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Scientific

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Scientific Inquiry What is the question or problem? Scientific investigations always have a question to answer or a problem to solve. What is the process? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific


1
Scientific
  • Inquiry

2
What is the question or problem?
  • Scientific investigations always have a question
    to answer or a problem to solve.

3
What is the process?
  • Always use safety and accuracy when conducting a
    scientific investigation.

4
Scientific Method
  • Observing/Research
  • Hypothesizing
  • Inferring/Predicting
  • Identifying and manipulating variables/Experimenta
    tion
  • Organizing and interpreting data
  • Conclusion

5
Observation
  • The observation is done first so you know how you
    want to go about your research.

6
What is observation?
  • There are two types of observations
  • qualitative
  • quantitative

7
What is a qualitative observation?
  • They describe the observation.

8
What is quantitative observation?
  • They measure the observation. It is more accurate.

9
Lets Observe!
  • Look at your neighbor. Observe five
    characteristics. Write them down on your paper.
  • Which five senses did you use?
  • Have you used quantitative or qualitative
    observation?

10
How would we use qualitative observation?
  • Hair color
  • Eye color
  • Clothes they have on

11
How would we use quantitative observation?
  • Height?
  • Weight?

12
Research
  • For this stage of the Scientific Method, its
    important to use as many sources as you can find.
    You can collect information from your own
    experiences, books, the internet, or even smaller
    unofficial experiments.

13
How do we hypothesize?
  • Hypotheses express a logical explanation for your
    problem that can be tested. It is usually written
    in an If/Then format.
  • Example
  • If the tomato plant receives more sunlight then
    the plant will grow larger tomatoes.

14
How do you write a good hypothesis statement?
  • If the manipulated variable increases or
    decreases, then the responding variable will
    increase or decrease.

15
What is inference?
  • Explanations that we use based on experience.
  • There can be more than one inference.
  • Inferences can be changed.

16
What is your inference?
  • You observe a sad looking student leaving the
    principals office.
  • You see several people leaving a move theatre
    red-eyed and blowing their noses.
  • You observe several happy students leaving school.

17
What is predicting?
  • Forecasting of future events.
  • It is our belief about what could happen in a
    scientific experiment.

18
What is an operational definition?
  • The method used to measure a variable.
  • It tells the way the measurement will be
    performed.

19
Example
  • A student wants to test the effects of Vitamin C
    on the health of students in her science class
    The variable health of students could be
    defined as
  • Number of colds in a month
  • Number of days absent due to sickness in a month
  • Number of people with coughs in a month.

20
How do we identify and manipulate variables?
  • Variables are factors, conditions, and/or
    relationships that can change or be changed in an
    event or system.

21
Identifying Variables
  • What variables might affect the taste of pizza?
  • What variables might affect the miles per gallon
    of an automobile?
  • What variables might affect the scoring in a
    football game?

22
What are the three types of variables?
  • Manipulated
  • Responding
  • Controlled

23
What are manipulated variables?
  • It is sometimes called the independent variable
    and is a factor or condition that is
    intentionally changed.

24
What is the responding variable?
  • It is sometimes called the dependent variable and
    is a factor or condition that might be affected
    as a result of the manipulated variable.

25
What is the controlled variable?
  • It is a variable that has not changed.
  • There may be more than one in an experiment.

26
Example
  • Students of different ages were given the same
    puzzle to assemble. The puzzle assembly time was
    measured.
  • Manipulated variable____________
  • Responding variable_____________
  • Controlled variable______________

27
How do we organize and interpret data?
  • Use tables, charts, and graphs.
  • These give a visual image to allow for easy
    interpretation of data, and drawing conclusions.

28
Making Data Tables
  • When making data tables, place the manipulated
    variable in the left column and the responding
    variable in the right column.

29
Types of graphs
  • Line graphs are often used when data has taken
    place over time
  • Bar graphs are often used for descriptive data

30
Conclusion
  • This is a summary of the experiments results,
    and how those results match up to your
    hypothesis.
  • You have two options for your conclusions based
    on your results, you can reject the hypothesis,
    or you can not reject the hypothesis.
  • You can not prove the hypothesis with one single
    experiment. Why not?

31
  • If your original hypothesis doesnt match up with
    the final results of your experiment, DONT
    change the hypothesis. Instead, try to explain
    what might have been wrong with your original
    hypothesis.
  • An experiment isnt a failure if it proves your
    hypothesis wrong.
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