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Aquatic Biodiversity

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Title: Aquatic Biodiversity


1
Chapter 6
  • Aquatic Biodiversity

2
Chapter Overview Questions
  • What are the basic types of aquatic life zones
    and what factors influence the kinds of life they
    contain?
  • What are the major types of saltwater life zones,
    and how do human activities affect them?
  • What are the major types of freshwater life
    zones, and how do human activities affect them?

3
Updates Online
  • The latest references for topics covered in this
    section can be found at the book companion
    website. Log in to the books e-resources page at
    www.thomsonedu.com to access InfoTrac articles.
  • InfoTrac Down the bayou a marine biologist, a
    community, and the resolve to preserve an ocean's
    bounty. Taylor Sisk. Earth Island Journal, Autumn
    2006 v21 i3 p27(6).
  • InfoTrac A scourge of the '70s returns to Great
    Lakes. The Christian Science Monitor, March 30,
    2006 p14.
  • InfoTrac The fate of the ocean. Julia Whitty.
    Mother Jones, March-April 2006 v31 i2 p32(15).
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    Fisheries
  • Amazon Conservation Association Amazon Rivers
    Project

4
Core Case Study Why Should We Care About Coral
Reefs?
  • Coral reefs form in clear, warm coastal waters of
    the tropics and subtropics.
  • Formed by massive colonies of polyps.

Figure 6-1
5
Fig. 6-1a, p. 126
6
Fig. 6-1b, p. 126
7
Video Florida Reefs
PLAY VIDEO
8
Video Reef Fish (Bahamas)
PLAY VIDEO
9
Core Case Study Why Should We Care About Coral
Reefs?
  • Help moderate atmospheric temperature by removing
    CO2 from the atmosphere.
  • Act as natural barriers that help protect 14 of
    the worlds coastlines from erosion by battering
    waves and storms.
  • Provide habitats for a variety of marine
    organisms.

10
Video Beach Pollution
PLAY VIDEO
  • From ABC News, Environmental Science in the
    Headlines, 2005 DVD.

11
AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS
  • Saltwater and freshwater aquatic life zones cover
    almost three-fourths of the earths surface

Figure 6-2
12
Landocean hemisphere
Ocean hemisphere
Fig. 6-2, p. 127
13
AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS
Figure 6-3
14
What Kinds of Organisms Live in Aquatic Life
Zones?
  • Aquatic systems contain floating, drifting,
    swimming, bottom-dwelling, and decomposer
    organisms.
  • Plankton important group of weakly swimming,
    free-floating biota.
  • Phytoplankton (plant), Zooplankton (animal),
    Ultraplankton (photosynthetic bacteria)
  • Necton fish, turtles, whales.
  • Benthos bottom dwellers (barnacles, oysters).
  • Decomposers breakdown organic compounds (mostly
    bacteria).

15
Life in Layers
  • Life in most aquatic systems is found in surface,
    middle, and bottom layers.
  • Temperature, access to sunlight for
    photosynthesis, dissolved oxygen content,
    nutrient availability changes with depth.
  • Euphotic zone (upper layer in deep water
    habitats) sunlight can penetrate.

16
Animation Ocean Provinces
PLAY ANIMATION
17
SALTWATER LIFE ZONES
  • The oceans that occupy most of the earths
    surface provide many ecological and economic
    services.

Figure 6-4
18
Natural Capital
Marine Ecosystems
Economic Services
Ecological Services
Climate moderation
Food
CO2 absorption
Animal and pet feed
Nutrient cycling
Pharmaceuticals
Waste treatment
Harbors and transportation routes
Reduced storm impact (mangroves, barrier islands,
coastal wetlands)
Coastal habitats for humans
Recreation
Habitats and nursery areas
Employment
Genetic resources and biodiversity
Oil and natural gas
Minerals
Scientific information
Building materials
Fig. 6-4, p. 129
19
The Coastal Zone Where Most of the Action Is
  • The coastal zone the warm, nutrient-rich,
    shallow water that extends from the high-tide
    mark on land to the gently sloping, shallow edge
    of the continental shelf.
  • The coastal zone makes up less than 10 of the
    worlds ocean area but contains 90 of all marine
    species.
  • Provides numerous ecological and economic
    services.
  • Subject to human disturbance.

20
The Coastal Zone
Figure 6-5
21
High tide
Sun
Coastal Zone
Open Sea
Sea level
Low tide
Photosynthesis
Euphotic Zone
Estuarine Zone
Continental shelf
Bathyal Zone
Twilight
Abyssal Zone
Darkness
Fig. 6-5, p. 130
22
Marine Ecosystems
  • Scientists estimate that marine systems provide
    21 trillion in goods and services per year 70
    more than terrestrial ecosystems.

Figure 6-4
23
Fig. 6-6, p. 130
24
Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Centers of
Productivity
  • Estuaries include river mouths, inlets, bays,
    sounds, salt marshes in temperate zones and
    mangrove forests in tropical zones.

Figure 6-7
25
Herring gulls
Peregrine falcon
Snowy Egret
Cordgrass
Short-billed Dowitcher
Marsh Periwinkle
Phytoplankton
Smelt
Zooplankton and small crustaceans
Soft-shelled clam
Clamworm
Bacteria
Producer to primary consumer
All consumers and producers to decomposers
Secondary to higher-level consumer
Primary to secondary consumer
Fig. 6-7a, p. 131
26
Fig. 6-7b, p. 131
27
Mangrove Forests
  • Are found along about 70 of gently sloping sandy
    and silty coastlines in tropical and subtropical
    regions.

Figure 6-8
28
Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Centers of
Productivity
  • Estuaries and coastal marshes provide ecological
    and economic services.
  • Filter toxic pollutants, excess plant nutrients,
    sediments, and other pollutants.
  • Reduce storm damage by absorbing waves and
    storing excess water produced by storms and
    tsunamis.
  • Provide food, habitats and nursery sites for many
    aquatic species.

29
Rocky and Sandy Shores Living with the Tides
  • Organisms experiencing daily low and high tides
    have evolved a number of ways to survive under
    harsh and changing conditions.
  • Gravitational pull by moon and sun causes tides.
  • Intertidal Zone area of shoreline between low
    and high tides.

30
Rocky and Sandy Shores Living with the Tides
  • Organisms in intertidal zone develop specialized
    niches to deal with daily changes in
  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • Wave action

Figure 6-9
31
Rocky Shore Beach
Hermit crab
Sea star
Shore crab
High tide
Periwinkle
Sea urchin
Anemone
Mussel
Low tide
Sculpin
Barnacles
Kelp
Sea lettuce
Monterey flatworm
Nudibranch
Fig. 6-9, p. 132
32
Barrier Beach
Beach flea
Peanut worm
Tiger Beetle
Clam
Blue crab
Dwarf Olive
High tide
Sandpiper
Ghost Shrimp
Low tide
Silversides
Mole Shrimp
Moon snail
White sand macoma
Sand dollar
Fig. 6-9, p. 132
33
Barrier Islands
  • Low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore
    from a coastline.
  • Primary and secondary dunes on gently sloping
    sandy barrier beaches protect land from erosion
    by the sea.

Figure 6-10
34
Primary Dune
Secondary Dune
Bay or Lagoon
Ocean
Beach
Trough
Back Dune
No direct passage or building
Limited recreation and walkways
Most suitable for development
No direct passage or building
Intensive recreation, no building
Intensive recreation
Grasses or shrubs
Bay shore

No filling
Taller shrubs
Taller shrubs and trees
Fig. 6-10, p. 133
35
Threats to Coral Reefs Increasing Stresses
  • Biologically diverse and productive coral reefs
    are being stressed by human activities.

Figure 6-11
36
Gray reef shark
Green sea turtle
Sea nettle
Fairy basslet
Blue tangs
Parrot fish
Sergeant major
Brittle star
Hard corals
Algae
Banded coral shrimp
Phytoplankton
Coney
Symbiotic algae
Zooplankton
Blackcap basslet
Sponges
Moray eel
Bacteria
All consumer and producers to decomposers
Secondary to higher-level consumer
Primary to secondary consumer
Producer to primary consumer
Fig. 6-11, p. 134
37
Threats to Coral Reefs Increasing Stresses
Figure 6-12
38
Natural Capital Degradation
Coral Reefs
Ocean warming Soil erosion Algae growth from
fertilizer runoff Mangrove destruction Bleaching
Rising sea levels Increased UV
exposure Damage from anchors Damage from
fishing and diving
Fig. 6-12, p. 135
39
Biological Zones in the Open Sea Light Rules
  • Euphotic zone brightly lit surface layer.
  • Nutrient levels low, dissolved O2 high,
    photosynthetic activity.
  • Bathyal zone dimly lit middle layer.
  • No photosynthetic activity, zooplankton and fish
    live there and migrate to euphotic zone to feed
    at night.
  • Abyssal zone dark bottom layer.
  • Very cold, little dissolved O2.

40
Effects of Human Activities on Marine Systems
Red Alert
  • Human activities are destroying or degrading many
    ecological and economic services provided by the
    worlds coastal areas.

Figure 6-13
41
Natural Capital Degradation
Marine Ecosystems
Half of coastal wetlands lost to agriculture and
urban development Over one-third of mangrove
forests lost to agriculture, development, and
aquaculture shrimp farms Beaches eroding because
of coastal development and rising sea
level Ocean bottom habitats degraded by dredging
and trawler fishing At least 20 of coral reefs
severely damaged and 3050 more threatened
Fig. 6-13, p. 136
42
FRESHWATER LIFE ZONES
  • Freshwater life zones include
  • Standing (lentic) water such as lakes, ponds, and
    inland wetlands.
  • Flowing (lotic) systems such as streams and
    rivers.

Figure 6-14
43
Natural Capital
Natural Capital
Freshwater Systems
Economic Services
Ecological Services
Climate moderation Nutrient cycling Waste
treatment Flood control Groundwater
recharge Habitats for many species Genetic
resources and biodiversity Scientific information
Food Drinking water Irrigation
water Hydroelectricity Transportation
corridors Recreation Employment
Fig. 6-14, p. 136
44
Lakes Water-Filled Depressions
  • Lakes are large natural bodies of standing
    freshwater formed from precipitation, runoff, and
    groundwater seepage consisting of
  • Littoral zone (near shore, shallow, with rooted
    plants).
  • Limnetic zone (open, offshore area, sunlit).
  • Profundal zone (deep, open water, too dark for
    photosynthesis).
  • Benthic zone (bottom of lake, nourished by dead
    matter).

45
Animation Lake Zonation
PLAY ANIMATION
46
Lakes Water-Filled Depressions
  • During summer and winter in deep temperate zone
    lakes the become stratified into temperature
    layers and will overturn.
  • This equalizes the temperature at all depths.
  • Oxygen is brought from the surface to the lake
    bottom and nutrients from the bottom are brought
    to the top.
  • What causes this overturning?

47
Animation Lake Turnover
PLAY ANIMATION
48
Lakes Water-Filled Depressions
Figure 6-15
49
Sunlight
Painted turtle
Green frog
Blue-winged teal
Muskrat
Pond snail
Littoral zone
Limnetic zone
Diving beetle
Plankton
Profundal zone
Benthic zone
Northern pike
Yellow perch
Bloodworms
Fig. 6-15, p. 137
50
Effects of Plant Nutrients on Lakes Too Much of
a Good Thing
  • Plant nutrients from a lakes environment affect
    the types and numbers of organisms it can support.

Figure 6-16
51
Effects of Plant Nutrients on Lakes Too Much of
a Good Thing
  • Plant nutrients from a lakes environment affect
    the types and numbers of organisms it can
    support.
  • Oligotrophic (poorly nourished) lake Usually
    newly formed lake with small supply of plant
    nutrient input.
  • Eutrophic (well nourished) lake Over time,
    sediment, organic material, and inorganic
    nutrients wash into lakes causing excessive plant
    growth.

52
Animation Trophic Nature of Lakes
PLAY ANIMATION
53
Effects of Plant Nutrients on Lakes Too Much of
a Good Thing
  • Cultural eutrophication
  • Human inputs of nutrients from the atmosphere and
    urban and agricultural areas can accelerate the
    eutrophication process.

54
Freshwater Streams and Rivers From the Mountains
to the Oceans
  • Water flowing from mountains to the sea creates
    different aquatic conditions and habitats.

Figure 6-17
55
Rain and snow
Glacier
Lake
Rapids
Waterfall
Tributary
Oxbow lake
Flood plain
Salt marsh
Deposited sediment
Delta
Ocean
Source Zone
Transition Zone
Water
Sediment
Floodplain Zone
Fig. 6-17, p. 139
56
Case Study Dams, Wetlands, Hurricanes, and New
Orleans
  • Dams and levees have been built to control water
    flows in New Orleans.
  • Reduction in natural flow has destroyed natural
    wetlands.
  • Causes city to lie below sea-level (up to 3
    meters).
  • Global sea levels have risen almost 0.3 meters
    since 1900.

57
Freshwater Inland Wetlands Vital Sponges
  • Inland wetlands act like natural sponges that
    absorb and store excess water from storms and
    provide a variety of wildlife habitats.

Figure 6-18
58
Freshwater Inland Wetlands Vital Sponges
  • Filter and degrade pollutants.
  • Reduce flooding and erosion by absorbing slowly
    releasing overflows.
  • Help replenish stream flows during dry periods.
  • Help recharge ground aquifers.
  • Provide economic resources and recreation.

59
Impacts of Human Activities on Freshwater Systems
  • Dams, cities, farmlands, and filled-in wetlands
    alter and degrade freshwater habitats.
  • Dams, diversions and canals have fragmented about
    40 of the worlds 237 large rivers.
  • Flood control levees and dikes alter and destroy
    aquatic habitats.
  • Cities and farmlands add pollutants and excess
    plant nutrients to streams and rivers.
  • Many inland wetlands have been drained or filled
    for agriculture or (sub)urban development.

60
Impacts of Human Activities on Freshwater Systems
  • These wetlands have been ditched and drained for
    cropland conversion.

Figure 6-19
61
Video Elephant Seals
PLAY VIDEO
62
Video Giant Clam
PLAY VIDEO
63
Video River Flyover
PLAY VIDEO
64
Video Schooling Fish
PLAY VIDEO
65
Video Sea Anemones
PLAY VIDEO
66
Video Seal Lions
PLAY VIDEO
67
Video Sting Rays
PLAY VIDEO
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