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Marine Biology Introduction

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Title: Marine Biology Introduction


1
Marine BiologyIntroduction
  • Ms. Stripling

2
Why study oceans?
  • The ocean strongly influences our lives through
    its effects on weather and climate, and as a
    source of food, recreation, mineral resources,
    transportation, and military advantage.. These
    interactions provide compelling reasons for us to
    study the sea.

3
Is that all?
  • We also strongly influence the ocean through our
    activities and our waste products

4
Do we always need a reason?
  • But the impetus to study the ocean also stems
    from pure human curiosity about exploring the
    inner space of our planet.

5
What is Oceanography?
  • Oceanography is an interdisciplinary science in
    which researchers from diverse fields focus on
    the broad goal of understanding the ocean.
  • includes the study of the ocean's physical,
    biological, chemical, and geological
    characteristics.

6
  • Physical oceanographers study the ocean's
    circulation, currents, waves, and tides.

7
  • Biological oceanographers investigate marine
    organisms and their relationship to the
    environment.

8
  • Chemical oceanographers analyze the chemical
    composition of sea water and the cycling of
    nutrients through the ocean system.

9
  • Marine geologists explore the geologic features
    of the coastal zone and the ocean floor, and the
    processes that have formed those features.

10
  • Engineers are also involved in oceanography, as
    they must design and plan equipment for use at
    sea.

11
  • So too are policy makers, who enact environmental
    laws and regulations concerning the use and
    conservation of the ocean and its resources

12
Birth of oceanography
13
  • It was a converted British navy ship left
    Portsmouth England in 1872 and returned in 1876.
  • Its mission, assigned by the British admiralty,
    was to investigate the conditions of the deep sea
    throughout the great oceanic basins.
  • The ship logged almost 70,00 nautical miles on
    its voyage around the world.

14
  • Challenger scientists took hundreds of depth
    soundings, discovered and described over 4,000
    new species of marine life, and studied currents,
    temperature, and salinity of the oceans
    throughout the world

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A few other milestones
  • In 1934, deep-sea researcher William Beebe made
    history with his dives in the Bathysphere, a
    hollow steel ball only 4' 9'' in diameter. He and
    two other men dove a mile down in this
    submersible, lowered and raised by a thin steel
    cable affixed to a winch on a barge. Beebe
    observed deep-sea fish and other marine organisms
    in their deep-sea habitat, an environment that no
    one else had ever explored firsthand.

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And some more.
  • Alvin, a small manned craft that in 1977
    discovered the deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

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And some more.
  • 1943, when Jacques-Yves Costeau and Emile Gagnan
    perfected the fully automatic compressed air
    Aqualung, the precursor to modern-day SCUBA
    systems. This technological advance opened the
    exploration of shallow-water ocean habitats to
    thousands of researchers from around the world.
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