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The South and Slavery

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The South and Slavery King Cotton Reigns The Cotton Kingdom Post Revolutionary recession results in decline in slavery Ideals of the Revolution conflict with slavery. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The South and Slavery


1
The South and Slavery
  • King Cotton Reigns

2
The Cotton Kingdom
  • Post Revolutionary recession results in decline
    in slavery
  • Ideals of the Revolution conflict with slavery.
  • Some owners free their slaves.

3
Slavery Expands and Cotton Become King
  • Cotton Gin
  • Trade
  • Cotton exported to England from sale of cotton
    used to buy northern goods
  • Britain heavily dependent on cotton to feed its
    textile factories (80 came from U.S.)
  • Cotton accounted for 50 of all American exports
    after 1840.
  • South produced 75 of worlds cotton.

4
Slave Rebellions
  • Stono Rebellion, 1739
  • South Carolina slaves fled toward Florida killing
    whites along way
  • Gabriel Prosser, 1800
  • Rebellion did not materialize and Prosser and 26
    others were hanged.
  • Denmark Vesey 1822.
  • A slave informer advised his master of the plot
  • Vesey and 30 others publicly hanged

5
Slave Rebellions
  • Nat Turners revolt -- 1831
  • Sixty Virginians slaughtered, mostly children and
    women
  • Wave of killing slowed down revolts aim of
    capturing armory
  • Largest slave revolt ever in the South
  • Over 100 slaves were killed in response Turner
    was hanged.
  • Southern states made it increasingly difficult
    for masters to free their slaves

6
Slave Rebellion Cont.
  • The most common form of resistance on the part of
    black Americans slaves prior to the Civil War
  • passive resistance, including breaking tools and
    slightly slowing the pace of work

7
The Planter "Aristocracy"
  • South an oligarchy
  • Ruled by wealthy plantation owners
  • 1850, only 1,733 families owned more than 100
    slaves yet dominated southern politics

8
Peculiar Institution
  • Economic structure of South was monopolistic,
    dominated by wealthy plantation owners
  • Plantation system
  • Risky Slaves might die of disease, injure
    themselves, or run away.
  • System required heavy investment of capital
  • One-crop economy (cotton)
  • Discouraged a diversification of agriculture and
    esp. manufacturing

9
Peculiar Institution
  • Southerners resentful the North made huge profits
    at their expense
  • Resented being so dependent on northern
    manufactures markets
  • Repelled large-scale European immigration
  • Only 4.4 of foreign-born part of Souths pop. in
    1860 18.7 in North.

10
Plantation Slavery
  • Nearly 4 million slaves by 1860 quadrupled in
    number since 1800
  • Legal imports of slaves ended in 1808
  • Countless slaves smuggled in despite death
    penalty for slavers
  • Burdens of slavery
  • Slaves deprived of dignity and sense of
    responsibility that free people have
  • suffered cruel physical and psychological
    treatment
  • Denied an education since
  • seen as dangerous to give slaves ideas of freedom

11
Plantation Slavery Cont
  • The increase in the South's slave labor force
    between 1810 and 1860
  • Natural population increase of American-born
    slave
  • White slave owners often fathered sizable mulatto
    population.
  • Most remained slaves
  • Slaves seen as valuable assets and primary source
    of wealth
  • Slave auctions one of most revolting aspects of
    slavery
  • Punishment often brutal to send a message to
    other slaves not to defy masters authority

12
The White Majority
  • By 1860, only 1/4 of white southerners owned
    slaves or belonged to slave-owning families
  • Small slave owners made up a majority of masters.
  • 75 of white southerners owned no slaves at all.
  • Mostly subsistence farmers didnt participate in
    market economy

13
The White Majority
  • Fiercely defended the slave system as it proved
    white superiority
  • Poor whites took comfort that they were "equal"
    to wealthy neighbors
  • Poor Southern whites someday hoped to own slaves
    and realize the "American dream."

14
Slavery- The Souths Peculiar Institution--
Kenneth Stamp
15
Slave control growing opposition
  • A Slave Catechism
  • Religion was a means of control
  • Rising opposition to slavery
  • Natural rights theory of the revolution

16
Slave trade banned by the Constitution in 1807
  • Britain bans the slave trade - William
    Wilberforce BRITISH PM
  • The ideas of the 2nd Great Awakening

17
The Domestic Slave Trade
  • Center Washington D.C.
  • Advertisements
  • Breeding practices
  • Family splitting- Josiah Henson
  • Being sold down river

18
Slave Revolts
  • Constant fear in the south.
  • New York fire riot 1741
  • The Gabriel Conspiracy
  • Denmark Vesey 1822
  • The Nat Turner Revolt 1831

19
The South strikes back!
  • New Slave codes and defense of slavery
  • Slaves denied any status as human beings
  • Use of slave patrols
  • Congressional gag resolution

20
The Positive Good theory of slavery
  • Edward Brown
  • John Hammond -mudsill theory
  • George Fitzhugh Cannibals All claimed Africans
    have produced no culture.
  • Dr. John Van Evrie did a brain size study.

21
THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT
  • THE EARLIEST ABOLITION SOCIETIES FORMED IN 1815
  • KEY LEADER BENJAMIN LUNDY
  • CALLED FOR GRADUAL EMANCIPATION
  • AND COLONIZATION BACK TO AFRICA
  • RELIED ON PERSUASION CONCILIATION

22
LUNDY PUBLISHES THE GENIUS OF UNIVERSAL
EMANCIPATION 1821
  • WALKED FROM TOWN TO TOWN PREACHING GRADUAL
    EMANCIPATION.
  • WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING - BOSTON CLERGYMAN
    DELIVERED THE SAME MESSAGE
  • SLAVERY IS YOUR CALAMITY NOT YOUR CRIME

23
BY 1830 IT WAS CLEAR PERSUASION WOULD NOT WORK
  • VOLUNTARY EMANCIPATION WAS RARE.
  • THE MOVEMENT BECOMES MORE MILITANT.
  • THE AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY FOUNDED 1833
  • GOAL TO ABOLITIONIZE THE COUNTRY

24
WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON LAUNCHES THE LIBERATOR IN
1831
  • SLAVERY SHOULD END NOW!
  • I WILL NOT EQUIVOCATE, EXCUSE OR RETREAT A
    SINGLE INCHI WILL BE HEARD!
  • SLAVERY IS A CRIME AND A SIN. YOU CAN NOT
    COMPROMISE WITH SIN.

25
WENDELL PHILLIPS THE GOLDEN TRUMPET OF
ABOLITION.
  • OTHERS JOIN THE CAUSE
  • THEODORE PARKER A UNITARIAN MINISTER.
  • WRITER JOHN GREENLIEF WHITTIER
  • ALL ARE VIEWED AS DANGEROUS RADICALS AND TROUBLE
    MAKERS IN BOTH THE NORTH SOUTH.

26
ELIJAH P. LOVEJOY
  • PUBLISHER OF THE OBSERVER.
  • LOVEJOY IS MURDERED IN ALTON, ILLINOIS IN 1837
  • FIRST WHITEMAN TO BE KILLED IN THE CAUSE OF
    ABOLITION.
  • GARRISON NEARLY LYNCHED

27
ABOLITIONISTS TENDED TO OVERSIMPLIFY
  • DEPICTED ALL SLAVE OWNERS AS WICKED BRUTES
  • NO COMPROMISE
  • GARRISON THE CONSTITUTION IS A COVENANT WITH
    DEATH AND THE DEVIL.
  • ATTACK MADE SLAVE OWNERS DEFENSIVE.

28
ABOLITION MOVEMENT SPLIT IN 1840
  • ANTI-GARRISON BRANCH FORMS THE LIBERTY PARTY.
  • TAKE A FREE SOIL POSITION
  • WANTS TO USE POLITICAL MEANS TO END SLAVERY.
  • LIBERTY PARTY OFFERS JAMES G. BIRNEY AS PRESIDENT
    IN 1840 1844.

29
THE GARRISON BRANCH OFFERS NO COMPROMISE.
  • POSITION YOU CANNOT WORK WITHIN THE SYSTEM.
  • HELPS TO ORGANIZE THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.
  • WHICH ASSISTS SLAVES TO RUNAWAY.
  • THE OHIO RIVER IS THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN FREE
    SLAVE TERRITORY

30
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31
THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
  • HELPED ABOUT 2000 SLAVES TO FREEDOM EVERY YEAR.
  • SOUTH DEMANDS ENFORCEMENT OF THE FUGITIVE SLAVE
    ACT.
  • IN 1850- CONGRESS PASSES A STRONGER FUGITIVE
    SLAVE ACT.

32
SOUTHERN REACTION TO ABOLITION MOVEMENT
  • LABELS THEM CRIMINALS
  • CONGRESS PASSES THE GAG RULE NO DEBATE OF
    SLAVERY
  • BANS DISTRIBUTION OF ABOLITIONIST PAPERS.
  • BLAIMS GARRISON FOR NAT TURNER REBELLION.

33
THE SOUTHS ERROR WAS TO OVER-REACT TO THE
ABOLITION MOVEMENT
  • IT WAS ALWAYS A MINORITY IN THE NORTH.
  • SOUTHERNS CAME TO VIEW ALL NORTHERNERS AS
    ABOLITIONIST.
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