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Higher Order Thinking Skills in The Classroom


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Title: Higher Order Thinking Skills in The Classroom

Higher Order Thinking Skills in The Classroom
(H.O.T. Skills)
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Hosted by
  • Begona Farwell, Susan Grandle, Susan Kreger and
    Eva Navarro

What is higher order thinking?
  • Higher order thinking essentially means thinking
    that takes place in the higher-levels of the
    hierarchy of cognitive processing.

The Griney Grollers Thinking Skills Test
  • The griney
  • grollers
  • grandled in the
  • granchy gak.

The griney grollers grangled in the granchy gak.
  1. What kind of grollers were they?
  2. What did the grollers do?
  3. Where did they do it?
  4. In what kind of gak did they grangle?

The griney grollers grangled in the granchy
gak. The griney grollers grangled in the
granchy gak.
  • 5) Place one line under the subject and two
    lines under the verb.
  • In one sentence, explain why the grollers were
    grangling in the granchy gak. Be prepared to
    justify your answer with facts.
  • If you had to grangle in a granchy gak, what one
    item would you choose to have with you and why?

Why Higher Level Thinking is Important
  • In addition to content (the what of students
    learning and achievement) we also need to be
    concerned with students thinking skills or
    mental processes( the how in learning).
  • Thinking provides the software for the mind.
  • Higher level thinking allows students memory to
    be used effectively.
  • Planning for Productive Thinking and Learning by
    Treffinger and Feldhusen, 1998,p.24

Need for Problem Solving Ability
  • Because the pace of societal change shows no
    signs of slackening, citizens of the 21st century
    must become adept problem solvers, able to
    wrestle with ill-defined problems and win.
    Problem-solving ability is the cognitive passport
    of the future
  • (Martinez, 1998).

Need for Problem Solving Ability
  • Thinking analytically is a skill like carpentry
    or driving a car. It can be taught, it can be
    learned, and it can improve with practice. But
    like many other skills, such as riding a bike, it
    is not learned by sitting in a classroom and
    being told how to do it.
  • http//www.cia.gov/csi/books/19104/art4.html

  • Critical thinking theory finds its roots
    primarily in the works of Benjamin Bloom as he
    classified learning behaviors in the cognitive
    domain.   Bloom (1956) developed a taxonomy of
    learning objectives for teachers which he
    clarified and expounded upon over the course of
    approximately two decades.  His ideas continue to
    be widely accepted and taught in teacher
    education programs throughout the United States.

Six Levels of Blooms Taxonomy
  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  • Analysis
  • 5. Synthesis
  • 6. Evaluation

Blooms Taxonomy
  • Bloom classifies learning behaviors according to
    six levels ranging from Knowledge, which
    focuses upon recitation of facts, to Evaluation,
    which requires complex valuing and weighing of
    information.  Each level relates to a higher
    level of cognitive ability.
  • This taxonomy is useful in designing questions,
    lessons, tasks for students. Bloom found that
    95 of test questions focused on the lowest
    levelthe recall of information.

Question Levels
  • Critical thinking may be thought of in terms of
    convergent and divergent questioning (Guilford
    1956, Gallegher and Aschner 1963, and Wilen
    1985).   Convergent questions seek to ascertain
    basic knowledge and understanding.   Divergent
    questions require students to process information
    creatively.   Convergent questions tend to align
    with the first three levels of Blooms Taxonomy of
    Learning Objectives while divergent questions
    relate to the latter three levels. 

Applying Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level Knowledge
  • Materials/Situations Events, people, newspapers,
    magazine articles, definitions, videos, dramas,
    textbooks, films, television programs,
    recordings, media presentations
  • Measurable Behaviors Define, describe memorize,
    label, recognize, name, draw, state, identify,
    select, write, locate, recite

Applying Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level Comprehension
  • Materials/Situations Speech, story, drama,
    cartoon, diagram, graph, summary, outline,
    analogy, poster, bulletin board
  • Measurable Behaviors Summarize, restate,
    paraphrase, illustrate, match, explain, defend,
    relate, infer, compare, contrast, generalize

Applying Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level Application
  • Materials/Situations Diagram, sculpture,
    illustration, dramatization, forecast, problem,
    puzzle, organizations, classifications, rules,
    systems, routines
  • Measurable Behaviors Apply, change, put
    together, construct, discover, produce, make,
    report, sketch, solve, show, collect, prepare

Applying Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level Analysis
  • Materials/Situations Survey, questionnaire, an
    argument, a model, displays, demonstrations,
    diagrams, systems, conclusions, report, graphed
  • Measurable Behaviors Examine, classify,
    categorize, research, contrast, compare,
    disassemble, differentiate, separate,
    investigate, subdivide

Applying Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level Synthesis
  • Materials/Situations Experiment, game, song,
    report, poem, prose, speculation, creation, art,
    invention, drama, rules
  • Measurable Behaviors Combine, hypothesize,
    construct, originate, create, design, formulate,
    role-play, develop

Applying Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level Evaluation
  • Materials/Situations Recommendations,
    self-evaluations, group discussions, debate,
    court trial, standards, editorials, values
  • Measurable Behaviors Compare, recommend, assess,
    value, apprise, solve,criticize, weigh, consider,

Steps to Constructing a Mini-Center Using The
Engine-Uity Process
  1. Select a topic
  2. Brainstorm 6 concepts related to the topic
  3. Using a grid select a verb from Blooms Taxonomy
    for each level, one of the concepts, and a
    product for each task
  4. Translate grid into complete sentences.

Example of Grid-Comprehension Level
Concept Verb Product
Range and population of the mountain lion Identify map
Example Mini-Center Comprehension Level Task
  • Draw a map with a legend identifying
    the current range and population of the
    mountain lion.

What is Critical Thinking?
  • This involves using your own knowledge or point
    of view to decide if something is right or wrong
    about someone elses ideas.

  • Inductive thinking
  • Deductive thinking
  • Determining reality and fantasy
  • Determining benefits and drawbacks

  • Identifying value statements
  • Identifying points of view
  • Determining bias
  • Identifying fact and opinion

  • Determining the accuracy of presented information
  • Judging essential and incidental evidence
  • Determining relevance

Looking For Evidence Of Critical Thinking
  • You may be a critical thinking teacher if...
  • Learners are active and in a continuous dialogue
    with teacher
  • Learning is constructing, not feeding
  • Truth is discovered, not delivered
  • Teacher "leads from behind"
  • Teacher functions as a facilitator/mentor instead
    of lecturer
  • Questions are answered with explanations or
    questions, not simply "yes" or "no"

Looking for Evidence of Critical Thinking
  • Pertinent discussions on related issues often
    break out
  • Debate is common
  • Peers exchange ideas
  • Learner and teacher satisfaction increases
  • "Rabbit chasing" becomes an art - explore related
    issues, yet remain on task
  • Teachers often face questions for which they have
    no answers
  • Social interaction and acceptance in the class is
    generally high

Personal Check-up
  • Answer the following questions
  • Are your  teaching objectives, activities, and
    assessments are tied to higher level behavioral
  • Do all learners have the opportunity to interact
    with you and others?
  • Do you allow time in your course for debating?
  • Do your learners have to use inductive and
    deductive strategies?
  • Do you find yourself using "shock" statements and
    questions to get learners' minds running?

Personal Check-up
  • If you could say "yes" to most of these
    questions, critical thinking is probably
    happening in your classroom.

  • http//www.lgc.peachnet.edu/academic/educatn/Bloom
  • http//www.bena.com/ewinters/Bloom.html
  • Planning for Productive Thinking and Learning by
    Treffinger and Feldhusen, 1998, p.24
  • Sandra Kaplan, National/State Leadership Training
  • Engine-Uity, Ltd.,P.O. Box 9610, Phoenix, Az
  • Martinez, M. E. (April, 1998) What is Problem
    Solving? Phi Delta Kappan. 605-609.

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