapes. Disappointed, the
animal says that the grapes are sour and that
they are not fit for a gentlemans eating.
15
B R _ Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs
Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs.
It means ???? in Chinese. This saying
comes from the fable The Goose with the Golden
Eggs. In it the owner of the goose is not
satisfied with one golden egg a day. He cuts the
goose open to see if there is gold inside.
16
B R _ One good turn deserves another.
One good turn deserves another.
It means ???? in Chinese. This saying comes
from the fable The Dove and the Ant. In it a
dove saves an ant from drowning in a river. Later
the ant saves the doves life by stinging a
hunter in the foot, making him miss his aim at
the dove.
17
B R _ Dont count your chickens before theyre
hatched.
Dont count your chickens before theyre hatched.
It means ???????? in Chinese. This saying
comes from the fable The Maid and the Pail of
Milk. In it a girl carries a pail of milk on her
head. She dreams about the eggs she will buy when
she sells the milk. The
eggs will hatch then she will sell the chickens.
With the money she has earned, she will buy fine
clothes for herself. Thinking about the new
clothes, the girl becomes so happy that she
merrily tosses her head and spills the milk.
18
B R _ A Brief Introduction to Adam Smith 1
A Brief Introduction to Adam Smith
Adam Smith (17231790) British philosopher and
economist
19
B R _ A Brief Introduction to Adam Smith 2
Adam Smith, economist and philosopher
(???), was born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland in 1723.
At Glasgow University he became a professor of
logic (???) (1751) and moral (??) philosophy
(17521763). As a tutor to the Duke of Buccleuch
he traveled the Continent from 1764 to 1766. In
1776 he moved to Edinburgh as commissioner (??)
of customs for Scotland. He died there in 1790.
He is considered the father of modern economic
theory. His famous work The Wealth of Nations
points out that labor is the only source of a
nations wealth.
20
B R _ Chronology of Adam Smith 1
Chronology of Adam Smith
1723 Born in , Scotland.

1737 1746 Educated at 1748
1751 Gave lectures on rhetoric (???) and
belles-lettres (???) in
Kirkcaldy
the Universities of Glasgow and Oxford.
Edinburgh.
1752 1764 Appointed professor of moral
philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
21
B R _ Chronology of Adam Smith 2
1759 His first book, The Theory of Moral
Sentiments, was published. 1764 1766
Traveled France and Switzerland as tutor to the
Duke of Buccleuch and met Turgot and
Necker in Paris and discussed their economic
ideas.
1766 1776 Lived in Kirkcaldy preparing
The Wealth of Nations.
22
B R _ Chronology of Adam Smith 3
1778 Appointed commissioner (??) of customs
and went to live in Edinburgh. July 17,
1790 Died.
23
B R _ Kirkcaldy
Kirkcaldy
Scotland
24
B R _ Scotland
Oxford University
25
B R _ Edinburgh
Edinburgh, Scotland
26
B R _ The Wealth of Nations
The Wealth of Nations
This is an important work of economic and
social theory by Adam Smith, published in 1776.
Its full title was An Inquiry into the Nature and
Causes of the Wealth of Nations. In it he
analyzed the relationship between work and the
production of a nations wealth. His conclusion
was that the best economic situation results from
encouraging free enterprise (an economic system
in which there is open competition in business
and trade, and no government control). This idea
has had a great influence on economic theories
since and it formed the basis of the economic
policies of the Conservative government in
Britain in the 1980s.
27
B R _ U. C. L. A.-1
U. C. L. A.
U.C.L.A. stands for University of
California at Los Angeles. It is the largest of
eight branches of the University of California.
It was established in 1919 and now has about
35,000 students. Maybe because of its location
close to Hollywood, the school is known
especially for its film studies and the campus is
used for some television and movie shoots.
28
G R _ main
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
29
G R _ Further Understanding-main
Further Understanding
For Part 1
Interview
Questions and Answers
For Part 2 Rearrange the Order of the Pictures
30
G R _ Part Division of the Text 1
Part Division of the Text
Parts Para(s) Main Ideas
1

Teenagers idleness and ignorance will produce
serious effects on all concerned and for society
as a whole.
110
Kevin 1990 comes to realize in his dream how much
lack of education costs his forebears, and may
cost himself, his children and the society they
live in, and how important it is to study hard.
2
1124
31
G R _ Interview 1
Interview
Suppose you are a journalist and your partner is
the author of the text. You have an interview
with him. The interview should cover the
following points
1. the happening in the drugstore the reason
why the author went there a dialogue between the
salesgirl and him 2. the authors feeling to the
happening the problems American teenagers are
facing such as ignorance, poor ability of
calculations and other things 3. something about
the son of the authors friend 4. the authors
purpose of offering a fable
32
G R _ Questions and Answers1
Questions and Answers
1. Why did the author go to the drugstore one
day?
He wanted to buy some file folders.
2. How old was the salesgirl?
Under 20 years old.
3. What was the salesgirls reaction to the
authors mental arithmetic (??)?
She was very surprised at it.
33
G R _ Questions and Answers2
4. Did the salesgirl believe that the author did
calculations by magic? Why or why not?
Yes. Maybe she believed it because she could
never do that.
5. What was the author?
He was a teacher at a college.
6. What did the author think of American
teenagers?
He thought they are ignorant and lacking in
knowledge of world history and geography.
34
G R _ Questions and Answers3
7. In the authors opinion, what was the most
serious problem for American teenagers?
They were indifferent to their ignorance.
8. Why did the author give us the example of his
friends son?
He just intended to show the seriousness of the
problem.
9. According to the author, what would happen if
there was an idle, ignorant labor force
in a modern industrial state?
There would be many problems in society such
as plane crashes, computer jams and breakdowns of
cars.
35
G R _ Questions and Answers4
10. What was the authors purpose of offering a
fable?
He just wanted to make American teenagers
understand the danger of their ignorance and
intellectual laziness.
36
G R _ Rearrange the Order of the Pictures 1
Rearrange the Order of the Pictures
Each of the following pictures stands for a Kevin
Hanley in a certain year. Match the picture with
the description and then tell the class how this
Kevin lives. Kevin 1835, a poor peasant in
Ireland Kevin 1928, a steel-mill worker in
Pittsburgh, U.S.A. Kevin 1945, a soldier
fighting the Japanese army Kevin 1966, a
student who studies all the time so as to get
into college and law school Kevin 1990, a
cleaner in a Japanese-owned factory Kevin
2020, a porter in a hotel for wealthy Europeans
and Asians Kevin 2050, living in a slum
and searching through trash piles for food
37
G R _ Rearrange the Order of the Pictures 2
Rearrange the Order of the Pictures
A
D
G
Kevin 1835 ( )
B
B
E
Kevin 1928 ( )
D
Kevin 1945 ( )
G
Kevin 1966 ( )
E
Kevin 1990 ( )
C
C
F
Kevin 2020 ( )
F
Kevin 2050 ( )
A
38
D R _ Text 1
Fable of the Lazy Teenager
Benjamin Stein
One day last fall, I ran out of file
folders and went to the drugstore to buy more. I
put a handful of folders on the counter and asked
a teenage salesgirl how much they cost. I dont
know, she answered. But its 12 cents each.
I counted the folders. Twenty-three at 12
cents each, that makes 2.76 before tax, I
said. You did that in your head? she
asked in amazement. How can you do that?
39
D R _ Text 2
Its magic, I said. Really? she
asked. No modestly educated adult can fail
to be upset by such an experience. While
our children seem better-natured than ever, they
are so ignorant and so ignorant of their
ignorance that they frighten me. In a class of
60 seniors at a private college where I recently
taught, not one student could write a short paper
without misspellings. Not one. But this is
just a tiny slice of the problem. The ability
to perform even the simplest calculations is only
a memory among many students I see, and their
knowledge of world history or geography is
nonexistent.
40
D R _ Text 3
Moreover, there is a chilling indifference
about all this ignorance. The attitude was summed
up by a friends bright, lazy 16-year-old son,
who explained why he preferred not to go to
U.C.L.A. I dont want to have to compete with
Asians, he said. They work hard and know
everything.
In fact, this young man will have to compete
with Asians whether he wants to or not. He cannot
live forever on the financial, material and human
capital accumulated by his ancestors. At some
point soon, his intellectual laziness will
seriously affect his way of life. It will also
affect the rest of us. A modern industrial state
cannot function with an idle, ignorant labor
force. Planes will crash. Computers will jam.
Cars will break down.
41
D R _ Text 4
To drive this message home to such young
Americans, I have a humble suggestion a movie,
or TV series, dramatizing just how difficult it
was for this country to get where it is and how
easily it could all be lost. I offer the
following fable. As the story opens, our
hero, Kevin Hanley 1990, a 17-year-old high
school senior, is sitting in his room, feeling
bitter. His parents insist he study for his
European history test. He wants to go shopping
for headphones for his portable CD player. The
book he is forced to read The Wealth of Nations
puts him to sleep.
42
D R _ Text 5
Kevin dreams it is 1835, and he is his own
great-great-great-grandfather at 17, a peasant in
County Kerry, Ireland. He lives in a small hut
and sleeps next to a pig. He is always hungry and
must search for food. His greatest wish is to
learn to read and write so he might get a job as
a clerk. With steady wages, he would be
able to feed himself and help his family. But
Hanleys poverty allows no leisure for such
luxuries as going to school. Without education
and money, he is powerless. His only hope
lies in his children. If they are educated, they
will have a better life.
43
D R _ Text 6
Our fable fast-forwards and Kevin Hanley
1990 is now his own great-grandfather, Kevin
Hanley, 1928. He, too, is 17 years old, and he
works in a steel mill in Pittsburgh. His father
came to America from Ireland and helped build the
New York City subway.
Kevin Hanley 1928 is far better off than
either his father or his grandfather. He can read
and write. His wages are far better than anything
his ancestors had in Ireland.
44
D R _ Text 7
Next Kevin Hanley 1990 dreams that he is
Kevin Hanley 1945, his own grandfather, fighting
on Iwo Jima against a most determined foe, the
Japanese army. He is
always hot, always hungry, always scared. One
night in a foxhole, he tells a friend why he is
there So my son and his son can live in peace
and security. When I get back, Ill work hard and
send my boy to college so he can live by his
brains instead of his back.
45
D R _ Text 8
Then Kevin Hanley 1990 is his own father,
Kevin Hanley 1966, who studies all the time so he
can get into college and law school. He lives in
a fine house. He has never seen anything but
peace and plenty. He tells his girl friend that
when he has a son, he wont make him study all
the time, as his father makes him. At that
point, Kevin Hanley 1990 wakes up, shaken by his
dream. He is relieved to be away from Ireland and
the steel mill and Iwo Jima. He goes back to
sleep.

46
D R _ Text 9
When he dreams again, he is his own son,
Kevin Hanley 2020. There is gunfire all day and
all night. His whole generation forgot why there
even was law, so there is none. People pay no
attention to politics, and government offers no
services to the working class.
Kevin 2020s father, who is of course
Kevin 1990 himself, works as a cleaner in a
factory owned by the
Japanese. Kevin 2020 is a porter in a hotel for
wealthy Europeans and Asians. Public education
stops at the sixth grade. Americans have long
since stopped demanding good education for their
children.
47
D R _ Text 10
The last person Kevin 1990 sees in his dream
is his own grandson. Kevin 2050 has no useful
skills. Machines built in

Japan do all the complex work, and there is
little manual work to be done. Without education,
without discipline, he cannot earn an adequate
living wage. He lives in a slum where there is no
heat, no plumbing, no privacy and survives by
searching through trash piles.
48
D R _ Text 11
In a word, he lives much as Kevin Hanley
1835 did in Ireland. But one day, Kevin Hanley
2050 is befriended by a visiting Japanese
anthropologist studying the decline of America.
The man explains to Kevin that when a man has no
money, education can supply the human capital
necessary to start to acquire financial capital.
Hard work, education, saving and discipline can
do anything. This is how we rose from the ashes
after you defeated us in a war about a hundred
years ago.


49
D R _ Text 12
America beat Japan in war? asks Kevin
2050. He is astonished. It seems as impossible as
Brazil defeating the United States would sound in
1990. Kevin 2050 swears that if he ever has
children, he will make sure they work and
study and learn and discipline themselves. To be
able to make a living by ones mind instead of by
stealing, he says. That would be a miracle.


50
D R _ Text 13
When Kevin 1990 wakes up, next to him is
his copy of The Wealth of Nations. He opens it
and the first sentence to catch his eye is this
A man without the proper use of the intellectual
faculties of a man is, if possible,
more contemptible than even a coward.
Kevins father walks in. All right, son, he
says. Lets go look at those headphones.

Sorry, Pop, Kevin 1990 says. I have to study.
51
D R _ You did t1
You did that in your head? she asked in
amazement.
1. What does the word that refer to?
It refers to the authors doing mental
arithmetic.
2. What can we infer from this sentence?
The children like the girl in the text are very
poor at calculations and they can never do mental
arithmetic like the man does.
52
D R _ No modestly t2
No modestly educated adult can fail to be upset
by such an experience.
1. What is the meaning of the phrase such an
experience?
The phrase such an experience means the
salesgirls ignorance.
2. Paraphrase the sentence.
Any adult who has got average education will feel
worried and unhappy about the ignorance the girl
shows.
53
D R _ The ability to t2
The ability to perform even the simplest
calculations is only a memory among many students
I see, and their knowledge of world history or
geography is nonexistent.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
???????????,?????????????????????????,????????????
????
54
D R _ At some t3
At some point soon, his intellectual laziness
will seriously affect his way of life.
Paraphrase the sentence.
Before long his intellectual laziness will have a
serious influence on his way of life.
55
D R _ To drive this t4
To drive this message home to such young
Americans, I have a humble suggestion a movie,
or TV series, dramatizing just how difficult it
was for this country to get where it is and how
easily it could all be lost.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
?????????????????,???????????,??????,????????????
???????????????????
56
D R _ His only t5
His only hope lies in his children.
What is his hope?
His hope is that his children will get good
education and live a better life.
57
D R _ Kevin Hanley t6
Kevin Hanley 1928 is far better off than either
his father or his grandfather.
1. What is the meaning of this sentence?
It means that he is much richer than both his
father and grandfather.
2. Why is he far better off than them?
He is richer because he is literate. Thats to
say, he can read and write.
58
D R _ Kevin 2020s t9
Kevin 2020s father, who is of course Kevin 1990
himself, works as a cleaner in a factory owned by
the Japanese.
What can we infer from the fact that the factory
in which Kevin 2020s father works is owned by
the Japanese not the Chinese or people from other
countries?
It can be inferred that in the authors opinion
the Japanese are the symbol of success because of
their hard work, education and discipline.
59
D R _ The man explains t11
The man explains to Kevin that when a man has no
money, education can supply the human capital
necessary to start to acquire financial capital.
1. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
????????,????????,????????????????????
2. Do you agree with that mans opinion? Why or
why not?
60
D R _ America beat t12
America beat Japan in war?
What can we infer from the sentence?
We can infer from the sentence that Kevin 2050 is
really very ignorant about history.
61
D R _ they work t12
they work and study and learn and discipline
themselves.
There are three words of discipline in this
text (Para. 19, Para.20, Para. 21). Tell the
different meanings of them in Chinese.
The first discipline (Para. 19) means ??, the
second (Para. 20) means ?? and the last one
(Para. 21) means ??.
62
D R _ Sorry Popt12
Sorry, Pop, Kevin 1990 says. I have to study.
1. Why does the boy say so?
Because his dream makes him know the importance
of education and he has made up his mind to study
hard.
2. Can you imagine his fathers reaction to the
boys answer?
63
D R _ word _ t1 run out of
run out of use up or finish a supply of (sth.)
To our disappointment, our car ran out of gas
halfway home.
When they ran out of food, the soldiers set about
hunting for more.
64
D R _ word _ t1 in amazement
in amazement with a feeling of great surprise
or disbelief
Aunt Sophia gazed at her picture in amazement
she looked like a teenage girl in it.
?????????????,?????????????????
All the people in the lecture hall stared at him
in amazement when he talked loudly with his
friend.
65
D R _ word _ t2 upset
upset vt.
1) make (sb.) worry or feel unhappy.
be upset by / about
Pattern
They are terribly upset by the break-up of their
parents marriage.
??????????????
He was upset about the argument he had with his
wife.
2) make ill in the stomach
The foreign food upset me / my stomach.
3) knock over, causing confusion
The boy upset the glass of milk.
Her plans were upset by the change in the
weather.
66
D R _ word _t2 ignorant
ignorant adj. knowing little or nothing
She was ignorant of her husbands illegal
activities. Otherwise she would have done
everything possible to stop him.
Collocation
ignorant about / of ??????
Some people are ignorant of the facts about
global warming.
??????????
Im rather ignorant about computer.
67
D R _ word _t2 ability1
ability n. power or skill to do, make, or
think talent
We elected him monitor because he had the ability
to bring out the best in others.
???????????,?????????
Although his translation is not perfect, he did
it to the best of his ability.
He lost the ability to walk after a car accident.
68
D R _ word _t2 ability2
ability, capability capacity
CF
????????,????????
ability ????,???(???)????,????,
?????????,??????,??? in,for,???? of doing? ??
He shows considerable ability in / for
organization.
????????
??,????????????????????
He has found a job more suited to his abilities.
????????????????
69
D R _ word _ t2 ability3
capability ? ability ??,????(???)????,?????,???
of doing ? for (doing) sth.???
CF
The essay is a proof of the writers capability
of using the right word in the right place.
?????????????????????
??????,capability of ???????????capability for
??????????????,capability ??????????,? ability
??????????
NB
He acquired in eight hours the ability to drive a
car.
??????????????
70
D R _ word _ t2 ability4
He acquired in eight hours the ability to drive a
car.
??????????????
capacity ?????????????,?????????
CF
He has a capacity for mathematics.
?????????(????????)
The auditorium has a seating capacity of two
thousand.
?????????
71
D R _ word _ t3 sum up
sum up give a brief summary (of sth.)
My teacher would sum up the main points of the
lesson before he ended the class.
Alice summed up her Christmas holidays in one
word Terrible.
72
D R _ word _ t3 compete
compete vi. try to be better than (sb. else)
John competed for a place at the school, but he
didnt get it.
compete with / against
Pattern
The young tennis player has often competed
against famous players, but so far he has always
been beaten.
???????????????
China is now competing with other countries for
world market.
73
D R _ word _ t3 accumulate 1
accumulate v. collect, or gather together,
esp. over a period of time make or become
greater in quantity or size
I have accumulated many books over the last few
years.
Dust quickly accumulates if we dont sweep our
room.
??????
His debts accumulated.
Collocation
??????
accumulate a huge mass of data
accumulate experience
????
??????
accumulate a fortune
???????
accumulate a good library
74
D R _ word _ t3 accumulate 2
accumulate amass
CF
????????????? accumulate ??????????????
Through the years he accumulated sufficient money
to buy a farm when he retired.
??????,??????????????????
amass ???????????????,???????????

He soon amassed sufficient evidence to support
his case.
?????????????????????
75
D R _ word _ t3 affect 1
affect vt.
1) have an influence on
More than seven million people have been affected
by the drought.
2) cause feelings of sorrow, anger, love, etc, in
(sb.)
?? ?? ????????????
Martin Luther Kings speech deeply affected the
audience.
76
D R _ word _ t3 affect 2
affect , effect influence
CF
???????????????? affect ????,??????????????
???????1)????,????????2)??????????
Nothing you say will affect my decision.
????????????????
The small amount of rain last year affected the
growth of crops.
?????????????
77
D R _ word _ t3 affect 3
CF
effect ????,?????,???,????????????
The new hairdo effected a startling change in her
appearance.
??????????????????
influence ???????????????????????
Such films have a dangerous influence on
children.
78
D R _ word _ t3 function
function
1. vi. operate act
????????,???????
The machine wont function well if you dont oil
it.
Athens (??) functioned as a center of trade in
the thirteenth century.
2. n. a usual purpose (of a thing) or
special duty (of a person)
The function of an adjective is to describe or
add to the meaning of a noun.
79
D R _ word _ t3 idle
idle adj.
1) lazy
The boy is really idle he just sits around the
house all day.
2) not working
Men are left idle when machines break down.
3) of no use
His words were just idle threats he cant harm
us.
Collocation
stand / lie idle ??
The machinery stood idle for a month.
80
D R _ word _ t3 break down1
break down
1) stop working
The elevators in this building are always
breaking down.
2) fail
Talks between the two countries broke down when
the two sides failed to reach an agreement.
3) destroy reduce or be reduced to pieces
They broke the door down.
81
D R _ word _ t3 break down2
Collocation
??,??
break away
??,????????
break in
??,????
break into
break out
??,??????,??
??
break through
break up
??????(??)????
82
D R _ word _ t4 drive home
drive home make (sth.) clear so that people
understand it
drive sth. home (to sb.)
Pattern
He drove the point home with another quotation.
????????????????
We must drive home to him where the difficulties
lie.
Peter was lazy. His parents tried to drive home
to him the importance of hard work.
83
D R _ word _ t4 humble 1
humble adj.
1) not proud modest
Frank strikes me as a very humble person.
The doctor was humble about his work, although he
cured many people.
??????????????,????????????
84
D R _ word _ t4 humble 2
2) low in rank or position unimportant
Michael started his career as a humble fisherman.
Many famous historical figures came from a humble
background.
85
D R _ word _ t4 suggestion 1
suggestion n. sth. suggested
??????? by / for ? that-clause ??that-clause
?,?????????
NB
I have lots of suggestions for the parks future.
They didnt like my suggestion that she share the
room with her classmate.
At my suggestion we went on a picnic.
86
D R _ word _t4 suggestion 2
suggestion, advice opinion
CF
??????????? suggestion ???????,?????????
????????,????????,?????????????
This is merely a suggestion.
??????(?)???
advice ??????????(????)????????,?????????????,??
???????????????????????,??????????????????????
??? advice???
87
D R _ word _t4 suggestion 3
You should follow the doctors advice and give up
smoking.
??????????,?????
CF
opinion ?????????,?????
He showed me a poem he had written and asked my
opinion about it.
??????????,???????
88
D R _ word _t4 suggestion 4
Collocation
advance / make / offer / put forward a suggestion
????
ask for / call for / invite suggestions
????
act on a suggestion
???????
adopt a suggestion
????
reject a suggestion
????
a suggestion about / concerning
???????
???????
at sbs suggestion
89
D R _ word _ t5 search for
search for look for
Many planes and ships were sent to search the
South Sea for the missing Chinese pilot.
?????????????????
The police were searching the house for a hidden
weapon.
90
D R _ word _ t5 luxury 1
luxury n.
  1. a pleasant thing that is expensive, but not
    necessary (used as a countable noun)

Champagne is a luxury they can no longer afford.
????????????
We cant afford to spend money on luxuries.
2) great comfort, as provided by wealth (used
as an uncountable noun)
She was brought up in an atmosphere of luxury and
wealth.
91
D R _ word _ t5 luxury 2
He took over his fathers company and led a life
of luxury.
They wallowed in luxury.
????????????
Collocation
??
enjoy (a) luxury
??????
afford a luxury
??????????
pure / sheer luxury
?????
unaccustomed luxury
???
in luxury
92
D R _ word _ t6 better off
better off richer than you were before more
comfortable
??,?????????????
Nowadays Chinese people are better off than they
used to be.
Its obvious that those who work hard are better
off than those who dont.
93
D R _ word _ t7 scared
scared adj. frightened (often followed by of
/ to / that-clause)
The lady has always been scared of snakes.
Theyre scared of making a fool of themselves.
???????????????
Im scared to fly in a plane. Im scared that it
might crash.
94
D R _ word _ t10 complex
complex adj.
1) difficult to understand or explain
Her political ideas were too complex to get
support from ordinary people.
The problem was so complex that there would be no
easy solution.
2) consisting of many closely connected parts
When I visited Shanghai for the first time I got
lost in the rather complex network of roads.
95
D R _ word _ t10 adequate1
adequate adj. enough (often followed by
infinitive to or for)
Is the transport system adequate to deliver the
food to remote areas?
Her knowledge of English was adequate for the job.
CF
For the use of beginners, the book is adequate.
???????,????????
96
D R _ word _ t10 adequate 2
enough ????????????,??????,???????????????
CF
Are there enough apples for everyone?
?????????
sufficient ??? enough ?????,??????,???????
Fill in the blanks with the adequate, enough or
sufficient. 1) We havent got ________
information from which to draw a
conclusion. 2) The pianist gave an ________
performance. 3) There is _________food for six
people. 4) I hope you will prove _________ to the
job.

sufficient
adequate

enough

adequate

97
D R _ word _ t11 decline1
decline
1. n. a gradual decrease in the quality,
quantity, or importance of sth. (followed
by in)
Some people are worried that there will be a
great decline in the stock market.
Class attendance is in decline recently.
98
D R _ word _ t11 decline 2
Collocation
????, ???? ????(?????????)
fall / sink into a decline
?????
hasten the decline of
??? ????
on the decline
2. v.
  1. move from a better to a worse position, or from
    higher to lower

Her power has begun to decline now that she is
old.
Because of the measures taken by the new mayor,
the crime rate in our city sharply declined in
the past two years.
99
D R _ word _ t11 decline 3
2) (fml) refuse, usu. politely
We had to decline their invitation because we had
made other plans.
When he asked me to dance, I declined politely.
100
D R _ word _ t11 acquire
acquire vt. gain or come to possess by ones own
work, skill, action, etc.
He acquired a knowledge of computer by careful
study.
?????????????????
Mr. Green acquired a fortune in the oil business.
101
D R _ word _ t12 astonish 1
astonish vt. surprise very much amaze
They were greatly astonished at the extraordinary
beauty of the picture.
We were astonished to hear that he had passed his
driving test.
CF
astonish, amaze, surprise
???????????,????,????????????????,????????
????????? astonish ????????????????????????astoni
sh ???????? surprise ?????
102
D R _ word _ t12 astonish 2
They were astonished at / by the news of his
escape.
??????????????
amaze ???????????,??????????
CF
I was amazed at / by her calmness.
???????????(??????)
surprise ???????????????????????
Her frank answer surprised him.
?????????????
103
D R _ word _ t12 make a living by
make a living by earn money by (doing sth.)
Many farmers in this area make a good living by
growing flowers.
He makes a living by writing.
104
D R _ word _ t12 miracle
miracle n. an amazing or wonderful event, esp.
sth. that happens unexpectedly
There was a severe earthquake in that area, but
by a miracle, no one was killed in it.
The teacher told me that itd be a miracle if I
passed the examination.
It was a miracle that the pilot landed the plane
in that snowstorm.
105
D R _ word _ t12 miracle2
Collocation
????????
by a miracle
????(??)?????
to a miracle
accomplish / perform / work a miracle
????
106
D R _ word _ t12 faculty
faculty n.
1) mental and physical abilities
For a woman of 85, she still has all her
faculties.
It is a myth that the faculty of hearing is
greatly increased in blind people.
2) all the teachers of a university or college
After seven years of study, he succeeded in
joining the faculty of Columbia University.
107
A R _ main
Useful Expressions
Sentence Translation
Dubbing
Text Analysis
Reading and Speaking
Writing Practice
Proverbs and Quotations
108
A R _ Writing Practice-main
Writing Practice
A Brief Introduction
A Sample
Some Common Connectors
Homework
109
A R _ Useful Expressions 1
Useful Expressions
1. ???
run out of
a handful of
2. ???
3. ?????
be upset by
4. ????
a private college
5. ???????
a tiny slice of the problem
6. ?????
a chilling indifference about
7. ???
compete with
110
A R _ Useful Expressions 2
at some point soon
way of life
manual work
drive home
a humble suggestion
as the story opens
go shopping for
111
A R _ Useful Expressions 3
put sb. to sleep
15. ?????
steady wages
16. ????
his hope lies in
17. ?????????
be far better off than
18. ???????
19. ???????
rise from the ashes
catch ones eye
20. ????
112
A R _ Dubbing 1
Dubbing
You will listen to the fable titled The Hare and
the Tortoise. Then you are required to dub this
fable with the help of the words in the box
below. After that you can discuss with your
partner and tell the class as to what lesson we
can draw from this fable.
run against sb. ??? take a little nap
??? ????at
ones steady pace ????
??? without a moments ???? stopping
jeer at ?? plod on ???????? oversleep
??? go off ?? come on ?? jog
along ????? goal ??
113
A R _ Dubbing 3
114
A R _ Dubbing 1-pop
The Hare and the Tortoise
A Hare jeered at a Tortoise for the slowness
of his pace. But he laughed, and said that he
would run against her and beat her any day she
would name.
Come on, said the Hare, you will soon see what
my feet are made of. So it was agreed that they
should start at once. The Tortoise went off
jogging along, without a moments stopping, at
his usual steady pace. The Hare, treating the
whole matter very lightly, said she would first
take a little nap, and that she should soon
overtake the Tortoise. Meanwhile, the Tortoise
plodded on and the Hare, oversleeping herself,
arrived at the goal, only to see that the
Tortoise had got in before her. Slow and
steady wins the race.
115
A R _ Text Analysis 1
Text Analysis
Up to now we have learned three expository
essays in this textbook Units 3, 7 and 8. Now
lets compare the different techniques used in
expository writing. We are going to compare them
in terms of the three main parts of an expository
Beginning, Body and Ending.
116
A R _ Text Analysis 2
Beginning
First lets see the beginning of the three
texts. Unit 3 does not reveal the main topic
until the third paragraph. In the first two
paragraphs the author tries to guide readers
through reasoning by which he arrives at his main
argument. Unit 7 starts by posing a question
Do animals have intelligence? to which the
author then gives a positive answer. Unit 8
begins with an anecdote (???????).
117
A R _ Text Analysis 3
Body
Then lets move on to the main part. The main
part of Unit 3 provides three solutions to the
question of how to educate the public so as to
form in them a positive attitude towards science.
The main part of Unit 7 provides three examples
to prove that some animals are intelligent. The
main part of Unit 8 is a fable, which functions
to convey the message that education is vital to
both the individual and society.
118
A R _ Text Analysis 4
Ending
Finally, lets see the ending. The last
paragraph of both Unit 3 and Unit 7 presents a
conclusion. The final part of Unit 8 does not.
119
A R _ Reading and Speaking
Reading and Speaking
You are required to read a famous Aesops fable
titled The Lion and the Mouse. And then look at
the three pictures and retell the fable in small
groups.
Click here to read the fable!
Click here to see the pictures!
120
A R _ Reading and Speaking 1-Click here to see
the pictures--pop
The Lion and the Mouse
121
A R _ Reading and Speaking 1-Click here to read
the fable --pop
The Lion and the Mouse
Once when a Lion was asleep, a little
Mouse began running up and down upon him this
soon wakened the Lion, who placed his huge paw
(??) upon him, and opened his big jaws to
swallow him. Pardon, O King, cried the
little Mouse, forgive me this time, I shall
never forget it. Who knows but I may be able to
do you a turn some of these days? The Lion
was so tickled (????) at the idea of the Mouse
being able to help him that he lifted up his paw
and let him go. Now it happened no long
time after that some hunters, who desired to
carry the Lion alive to the King, tied him to
122
A R _ Reading and Speaking 1-Click here to read
the fable --pop
a tree while they went in search of a wagon to
carry him on. Just then the little Mouse
happened to pass by and saw the Lion was in
trouble. He went up to the Lion and soon gnawed
(?) away the ropes that bound the King of the
Beasts. Was I not right? said the little Mouse.
Little friends may prove great friends.
123
A R _ Writing Practice 1.1
Cause and Effect Essay Writing Cause and
effect essays are concerned with why things
happen (cause) and what happens as a result
(effect). Cause and effect is a common method of
organizing and discussing ideas. The following
tips can help you draft this type of essay
124
A R _ Writing Practice 1.2
  1. Distinguish between cause and effect. To
    determine causes, ask, Why did this happen? To
    identify effects, ask, What happened because of
    this?
  2. Develop your thesis statement. State clearly
    whether you are discussing causes, effects, or
    both. Introduce your main idea, using the terms
    cause and/or effect .
  3. Find and organize supporting details. Back up
    your thesis with relevant and sufficient details
    that are organized.
  4. Use appropriate transitions. To blend details
    smoothly in cause and effect essays, use the
    transitional words and phrases.

125
A R _ Writing Practice 2
A Sample Stamp-collecting is an excellent
hobby for many reasons. First, everyone, young
and old, can participate. Second, it is not
expensive. Expensive equipment is not necessary.
Third, stamp-collecting can enrich peoples
knowledge in history and geography. Finally,
time, patience and interest are the only
requirements of this fascinating and educational
hobby. It is probably the most widespread of all
hobbies.
126
A R _ Writing Practice 3.1
Some Common Connectors
1)
is responsible for is the reason for leads to
brings about causes results in produces
contributes to
cause (Smoking)
effect (lung cancer.)
127
A R _ Writing Practice 3.2
2)
occurs from results from follows from is
due to is a result of
effect (Lung cancer)
cause (smoking.)
3)
Therefore / Hence, So / Thus, Consequently, As
a result, As a consequence,
cause (He smokes heavily.)
effect ( he gets lung cancer.)
128
A R _ Writing Practice 4
You are required to complete the following
paragraph.
Students study English for different
reasons. The first reason is that
students may
need English to read articles and textbooks about
their subjects in English.
many
students study English because they have to!
English is part of school curriculum.
The second reason is that
they are
attracted by foreign culture
________________________________________ .
Another reason is that
As a consequence,
they are studying
English hard to know more about the
English-speaking people and countries.
The last reason is possibly that
a
good knowledge of English will help students get
a better job when they graduate from the
university.
129
A R _ Sentence Translation 1
Sentence Translation
1. No modestly educated adult can fail to be
upset by such an experience.
?????????????????????
2. Moreover, there is a chilling indifference
about all this ignorance.
????,??????????????,?????????
130
A R _ Sentence Translation 2
3. To drive this message home to such young
Americans, I have a humble suggestion a movie,
or TV series, dramatizing just how difficult it
was for this country to get where it is and how
easily it could all be lost.
?????????????????,?????? ?????,??????,???????????
????????????????????
4. ????????, ????????,????????????????????
The man explains to Kevin that when a man has no
money, education can supply the human capital
necessary to start to acquire financial capital.
131
A R _ Sentence Translation 3
5. ????????????????????????
A man without the proper use of the intellectual
faculties of a man is, if possible, more
contemptible than even a coward.
6. ?????????????????,????????????????????????????
These skills are something that math and science
teach and are essential for adolescents to become
thinking, intelligent members of society.
132
A R _ Sentence Translation 4
7. ??????????????????,???????????????,????????????
??
Calculators do have their place in the world
outside school and, to a limited extent, in
higher-level math classes, but they are hardly
education tools.
133
A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 1
Proverbs and Quotations
1. A body without knowledge is like a house
without a foundation.
?????????????
2. A man is never too old to learn.
???,????
3. Knowledge is a treasure, but practice is the
key to it.
?????,?????????????
134
A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 2
4. The more a man learns, the more he sees his
ignorance.
???????
5. The roots of education are bitter, but the
fruit is sweet.
Aristotle, Ancient Greek philosopher
???????,???????? ?????? ?????
135
S R _ main
Culture Notes
Reading
Comprehension Tasks
136
S R _ Culture Notes-main
Culture Notes
The SAT
The ACT
Differences Between the ACT and SAT
137
S R _ Culture Notes 1.1
Directions Listen to several short passages
about SAT and then tell the class what you have
got about the exam.
1) Definition
The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test
which is required for college admission by many
colleges and universities in the United States.
More colloquially, the test is usually just
called the SAT. As an alternative to the SAT,
some colleges allow students to take the ACT,
another standardized test, and some schools have
an SAT optional policy, meaning that students
may submit scores, but they are not required.
138
S R _ Culture Notes 1.2
2) Development
The first form of the SAT was administered in
, when the College Board tested just
. The College Board
continues to manage the SAT today, along with an
assortment of other tests
used in
the test itself is designed and published by
the Educational Testing Service (ETS). Since
1901, the SAT has undergone a number of changes
which were designed to
the testing process and to
shifts in the education system. As of
2007, the last major SAT was in
2005, when the ETS retooled the SAT
harsh criticism from the University of
California system, which considered dropping the
test from their admission requirements.
1901
____
under 1,000 students
_________________
university
standardized
________
___________
admissions
_________
compensate for
_________
streamline
_____________
overhaul
_______
in response to
____________
139
S R _ Culture Notes 1.3
3) Structure There are three sections in the
SAT
- Mathematics
It is divided into three sub-sections. Most of
the questions have multiple choice answers,
although several questions require test-takers to
fill in their numerical answers on an answer
sheet.
- Critical reading
It requires test-takers to read short passages
and fill out the correct responses to multiple
choice questions. Students must also be able to
fill in the blanks in sentences using a list of
word choices, demonstrating vocabulary skills.
140
S R _ Culture Notes1. 4
- Writing
It requires students to write a brief essay, and
to respond to questions which test the writing
and editing skills of the test-taker.
141
S R _ Culture Notes 1.5
4) Score
The current SAT includes three sections, each
of which can earn a of
800 and a minimum score of . For the
test-takers final score, the College Board adds
the three scores together typically, a
percentile is included with the score, calculated
scores from students who took
comparable tests. Traditionally,
universities such as the have
demanded very high SAT scores from their
.
maximum score
200
on the basis of
Ivy Leagues
top-flight
applicants
142
S R _ Culture Notes 1.6
5) A Table About the SAT
Section Scores Time (Min.) Content
Writing 200800
Number and operations algebra and functions geometry statistics, probability, and data analysis
200800 70 Critical reading and sentence-level reading
Grammar, usage, and diction
60
Mathematics
70
200800
Critical Reading
143
S R _ Culture Notes 2.1
Directions Listen to a passage about ACT, then
answer the following questions
1. What is the ACT mainly for?
For high school achievement and college
admissions in the U.S.
2. When did the ACT come into being?
In 1959.
3. How many tests does the ACT have now? What are
they?
Five. They are English, Math, Reading, Science
reasoning and an optional Writing test.
144
S R _ Culture Notes 2.2
4. Do all colleges and universities in U.S.
regard the result of ACT as the only way to
accept students?
No. They will place emphases on different
factors.
145
S R _ Culture Notes 2.2-pop
The ACT, the abbreviation of American
College Testing, is a standardized test for high
school achievement and college admissions in the
United States produced by ACT, Inc. It was first
administered in fall 1959 by Everett Franklin
Lindquist as a competitor to the College Boards
Scholastic Aptitude Test, now the SAT Reasoning
Test. Some students who perform poorly on the SAT
find that they perform better on the ACT and vice
versa. The ACT test has historically consisted of
four tests English, Math, Reading, and Science
Reasoning. In February 2005, an optional writing
test was added to the ACT, mirroring changes to
the SAT that took place later in March of the
146
S R _ Culture Notes 2.2-pop
same year. All four-year colleges and
universities in the U.S. accept the ACT, but
different institutions place different emphases
on standardized tests such as the ACT, compared
to other factors of evaluation such as class
rank, G.P.A., and extracurricular activities.
147
S R _ Culture Notes 3.1
You are required to listen to a passage, fill in
the gap and then tell the class the differences
between the ACT and SAT.
148
S R _ Culture Notes 3.2
The differences between the ACT and SAT are as
follows 1) The ACT is an
test, measuring what a student has learned in
school. The SAT is more of an
test, testing reasoning and verbal abilities. 2)
The ACT has up to components English,
Mathematics, Reading, Science, and an optional
Writing Test. The SAT has only
components Critical Reading, Mathematics, and a
required Writing Test.
achievement
___________
aptitude
_______
five
____
three
_____
149
S R _ Culture Notes 3.3
3) The College Board introduced a new version of
the SAT in 2005, with a (???)
writing test. ACT continues to offer its
well-established test, plus an
(????) writing test. You take the ACT
Writing Test only if required by the college(s)
youre applying to. 4) The SAT has a
. That is, they take off
for wrong answers. The ACT is scored based on the
number of correct answers with
(??) . 5) The full score of
ACT is 36 while SAT 2400.
mandatory
_________
optional
_______
correction for guessing
___________________
no penalty
_________
for guessing
__________
150
S R _ Reading _ text 1
Ditch the Calculator
Diane Hunsaker
I sigh inwardly as I watch yet another
student, this one a ninth grader, struggle with
an advanced math problem that requires simple
multiplication. He mentally battles with 56,
looks longingly at the off-limits calculator on
the corner of my desk and finally guesses the
answer 35. The growth in the use of
calculators in the classroom amazes me. The
students I tutor tell me regularly that their
teachers allow unlimited access to this tool. The
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
actively encourages its use.
151
S R _ Reading _ text 2
Recently I attended a math seminar where the
instructor casually stated that teachers were no
longer reluctant to permit calculators in the
classroom. Now everyone agrees on their
importance, she said. The more I hear from the
education establishment about the benefits of
these devices in schools, the less surprised I am
when middle- and high-school students who have
difficulty with arithmetic call for tutoring in
algebra and geometry. Having worked six years as
an electrical engineer before switching to
teaching, I often suggest to my students that
they consider technical and scientific careers,
but Im discouraged when I see an increasing
number of kids who lack simple math skills.
152
S R _ Reading _ text 3
Educators have many arguments in defense of
calculators, but each one ignores the reason that
we teach math in the first place. Math trains the
mind. By this I mean that students learn to think
logically and rationally, to proceed from known
information to desired information and to become
competent with both numbers and ideas. These
skills are something that math and science teach
and are essential for adolescents to become
thinking, intelligent members of society.
Some teachers argue that calculators let students
concentrate on how to solve problems instead of
getting tied up with tedious computations.
Having a calculator doesnt make it any easier
for a student to decide how to attack a math
problem.
153
S R _ Reading _ text 4
Rather, it only encourages him to try every
combination of addition, subtraction,
multiplication or division without any thought
about which would be more appropriate. Some of my
elementary-school children look at a word problem
and instantly guess that adding is the correct
approach. When I suggest that they solve the
problem this way without a calculator, they
usually pause and think before continuing. A
student is much more likely to cut down his work
by reflecting on the problem first if he doesnt
have a calculator in his hand. Learning effective
methods for approaching confusing problems is
essential, not just for math but for life.
154
S R _ Reading _ text 5
A middle-school teacher once said to me,
So what if a student cant do long division?
Give him a calculator, and hell be fine. I
doubt it. I dont know when learning by heart and
repetitious problem solving fell to such a low
priority in education circles. How could we
possibly communicate with each other, much less
create new ideas, without the immense store of
information in our brains? Math is as much
about knowing why the rules work as knowing what
the rules are. A student who cannot do long
division obviously does not comprehend the
principles on which it is based. A true
understanding of why often makes learning by rote
unnecessary, because the student can figure out
the rules himself.
155
S R _ Reading _ text 6
My students who view the multiplication tables
as a list of unrelated numbers have much more
difficulty in math than those who know that
multiplication is simply repeated addition.
Calculators prevent students from seeing this
kind of natural structure and beauty in math.
A student who learns to handle numbers mentally
can focus on how to attack a problem and then
complete the actual calculations easily. He will
also have a much better idea of what the answer
should be, since experience has taught him
number sense, or the relationship between
numbers.
156
S R _ Reading _ text 7
A student who has grown up with a calculator
will struggle with both strategies and
computations. When youngsters used a calculator
to solve 94 in third grade, they are still using
one to solve the same problem in high school. By
then they are also battling with algebra.
Because they never felt comfortable working with
numbers as children, they are serio
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