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Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 30

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Gender Psychology Lecture 30 Exam: December 15, 3:30-6:30, Osborne A In addition to questions associated with the lecture s, the exam will include questions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 30


1
Psychology 320 Gender PsychologyLecture 30
2
Exam December 15, 330-630, Osborne A
  • The exam is worth 20 of your final grade.
  • The exam will be scored out of 75 points.
  • In addition to questions associated with the
    lecture slides, the exam will include questions
    related to chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the
    textbook.
  • The exam will include 30 multiple choice
    questions (1 point each), 5 definitions (2 points
    each), and several short answer questions (2-12
    points each).

3
  • Please bring a pencil, eraser, pen, and your
    student ID to the exam.
  • All electronic devices must be put away before
    the start of the exam.
  • All backpacks/bags should be placed at the
    front, back, or sides of the examination room.
  • Hats (e.g., baseball caps) should not be worn
    during the exam.

4
Office Hours
  • Prior to the exam, I will have additional
    office hours. If you require assistance, please
    feel free to see me at any of the following
    times

Monday, December 7, 1200-130. Thursday,
December 10, 900-1030. Friday, December 11,
230-430.
5
Emotion
1. Are there sex differences in emotional
expression?
2. What is restrictive emotionality?
6
Are there sex differences in emotional expression?
  • A substantial body of research has demonstrated
    sex differences in emotional expression.
  • Among the research findings that have
    demonstrated sex differences in emotional
    expression are the following

7
  • Preschool children show no sex differences in
    emotional expression however, consistent
    differences in emotional expression emerge by age
    six, with girls displaying more emotion than
    boys. These differences have been attributed to
    parents greater expression of emotion with
    daughters than sons (Adams et al., 1995).
  • Adolescent boys are more likely than adolescent
    girls to deny having ever had an emotional
    experience (Stapely Haviland, 1989).

8
  • Female undergraduates rate themselves higher on
    spontaneous emotional expression, whereas male
    undergraduates rate themselves higher on
    emotional control (Guerrero Reiter, 1998).
  • Among non-student samples, adult women indicate
    that they engage in more emotionally expressive
    behaviour than adult men (Simon and Nath, 2004).

9
  • Women and men are able to identify the emotions
    of females more readily than the emotions of
    males (LaFrance Banaji, 1992).
  • Physiological measures reveal greater facial
    reactivity (vs. autonomic reactivity) among
    females than males when experiencing similar
    emotions (Kring Gordon, 1998 Thunberg
    Dimberg, 2000).

10
Mean Corrugator Supercilii Responses, Skin
Conductance Responses and Unpleasantness Ratings
for Fear-Relevant Stimuli for Females and Males
(Thunberg Dimberg, 2000)
Females Males
Corrugator Response .305 .155
Skin Conductance Response .146 .146
Unpleasantness Rating (0-9) 4.458 4.360
11
  • Theorists maintain that sex differences in
    emotional expression are the result of socially
    and culturally constructed display rules Norms
    regarding the expected management of facial
    appearance (Ekman, 1973).
  • Seven display rules have been identified
    Amplification, unmodified expression,
    qualification, deamplification, masking,
    neutralization, and simulation.

12
  • Display rules encourage the expression of most
    emotions by females and discourage the
    expression of most emotions by males (e.g.,
    Safdar et al., 2009).

Exceptions Anger, contempt, pride.
13
  • Research indicates that gender is a better
    predictor of emotional expression than sex

Kring and Gordon (1998)
  • Asked participants to complete the BSRI.
  • Examined participants emotional expression in
    response to film clips designed to evoke distinct
    emotional experiences.

14
Frequency
Frequency of Expressions by Sex (Kring and
Gordon, 1998)
15
Frequency
Frequency of Expressions by Gender Role
Classification (Kring and Gordon, 1998)
16
What is restrictive emotionality?
  • Refers to the limited emotional expression
    associated with the male gender role.
  • Restrictive emotionality is fostered among
    males through observation of male role models,
    interpersonal familial dynamics, and social
    rewards and punishments.

17
  • Consider your reaction to the following
    conversation between Mike and Jim

Mike, Ive been so upset since we had that
argument, I could hardly sleep last night. Are
you sure youre really not mad at me? Jim, Im so
relieved . I was just as afraid that youd be
mad at me!
18
  • Restrictive emotionality has been associated
    with a number of adverse consequences
  • anxiety.
  • depression.
  • relationship difficulties.
  • homophobia.
  • physiological distress.
  • alexithymia.
  • use of immature and neurotic ego defenses.
  • anger.

19
  • With respect to defense mechanisms, Mahalik et
    al. (1998) investigated the relationship between
    restrictive emotionality and the use of mature
    vs. immature defense mechanisms among males.

Examples of mature defense mechanisms
Sublimation, humour, anticipation, suppression.
Examples of immature defense mechanisms
Isolation, autistic fantasy, denial,
displacement, somatization.
20
Found that males who were high in restrictive
emotionality were more likely than males who were
low in restrictive emotionality to use immature
defense mechanisms.
21
  • With respect to anger, Long (1987) has
    described anger as the male emotional funnel
    system.

Cohn, Seibert, and Zeichner (2009) investigated
the relationship between restrictive emotionality
and physical aggression among males.
Found that males who were high in restrictive
emotionality were more likely than males who were
low in restrictive emotionality to administer
high-intensity shocks to an opponent.
22
Emotion
1. Are there sex differences in emotional
expression?
2. What is restrictive emotionality?
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