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The most dangerous period in any sport is the first 3 or 4 weeks of the season, ... skeleton and muscles. ... The arms are thrust upward to aid in body lift. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reference:


1
??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ? ???? ?????
2
???? ?????
  • ???? ???? ????? ???
  • ???????? ??????? ?????

3
Reference
  • English for the Students of
  • Physical Education Sport Science
  • Mohammad Ali Mahmoodi
  • Babak Dabir
  • Dr. Khosrow Ebrahim

4
Sport Injures
5
(No Transcript)
6
Key words
  • Injury
  • Clinical
  • Athlete
  • Preparation
  • Early-season injury
  • Lack of flexibility
  • Fitness
  • Wellness
  • Overweight
  • Prevention
  • Neuromuscular
  • Prime cause of injury
  • Muscular imbalance
  • Muscle bulk
  • Twisting
  • Torn muscle
  • Ankle
  • Knee
  • Trunk
  • Pelvis
  • Vulnerable
  • Stress

7
By their very nature sport activities invite
injures. According to clinical records,
inadequate conditioning is a contributing factor
in a high percentage of sport injures.
  • ????????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????
    ????? ?? ????. ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????
    ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????
    ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????.

8
It takes time and careful preparation to bring an
athlete into competition at a level of fitness
that will preclude early-season injury. The most
dangerous period in any sport is the first 3 or 4
weeks of the season,
  • ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ? ???? ????
    ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????
    ????? ?? ???? ???. ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ???? 3
    ?? 4 ???? ??? ????

9
principally because the athlete frequently is
lacking in flexibility, often overweight, and
many times out of good physical condition when he
reports for initial practice.
  • ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????????????
    ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???. ???? ???? ?????
    ??? ????? ? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??????
    ???????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????.

10
Another factor is lack of familiarity with most
of the fundamentals of a sport, resulting in
awkwardness and a consequent proneness to
potential injury-provoking situations.
  • ?? ????? ???????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???
    ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???.

11
Training must be considered principally in terms
of prevention of injury. Coaches no recognize
that a lack of physical fitness is one of the
prime causes of sport injury.
  • ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???
    ????? ????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ???.

12
Muscular imbalance, improper timing because of
poor neuromuscular coordination, a lack of
ligamentous or tendinous strength, lack of
flexibility, and inadequate muscle bulk are among
the causes of injury directly attributable to
insufficient or improper physical conditioning.
  • ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ????
    ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ??
    ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ?? ????
    ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ? ???????? ?? ?????
    ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????.

13
Physical conditioning is herein defined as the
role played by exercise in getting the body ready
for sport activity.
  • ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???????
    ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ?? ????
    ????????? ????? ????? ??????.

14
Injures of knee
??????? ????
15
Severe twisting of the knee is often encountered,
particularly in those sports for which cleated
shoes are worn. The amount of torque engendered
when the foot is firmly fixed and the rest of the
body continues to rotate longitudinally is of
considerable magnitude consequently,
  • ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???????. ???
    ????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????
    (??????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ? ???? ?????)? ???????
    ???. ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??????
    ???? ??? ? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????
    ?????? ????? ?????????? ????

16
the knee ligaments are subjected to tremendous
stress and are frequently badly strained or torn.
In those ball sports involving running and
changes of direction as evasive maneuvers,
cutting plays an important part and frequently
provides the mechanism for injury to the knee and
occasionally the ankle.
  • ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????
    ??? ? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??
    ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?
    ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ???
    ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????
    ???? ???? ?? ???? ? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????.

17
(No Transcript)
18
There are a number of cutting techniques
employed, but the right pivot (sidestep cut) and
the cross-over step (reverse cut) are probably
most frequently used and are responsible for most
knee injuries in those sports.
  • ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???
    ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? (??????) ? ????
    ?????? (??? ?????) ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?
    ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????.

19
In the sidestep cut the medial ligaments of the
pivot leg are subjected to severe stresses,
whereas in the crossover cut it is the lateral
ligaments that receive the stresses.
  • ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ? ?? ?????
    ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??
    ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????
    ?? ??????.

20
(No Transcript)
21
During the foot plant and the cut (change of
direction) phase of either maneuver the
supporting leg is in an exceedingly vulnerable
position from the standpoint of stability.
  • ?? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?????
    ??? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??
    ???? ???? ???????.

22
The rotation of the trunk and pelvis on the
supporting leg further enhances the stresses and
may be sufficient to cause ligament injury.
  • ???? ??? ? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ???
    ??? ? ???? ???? ???? ??????.

23
Should an extraneous force be applied to the knee
by, for example, a blocker or through collision
with another player, an overload force occurs
that the structures of the knee cannot sustain
injury to the mechanisms of the knee results.
  • ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????
    ???? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????
    ????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ?
    ????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????.

24
????? ?????????
25
Nutrient needs of athletes
??????? ????? ?????????
26
Key words
  • nutrition
  • intake
  • released energy
  • caloric diet
  • energy expenditure
  • exercise-induced
  • ingest
  • metabolic process
  • membrane
  • carbohydrate
  • fat
  • protein
  • fluid
  • electrolytes
  • minerals
  • vitamins
  • vegetarian
  • shortage of foods

27
Pre-event food intake
  • It is probably best to eat about three hours
    before competition to allow time for digestion.
    generally the athlete can make his food selection
    in the basis of his past experience.
  • ???? ??? ?? ??????
  • ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? 3 ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????
    ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??
    ???. ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??
    ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???.

28
Tension, anxiety, and excitement are more apt to
cause gastric distress than food selection. It is
generally accepted that fat intake should be
minimal because it digests more slowly gas
formers should probably be avoided, and proteins
and high cellulose food s should be kept to a
minimum prior to prolonged events to avoid
urinary and bowel excretion.
  • ???????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????
    ??????????? ?????? ???????. ?? ??? ??? ???? ????
    ???? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ? ???????? ? ??????
    ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????
    ?????? ?? ??? ? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????
    ???.

29
Two or three cups of liquid (avoid caffeine)
should be taken to insure adequate hydration. It
should be noted that the excitement associated
with competition is probably the main reason for
having a special diet before participation.
  • ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? (?? ?????? ???? ?????? ????)
    ???? ??? ????????? (??) ???? ???? ???? ???. ????
    ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????
    ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????????.

30
Since many people who exercise regularly do not
compete during their exercise, there is little
reason to alter their normal diet before their
regular exercise. Likewise, there is no need to
delay exercise for long periods after the meal if
exercise is to be moderate and noncompetitive.
  • ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????
    ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????????. ????? ????
    ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????
    ????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???
    ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ????
    ???? ????????? ????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ????.

31
Nutrient needs of athletes
  • ??????? ????? ?????????

32
Adequate intake of nutrients is of essential
importance for the maintenance of an appropriate
nutritional status, optimal performance, adequate
recovery and the reduction of health risks.
Athletes are known to have an increased
exercise-induced utilization/loss of macro- and
micronutrients. This loss should be compensated
by the diet.
  • ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???
    ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????
    ????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ???. ?????????
    ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??
    ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????
    ????? ???????.

33
Carbohydrate (CHO) is the most important nutrient
for high intensity performance. Energy release
from CHO is up to three times as fast as from
fat. However, CHO stores in the body are small,
which limits the time to perform high intensity
exercise. Apart from decreasing performance, CHO
depletion induces an increased utilization of
protein for energy production.
Carbohydrate
  • ?????????? (CHO) ????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????
    ???? ???? ???. ???????? ????? ?? CHO ?? ?????
    ?????? ?? ???? ???. ?? ??? ????? CHO ?? ?? ???
    ????? ?????? ????? ???? ? ???? ????? ?????????
    ????? ???? ?? ????? ???????. ??? ?? ???? ???????
    ????? CHO ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????
    ????? ????? ??????. ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????.

34
This results in the production of ammonia, which
may enhance fatigue. CHO ingestion during
exercise allows sparing of the bodys CHO stores,
reduction of protein utilization and ammonia
production, and a delay of fatigue/improvement of
performance
  • ???? CHO ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? CHO
    ?? ??? ????? ???? ? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????
    ??????? ? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ????? ? ?????
    ?????? ??????.

35
Adequate CHO ingestion between training
sessions/days or intense performance is of utmost
importance to avoid progressive fatigue
development/overtraining.
  • ???? ?? ?????? CHO ????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????
    ? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ? ??
    ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????
    ???????.

36
Fat is a slow energy source. When using fat as
prime energy source, athletes can only work at
40-60 of their maximal capacity. Nevertheless,
increased fat utilization, as a result of
training, reduces the use of CHO from the stores
in the body, and thus will influence CHO
availability and fatigue.
Fat
  • ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???. ????????? ?????? ??
    ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????
    ???? ????????? 60 40 ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???
    ?? ?? ??? ????. ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ??
    ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? CHO
    ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ?????
    CHO ? ????? ????? ????????.

37
Daily fat intake in athletes should be relatively
low, allowing for an increase in the proportion
of CHO in the diet. Saturated fat sources should
be avoided and vegetable-, fish- and plant-oil
based foods should be promoted.
  • ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????
    ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?? CHO ?? ???? ?????
    ????? ???. ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????
    ???? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????????
    ???? ? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????.

38
(No Transcript)
39
The protein requirement of athletes in increased
and, according to present knowledge, amounts to
approximately 1.2-1.8g/kg body weight. The reason
for this increase is enhanced utilization of
amino acids in oxidative energy production during
physical exercise, a process which is known to be
intensified at higher work levels and in a state
of carbohydrate store depletion.
Protein
  • ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ? ?? ???
    ???? ???? ??????? 8/1 2/1 ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??
    ??? ??? ???. ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??
    ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???
    ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????
    ?????? ? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????
    ??????.

40
Athletes who ingest low caloric diets will have
low protein intakes, which may not compensate for
the net nitrogen loss from the body and will
influence synthesis processes and training
adaptations. To these categories belong
bodybuilders, weight class athletes, gymnasts,
and female long distance runners.
  • ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????
    ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ???????
    ???? ? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????. ???
    ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????????
    ????????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????.

41
Protein intake/supplementation above levels
normally required will not enhance muscle growth
or performance. The use of single amino acids, to
influence metabolic pathways involved in fatigue
development and hormone production, needs further
research to make definite statements.
  • ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????
    ???? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????
    ???????. ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?
    ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????
    ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????.

42
Fluid and electrolytes are of prime concern
during prolonged physical exercise, especially in
the heat. Progressive fluid loss from the body,
by means of sweating and breathing, and in
endurance events also by diarrhea, is associated
with a decreased blood flow through the
extremities, a reduced plasma volume and central
blood volume, a reduction in sweating and heat
dissipation, and under circumstances of
high-intensity work in the heat with heat
stroke/collapse.
Fluid and electrolytes
  • ?????? ? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????
    ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????.
    ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?
    ???? ????? ? ?? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ???
    ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???
    ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????
    ???? ????? ? ???? ????? ???? ??? ? ?? ?????? ??
    ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????
    ???? ??? ???? ? ????? (??? ??????? ?? ??? ????
    ???? ???) ??????.

43
Dehydration of gt1.5 liters is known to reduce the
oxygen transport capacity of the body and to
induce fatigue. Appropriate rehydration is known
to counter these effects and to delay fatigue.
  • ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????? 5/1 ???? ?????? ?????
    ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ? ????? ?????
    ??????. ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
    ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??????????.

44
Exercise is known to be associated with increased
mineral losses, through sweating, during
exercise, and through urine in the post exercise
phase. As with most nutrients, mineral intake
depends on the quality of the diet and the amount
of energy consumed. Therefore, athletes consuming
low energetic diets are at risk of marginal
mineral intake, especially of magnesium.
Minerals
  • ???? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??
    ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ? ?? ???? ????? ??
    ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????. ????? ???? ????
    ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????
    ????? ? ????? ????? ????? ???. ?????????
    ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????
    ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??????
    ????????.

45
Vegetarian athletes are especially prone to iron
deficiency. Athletes may develop an impaired
mineral status if the quality of the diet is
poor. Impaired iron, zinc, and magnesium status
are known to induce malperformance and muscle
weakness and are often associated with muscle
cramp.
  • ?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?????.
    ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???
    ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??????.
    ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ???? ???? ??
    ?????? ? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ??
    ?????? ?????? ????.

46
Vitamins have received widespread attention. They
are essential cofactors in many enzymatic
reactions involved in energy production and in
protein metabolism. Any shortage of a vitamin is
therefore linked to suboptimal metabolism,
which in the long term will result in decreased
performance or even illness.
Vitamins
  • ????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????. ??? ????
    ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ??
    ?? ????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????.
    ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????
    ????????? ??????. ?? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ???
    ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????.

47
In addition, some vitamins act as antioxidant
antioxidant substances and are believed to have
a protective role for tissue/cell integrity,
which in the case of metabolic stress may be
threatened.
  • ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ????
    ???????????? ??? ??????? ? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??
    ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ????
    ????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ??????
    ???? ???? ????? ???? ????.

48
Vitamin supplementation has been shown to restore
performance capacity in cases of vitamin deficit
and to reduce tissue damage due to free radicals.
  • ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?????
    ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ????
    ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????.

49
Vitamin supplementation with quantities exceeding
those needed for optimal/blood levels have not
been shown to improve performance.
  • ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???
    ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????????. ?? ?????? ??
    ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ????
    ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ?????.

50
As with minerals athletes involved in intensive
training, but consuming low energetic diets, are
the most prone to marginal vitamin intakes.
  • ?? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??
    ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ? ?????
    ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ????
    ?????? ???? ????? ???.

51
Daily intake of a low dose vitamin preparation or
nutrient preparations, supplying not more than
the recommended daily/safe intake,
  • ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????
    ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????
    ??????.

52
may be advisable in periods of intensive training
or in any situation where athletes abstain from a
normal diet such as during periods of limited
food intake combined with intensive training
(especially in females and in weight class sports
participant).
  • ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ???????
    ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????
    ??????? ? (????? ?? ???? ? ?? ?????????????? ????
    ???????????).

53
Anatomy and Kinesiology
54
(No Transcript)
55
Key words
  • motor performance
  • biceps brachial
  • flexion
  • supination
  • prime mover
  • latissimus dorsi
  • abductors
  • adductors
  • medial rotators
  • lateral rotators
  • muscle
  • contraction
  • nerve impulses
  • isometric
  • isotonic
  • agonist
  • antagonist
  • stabilizer
  • neutralizer
  • shoulder joint

56
Roles of Muscles
57
A muscle can only contract or relax, and under
normal conditions contraction results only from a
series of nerve impulses. A muscle may contract
fully or partially, with maximum force or less.
?? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???
?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????
????? ????? ??????. ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??????
? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????
?? ????? ????? ????.
58
A muscle may contract isometrically or
isotonically, singly (in rare instances) or as a
member of a group. Because muscle can contract in
these different ways, they have the ability to
act in different roles and to change quickly from
one role to another.
???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????
????? ??? ? ?? ?????? (?? ????? ????? ??) ?? ??
????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????. ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????
????????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ?????
??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ? ???? ??
???????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????.
59
Agonist (Mover) Role
A muscle is a mover (agonistic to the movement)
when its concentric contraction contributes to
the desired movement of a segment of the body.
For instance, in flexion at the elbow, the biceps
brachii is a mover, as are seven other muscles in
this case.
??? ??????? (?????????? ?? ?????)
?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ????
?????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????????? (????? ????)
???????. ?? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??
????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???
???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?????.
60
Some muscles are movers for more than one action
in a particular joint, and some cause movements
in more than one joint. For instance, the biceps
brachii may cause movements in more than one
joint. For instance, the biceps brachii may cause
elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, or lower-arm
supination, depending on the simultaneous actions
of other muscles.
???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????
???? ?????????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??
?? ???? ???????. ???? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?????
???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ? ?? ????
?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??
?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????.
61
If the biceps contracted singly, all three of its
movements would occur simultaneously. If only one
or two of the movements are desired, the other
movements may be omitted by the coordinated
contractions of other muscles. When this is done,
the other muscles are said to neutralize part of
the functions of the biceps.
??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??
???? ?? ?????? ????? ???????. ??? ??? ?? ?? ??
???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????
???????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????. ???? ???
??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??
?????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???.
62
Mover muscles are classified as prime movers and
assistant movers. A prime mover is a muscle whose
chief function is to cause the particular
movement, and one which makes a strong
contribution to that movement. An assistant mover
is a muscle which has the ability to assist in
the movement but is of only secondary importance
to the movement.
?????????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????????? ???? ?
?????????? ???? ????? ???????. ???? ??????????
????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??
???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ? ??? ??????? ?? ???
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????. ???? ??????????
????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??
???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????
????.
63
An example is the triceps brachii, a prime mover
in elbow extension but only an assistant mover in
shoulder extension. In shoulder extension, the
latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles are the
prime movers when the load is heavy, the triceps
muscle (along with others) is called upon for
assistance. .
?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??
?? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??
?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????. ??
?????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ? ????? ?? ???
????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????. ?????? ?? ???
???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?? (?? ????? ???? ?????)?
???? ??? ????????? ??????.
64
There is usually more than one prime mover in a
particular joint action, and there are often
several assistant movers. There are prime-mover
muscles for all the movable joints, and there are
assistant movers for most of the joints.
?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ??
?????????? ????? ? ????? ?????????? ???? ????
????. ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????
????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????
???? ????.
65
Antagonist Role
A muscle is antagonistic to a movement when it
must relax to allow the movement to occur.
Antagonist muscles cause actions opposite those
caused by the agonist muscles. The triceps
brachii is antagonistic to flexion to at the
elbow therefore, the triceps must relax in order
to allow flexion to occur efficiently
??? ?????????? (?????)
?? ???? ????? ?????????? (?????) ?? ???? ??? ??
???? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????
??????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????????
????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ?????
?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???????
??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???
???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ????.
66
(No Transcript)
67
It is possible to achieve flexion against triceps
opposition if the force of the flexors exceeds
that of the triceps. However, this is inefficient
unless a controlled movement is needed. In elbow
extension the triceps becomes an agonist and the
biceps an antagonist
???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??
?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ??
?? ?????? ????????? ???????.?? ???? ???? ???? ???
????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ????
????? ??? ?????.???? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??
????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ????????
??????????? ???????? ????????.
68
in other words, the biceps and triceps are
antagonistic to each other. Generally, extensors
and flexors are antagonistic to each other, as
are abductors and adductors and medial rotators
and lateral rotators.
?? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????
????? ?????? ??????????? (?????) ?????. ???????
??????????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ??????????
?????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? (????? ????? ?? ???)
? ??????? (???????? ?? ???) ? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?
???? ??? ???????.
69
In motor performances it is important for
antagonistic muscles to experience just the right
amount of controlled relaxation to permit smooth
and efficient movements. This is an important
aspect of neuromuscular coordination.
?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????
???????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ?
???? ??????? ???? ??? ????.
70
Stabilizer (Fixator) Role
In order for a segment of the body to move, the
body part on which the segment moves must possess
the right amount of stability. For instance, when
the arm moves at the shoulder joint, the shoulder
girdle must be held firm by the contraction of
certain muscles which attach to it.
??? ???????????
?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????
??? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????
???????? ????. ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????
???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????
????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???
????? ????.
71
Without being stabilized, the shoulder girdle
would move and thus reduce the effectiveness of
the force which the muscles of the shoulder joint
exert on the arm. The same could be said about
movement of the leg around the hip joint (the
pelvic region must be stable) or about movement
at numerous other joints.
??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????
???? ???? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ????
???? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??????. ???
????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???
(????? ??? ???? ???? ????). ?????? ?? ???? ????
????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????.
72
When acting as a stabilizer a muscle usually
contracts statically (isometrically) because its
role is to hold the body segment motionless or
nearly motionless. Therefore, the muscle shortens
very little, if any, during its contraction, and
it causes very little, if any, movement.
???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????
?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????
???????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???????
??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???. ???????? ???? ?????
????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ????
?????? ?????? ????.
73
A clear example is the action of the abdominal
muscles did not contract statically, the trunk
would bow, causing the exercise to be performed
incorrectly. Another important fact to remember
is that muscles make major contributions toward
stabilizing joints.
????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????
??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???. ??? ?????????? ?????
?? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ? ????
?????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????
????. ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???????
?? ????? ????? ???? ???????
74
Even though it is ligaments that bind the bones
together at a joint, muscles whose tendons cross
over the joint contribute much to stability, and
thus muscles help to prevent injuries to joints.
?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ?? ????
???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?? ?????
???? ??????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ???????
????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????
???? ?? ????? ????.
75
Neutralizer Role
A muscle plays the role of neutralizer when it
equalizes or nullifies one or more actions of
another muscle. To neutralize each other, two
muscles must cause opposite movements. For
example, the pectoralis major and the latissimus
dorsi muscles are both movers in adduction of the
humerus
??? ????? ??????
???? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???
?????? ???? ?????? ???? ? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ????
?????. ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??
?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????. ??????
???? ???? ???????? ???? ? ????? ???????? ????? ??
?? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????.
76
in addition, the pectoralis major flexes the
humerus while the latissimus dorsi extends it.
When the two muscles neutralize each others
functions of flexion and extension, the result is
pure adduction.
????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????
(?????) ??????? ??? ? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????
?? ?? ?? ??????. ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ??
??? ? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??
??????? ????? ???.
77
Another example occurs in the sit-up exercise
where the right and left external oblique muscles
combine to contribute to trunk flexion,
neutralizing each others functions in trunk
lateral flexion and trunk rotation.
?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ? ??????? ????
???????. ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ???? ??????
?? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????
????????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ? ??? ????
??? ???? ????????.
78
Besides causing forward trunk flexion, the right
external oblique muscle, if contracted singly,
would laterally flex the trunk to the right and
rotate it to the left.
?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????
????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ????
???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???????.
79
(No Transcript)
80
The left external oblique muscle would laterally
flex the trunk to the left and rotate it to the
right. In other words, the two muscles perform
one common movements, trunk forward flexion, and
two opposite movements, trunk lateral flexion
left and right and trunk rotation left and right.
???? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??
?? ???? ? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????????. ????? ????? ??
?? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ? ?? ??
???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????
????? ??? ?? ?? ? ???? ? ???? ??? ?? ?? ? ????
????.
81
To cooperate in forward trunk flexion, the two
muscles neutralize each others roles as lateral
trunk flexors and rotators. Occasionally, a
portion of a muscle must neutralize another
portion of the same muscle. A example is the
contraction of the deltoid muscle to abduct the
humerus.
?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????
?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ? ???? ?? ???? ???????.
???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??
???? ???? ?? ???? ????. ?????? ???? ???????? ??
?????? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????
(????) ??? ???.
82
The anterior portion of the deltoid also causes
horizontal flexion, while the posterior portion
also causes horizontal extension.
??? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????.
?? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???????.
83
The horizontal extension and flexion movements
are neutralized when pure abduction is performed.
Further, the anterior deltoid rotates the humerus
inwardly, and the posterior deltoid rotates it
outwardly.
??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ??
??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????. ????? ?? ????
???? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?
???? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?????????.
84
These rotations are also neutralized in pure
abduction of the humerus. Often neutralizations
are responsible for guiding the direction of
movements and thus contributing to accuracy.
??? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????.
???? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????
???? ? ??????? ?? ????? ? ??? ?? ??? ???????
????.
85
An underarm action at the shoulder joint such as
a bowling delivery, for instance, primarily
involves a flexion movement while abductors and
adductors balance tendencies to move left or
right as the arm proceeds forward.
????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? (??
???? ??????) ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ???
?? ???? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ??
?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???
????? ????????.
86
Synergist Role
The term synergist has been used in so many
different ways that it has become confusing and
ambiguous. For example, some kinesiologists have
used it to describe an assistant mover, and
others have used it to describe a neutralizer.
Some sources have even implied that a muscle
which plays a secondary role in stabilization is
a synergist.
???? ????????????
???? ??????????? (???????) ????? ????????? ??????
???? ?? ???? ??????????? ? ???? ????????? ???.
?????? ????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????
?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???? ? ???? ????
?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????.
87
Some sources have even implied that a muscle
which plays a secondary role in stabilization is
a synergist. Because of the confusion associated
with the term, it has been purposely omitted from
use in this text, except for this explanation.
?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?????
????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?????
?????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??
?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ? ???? ?? ??? ???????
????? ?????????.
88
Pysical and Motor Fitness
89
physical and motor fitness
90
Key words
  • physical fitness
  • physical education
  • physiological components
  • anatomical components
  • measurement
  • heart rate
  • oxygen uptake
  • flexibility
  • motor fitness
  • skill-related
  • fatigue
  • body awareness
  • strength
  • endurance
  • cardiovascular endurance
  • speed
  • flexibility
  • body composition
  • agility
  • balance
  • co-ordination
  • Power
  • reaction time

91
Physical fitness in the sporting context is
difficult to define since it can refer to
psychological, physiological or anatomical states
of the body. To most physical education teachers,
it is seen as a concept obtained by measuring and
evaluating a persons state of fitness by using a
battery of tests.
?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????
????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???
????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???. ????
???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??
???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????.
92
Physical fitness tests aim to look at anatomical
and physiological components which determine a
persons physical performance capacity. These
tests make direct measurements of physiological
parameters such as heart rate, oxygen uptake, and
flexibility.
?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????
??????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????
??????. ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??
?????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???
?????? ? ???????????? ???? ????????.
93
Motor fitness tests, on the other hand, aim to
look at neuromuscular components of fitness and
therefore consider skill-related exercises and
the capacity of the individual to repeat a
particular exercise.
?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??
????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???
???? ? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????????
???????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???
?????? ??? ???????.
94
The concept of physical fitness, in general
athletic terms, means the capability of the
individual to meet the varied physical and
physiological demands made by a sporting
activity, without reducing the person to an
excessively fatigued state.
????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???????
??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????
?? ???? ????????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??
????? ????? ???? ???????.
95
Such a state would be one in which he/she can no
longer perform the skills of the activity
accurately and successfully. The components of
physical fitness include
??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????
???? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????
????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???????
96
Strength the force exerted by muscle groups
during a single maximal muscle contraction. Endura
nce the capacity to sustain movement or effort
over a period of time. Local muscle endurance is
the ability of the muscles to repeat movements
without undue fatigue.
???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??
?????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ?????
???? ? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????. ???????
????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????
????? ???? ????? ???.
97
(No Transcript)
98
Cardiovascular endurance is the ability
of the cardiovascular system to transport oxygen
to muscles during sustained exercise.
Speed the maximum rate at which a person is able
to move his/her body over a specific distance. In
physical performance terms, it refers to the
speed of co-ordinated joint actions and whole
body movements.
??????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????
?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????. ????
?????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??
????? ????? ???? ???. ?? ??? ???????? ??????????
??????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ?
???????? ?? ??? ???????.
99
Flexibility the range of movement possible at a
joint. It is affected by the type of joint and
muscle attachment. Body Composition the concept
describing the relative percentage of muscle, fat
and bone. Body composition analysis is a suitable
tool for the assessment of a persons state of
fitness.
???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????
???? ?????? ? ????? ?? ??? ???? ? ???? ???? ?? ??
????. ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????
???? ????? ? ??????? ???. ????? ????? ?????? ???
?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????
??? ???.
100
(No Transcript)
101
The ability of a person to perform successfully
may not be an indicator of physical fitness, but
an assessment of the motor fitness of the
individual. Motor fitness refers to the ability
of a person to perform successfully at a
particular game or activity.
??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????
????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????
????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??????.
102
Although there is an overlap in the components
essential to both physical fitness and motor
fitness, there are specific components which
enable a person to perform a skill successfully.
The components which are more relevant to motor
fitness are
????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ????
?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ??
??? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
??????? ??
103
Agility the physical ability which enables a
person to rapidly change body position and
direction in a precise manner. Balance the
ability to retain the center of mass of the body
above the base of support.
???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???????
?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ? ??? ??? ?? ??
????? ????? ????? ???. ????? ??????? ??? ????
??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???.
104
(No Transcript)
105
It is the awareness of the body position in space
and depends upon co-ordination between ears,
brain, skeleton and muscles. Static balance is
the ability to hold a balance in a stationary
position. Dynamic balance is the ability to
maintain balance under changing conditions of
body movement, shape and orientation.
????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???
?????? ? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ? ????? ?
????? ????? ????. ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??
????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?
??????? ?? ???.
106
Co-ordination the ability to perform smooth and
accurate motor tasks, often involving the use of
the senses and a series of correlated muscular
contractions, affecting a range of joints and
therefore limb and body positions.
??????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ? ???? ?? ??????
?? ????? ???? ? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????
??????? ? ?? ????? ????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ???
??????.
107
Power a combination of strength and speed
previously described as a component of physical
fitness. Reaction Time the interval of time
between the presentation of a stimulus and the
initiation of the muscular response to that
stimulus.
???? ?????? ?? ???? ? ???? ?? ????? ??????
?????? ?????. ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??
???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ? ???? ?????
?????? ?? ?? ????? ???.
108
Motor Development
109
Motor development
110
Key words
  • skipping
  • sliding
  • galloping
  • twisting
  • turning
  • sideways
  • turning
  • pushing and Pulling
  • bending
  • stretching
  • stretching
  • ?winging
  • forward and backward
  • fundamental movement
  • locomotor skills
  • nonlocomotor skills
  • manipulative skills
  • specialized movement
  • throwing
  • catching
  • kicking
  • jumping
  • striking
  • hopping
  • leaping
  • lifting

111
locomotor movements
112
Fundamental movement actions refer to those
locomotor and nonlocomotor skills that are the
foundation for successful participation in games
of low organization, sports, tumbling, and
gymnastics, and aquatic and other phsycial
activities.
????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?
???????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??
??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????
????????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ??
??? ??????? ??????.
113
Locomotor skills are those in which the body
moves through space, and nonlocomotor skills are
those positions that the body assumes without
moving the base of support. Fundamental movement
skills must be combined with manipulative skills
to create the specialized movement necessary in
many activities.
???????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??????
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??????. ? ????????
???????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????
???? ?????? ????? ??????. ???????? ????? ???????
???? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??
??????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?????
????.
114
Manipulative skills are body activities involving
objects throwing and catching, striking, and
kicking an object are examples of manipulative
skills. This unit contains an analysis of eight
locomotor movement skills
????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ??
???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ? ?? ???? ???
?? ??? ???????. ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????????
????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ??
115
walking, running, jumping (for distance and
height), hopping, leaping, skipping, sliding, and
galloping. These are the skills most commonly
used by elementary school children.
??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?????
?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?
?????? ????. ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????
??????? ????? ??????.
116
Provisions for students to explore and use these
skills by themselves and in combination with
nonlocomotor movements should provide a
sufficient foundation for more complex movement
skills.
????? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ???
????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?? ?? ?????
???????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????
????????? ????.
117
Walking Walking involves the transfer of weight
from one foot to the other while moving. In
walking the weight of the body is transferred in
a forward direction from the heel to the ball of
the foot and then to the toes. The feet should
move parallel to each other, with the toes
pointing straight ahead.
??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??
????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????. ???? ????? ???
??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??
????? ??????. ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????
????? ??? ? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???
????.
118
The arm action is coordinated with leg action
the opposite arm and leg move in the same
direction. All of these movements should be
rhythmical and natural.
???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ? ???
????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????. ????? ??? ?????
???? ?? ??????? ????? ???.
119
Running Running is actually walking at an
increased tempo. In running the body is not
supported at all for a momentary period. The body
leans forward in running to place the center of
gravity above the front foot in the stride.
????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ? ???? ?????
???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???????.
??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??
??? ??? ???? ???????.
120
Jumping. Jumping for distance and Jumping for
height are commonly the goals involving these
skills. The standing broad jump, for example, is
performed by bending the knees and lowering the
upper body into a stooped position. As the body
rocks back on the feet, the arms are brought down
and beyond the hips
????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ??????
? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????
???????. ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?
???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??
??? ????? ????????
121
(No Transcript)
122
the upward pull of the arms is coordinated with
the push of the feet and legs. The body is
propelled forward as if reaching for an object in
front of the body. The landing is on the feet
with the body falling forward.
??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ? ????? ??????
?????? ??????. ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????
???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????
???. ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???
??? ???? ??????.
123
Hopping Hopping involves jumping from one foot
to the same foot after a brief suspension in the
air. The push off from the floor is made from the
toes and the ball of the foot, with the knee of
the opposite foot bent and the foot off the
ground.
?????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????
???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????. ???? ??? ??
?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????
???? ??????. ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ? ?? ?? ????
???? ??????.
124
(No Transcript)
125
The arms are thrust upward to aid in body lift.
The landing is on the toes, ball, and heel of the
foot in that order. The knee is slightly bent to
help absorb the shock of the landing.
?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ?
???? ???? ??? ??? ????. ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????
??? ???????? ?? ?? ? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????
??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????
?? ??????.
126
Leaping A leap is a jump from one foot to the
other foot while moving the body forward. In a
sense it is an exaggerated run, with the stride
longer and the body projected higher in the air.
In the leap the toes of the take-off foot leave
the floor last and the landing is on the ball of
the opposite foot..
????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??
??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???. ?? ???? ????? ?????
??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????
?? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??????. ?? ??? ??????
??????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?
???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????.
127
(No Transcript)
128
Before the execution of the leap a short run
should be taken to gain momentum for the leap
itself. The arms should be extended upward and
forward to give added lift to the body during the
leap.
??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????
?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????. ?????? ?? ????? ???
???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??
????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????
????.
129
Skipping A skip is a combination of a step and a
hop with alternating feet after step-hop. A long
step is taken on one foot, followed by a hop on
the same foot, and then a step with the opposite
foot, again followed by a hop. Balance is aided
by swinging the arms in opposition to the legs.
????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ? ???????
???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????. ??? ???????? ???
????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ?? ?? ?????
?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???
??????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??
????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???
???? ??? ??????.
130
Sliding A slide is a sideways movement in which
the weight of the body is shifted in the
direction of the slide. In a slide to the right
the left foot pushes off the floor and the right
foot moves sideways and assumes the weight.
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The left foot is quickly brought close to the
right foot, and the weight is transferred back to
the left foot. The same foot continues to lead in
sliding movements. The body maintains an upright
posture and the arms may be used for balance. The
legs should not be crossed.
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132
Galloping Galloping is a combination of a step
and a leap, and it is performed in a forward or
backward direction. The gallop is similar to the
slide except that the leap is higher and it is
not a sideways movement.
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133
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134
In a forward gallop the lead foot moves forward
and assumes the weight the rear foot is brought
forward and close to the lead foot. In the gallop
the step is long and the leap is short. The
stepping leg is always the lead leg.
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135
nonlocomtor movements
136
Nonlocomotor movement skills include bending,
stretching, twisting, turning, pushing, pulling,
lifting, and swinging. Some of these skills have
been performed by children since their infancy.
However a conscious effort by physical education
teachers to ensure that they are executed
correctly is important.
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137
Bending and Stretching Bending. Bending is a
movement is a movement occurring at the joints of
the body in which body parts are brought closer
together. For example, by bending the body at the
hips to touch the toes, a person is decreasing
the angle between the upper and lower body at the
hip joint.
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138
This is technically called flexion. Bending
movements may be in several directions for
example, forward, backward, sideways, or in a
circular motion. Also several bending movements
can occur at the same time.
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139
An example of a skill in which two bending
movements are necessary is the arm curl with
weights, which requires bending of the elbows and
wrists. When using a barbell, the arm curl is
executed by holding the barbell in the hands
(palms away from the body) with the elbows close
to the body.
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140
The arms are flexed, first at the elbow and then
at the wrist, to bring the weight up to the
chest. The upper arms should remain stationary
throughout the movement. Contrast this bending
with the many body parts that must bend to
position for a forward roll.
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141
The range of bending movements is determined by
the type of joint at which the movement occurs.
Ball-and-socket joints permit the greatest
movement. Hip joints and shoulder joints are
examples of ball-and-socket joints. Hinge joints
permit only backward and forward movements. The
knee joint is a hinge joint.
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142
Stretching A stretch is an extension or
hyperextension of the joints of the body.
Stretching is the opposite of bending. Most
movements require only complete extension where
the body parts adjacent to the joints are at a
straight angle (180 degrees).
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143
However, in movements such as the wrist cock
before a throw, hyperextension is needed to give
added impetus to the throw. Bending and
stretching are necessary to maintain
flexibility-the full range of movement about a
joint.
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144
Bending and stretching are common to most of the
activities of daily life, and they are very
important to physical education activities.
Teachers should provide daily activities in which
these skills can be practiced and refined.
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145
Twisting Twisting is a rotation of the body or a
body part around its axis while maintaining a
fixed base of support. As in bending and
stretching movements, twisting and turning
movements are determined by the structure of the
joints involved in the movement. The upper body
may be twisted at the waist, or the shoulders may
be twisted about the spinal column.
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146
Turning Turning is a rotation of the body or a
body part around in space. When the entire body
is turned, the base of support is shifted from
one position to another.
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147
Turning of a body part is the result of twisting
of adjacent body parts. For example, the foot can
be turned in or out by rotating the leg.
Likewise, whe
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