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Managing Organizational Change for Schools

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Title: Managing Organizational Change for Schools


1
Managing Organizational Change for Schools
2
Learning Outcomes
  • Students are able to
  • Describe the meaning of educational
    change/reforms
  • Identify the types of change agents according to
    scenario provided
  • Evaluate the strategies of change as suggested by
    Robert Chin
  • Utilize the Force-field Analysis to minimize the
    resistance of change
  • Apply the target of change appropriately
  • Elaborate the resistance of change

3
Terminology
  • Invention
  • The process of developing new technologies,
    projects, or procedures for an organization.
  • Innovation
  • Deliberate, novel, specific change, which is
    thought to be more efficacious in accomplishing
    the goals of a system.
  • Organizational change
  • The process of altering the behavior,
    structures, procedures, purposes, or output of
    some unit within an organization
  • (Hanson, 1996)
  • Difference between individual change and
    organization change
  • Individual change determined by personality
    needs and values
  • Organization change Determined by more formal,
    structured characteristics of a system (Katz and
    Kahn)

4
  • Government Transformation Program
  • Institutionalization is a process of making a
    change routine it becomes part of the ordinary
    life of the school
  • Cycle of change
  • Freeze
  • Unfreeze
  • Moving

5
  • Organizational innovation refers to organizations
    that strive to break through, change status quo,
    develop characteristics in terms of products,
    processes or services so that organizational
    performance can be enhanced. (Zhao and Ordonez
    de Pablos)

6
Michael Fullen
  • Educational change is a process of coming to
    grips with the multiple realities of people who
    are the main participants in implementing change.
    The leader who presupposes what the change
    should be and acts in ways which preclude others
    realities is bound to fail.

7
Books/Chapters Dealing with Change
  • The Third Wave by Outlet
  • Megatrends Ten New Directions Transforming Our
    Lives by John Naisbitt
  • Cunningham, W. G., Cordeiro, P. A. 2000.
    Educational Administration A Problem-Based
    Approach. Chapter 3 School Reform. Boston
    Allyn and Bacon.
  • Mark, Hanson, E. 1996. Educational
    Administration and Organization Behavior.
    Chapter 12 Educational Change. Boston Allyn and
    Bacon.
  • Lunenburg, F, C., Ornstein, A. C. 1996.
    Educational Administration Concepts and
    Practice. Chapter 8 Organizational Change.
    Belmont Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  • Owens, Robert. 1998. Organizational Behavior in
    Education. Chapter 9 Organizational Change.
    Boston Allyn and Bacon.

8
Journals
9
Books
10
Megatrends Ten New Directions Transforming Our
Lives John Naisbitt.1982
  • Industrial society moving to an information
    society
  • Forced technology moving to high technology
  • National economy moving to world economy
  • Short term moving to long term
  • Centralization moving to decentralization
  • Institutional help moving to self help
  • Representative democracy moving to participatory
    democracy
  • Hierarchies moving to networking
  • Power base of north part of U.S moving to
    southern U.S.
  • Either/or options moving to multiple options.

11
Megatrends 2000 Ten New Directions for the
1990s. John Naisbitt and Patricia Aburdene
(1990)
  • This is a new version of the original Megatrends
    (1982) book
  • The new trends are
  • Global economic boom of the 1990s
  • Renaissance in the arts
  • Emergence of free-market socialism
  • Global lifestyles and cultural nationalism
  • Privatization of the welfare state
  • Rise of the pacific rim
  • The 1990s as a decade of women in leadership
  • The age of biology,
  • Religious revival of the third millennium, and
  • Triumph of the individual.

12
Educational Reforms
  • 21st Century American Education Action in U.S.A.
  • Japan train the next generation with survival
    strength
  • European Union transform member countries into
    knowledge Europe
  • Singapore builds thinking schools and learning
    country

13
Elements of Innovative Schools
  • Schools excel when
  • Their leaders are empowered to think big
  • The entire community (all stakeholders) share a
    vision of change
  • They collaborate and explore best practices
    world wide

14
National Key Result Areas (NKRAs)
  • Crime prevention
  • Reducing government corruption
  • Increased access to quality education
  • Improvements in the standard of living for low
    income groups
  • Upgrades rural infrastructure
  • Improvement in public transportation

15
Education NKRA
  • The four (4) thrusts
  • 72 enrolment across 4 and 5 cohorts by 2010
  • 90 literacy and numeracy by 2010 (LINUS
    screening Literacy and Numeracy Screening)
  • Target of 20 HPS (High Performing Schools) by
    2010
  • 2 of principals rewarded by 2010

16
Units of Change (Sergiovanni)
  • The individual
  • Needs, interests, relationships
  • The school
  • School climate and school culture
  • The workflow
  • The change goals, the change targets, the change
    protocols, the curriculum and teaching
    requirements, and the supervisory and staff
    development support
  • The political system
  • Administrative action, congruent reward system,
    budget available, teacher union acceptance,
    school board acceptance, administrative
    commitment, and community acceptance

17
The Change Agent
  • A change agent is a professional whose role is to
    influence the clients behavior in a desired
    direction
  • The responsibilities of the change agent vary
    from complex to simplistic and tough to
    permissive
  • The types of change agents
  • White-hat Change Agent
  • Machiavellians Change Agent
  • Guerrillas Change Agent
  • The Hatchet man Change agent

18
  • White-hat Change Agent
  • Most change agents fall into this category
  • The change agent has an engaging personality,
    maintains close bonds based on trust, and
    practises democratic procedures at all time.
  • The steps to be taken by the change agent
    (Havelock)
  • Relationship Establishes a viable relationship
    with the client system
  • Diagnosis Determine whether the client is aware
    of his/her problems

19
  • Resources Identifies and obtain the resources
  • Solution Generates a range of alternatives and
    makes a choice
  • Acceptance The change agent helps the client
    system to develop awareness and interests by
    describing, detailing, discussing and
    demonstrating and finally adopt the innovation
  • Stabilization Develop the internal capability
    to sustain innovation without the continued
    presence of the change agent

20
  • The Machiavellian Change Agent
  • The change agent might choose to be quite
    invisible, engineering events from behind the
    scene
  • Rules for the agent (Baldridge)
  • Concentrate your effort
  • Know when to fight
  • Learn the history
  • Build a coalition
  • Join external constituencies
  • Use committees effectively
  • Use the formal system

21
  • Follow through to push the decision flow
  • Glance backward when the change is completed
  • Hatchet men Change Agents
  • Their arrival on the scene is a clear signal
    that major organizational surgery has been called
    for
  • In the field of education, we dont see many
    hatchet men change agents

22
  • The organizational Guerrilla
  • Guerrilla change agents work from inside the
    organization, usually as an employee
  • The guerrilla works against the formal
    leadership in an attempt to bring about change
  • Of all forms of the change agents, the guerrilla
    is probably the least understood

23
Types of Change
  • Planned change
  • Conscious and deliberate attempt to manage
    events so that the outcome is redirected by
    design to some predetermined end.
  • Anyone can initiate a program of planned change,
    whether or not he/she is formally charged with
    the responsibility of directing an organization.
  • Spontaneous change
  • An alteration that emerges in a short time frame
    as a result of natural circumstances and random
    occurrences
  • It just happens
  • No grand design directs the course of events

24
  • Evolutionary change
  • Long-range, cumulative consequences of major and
    minor alterations in the organization

25
Three Strategies of Planned Change(Robert Chin)
  • Empirical-rational change
  • Power-coercive change
  • Normative-reeducation change
  • Environmental-Adaptive (Fred Nickols)
  • Empirical-rational change
  • The linkages between researchers and
    practitioners
  • It is related to knowledge production and
    utilization (KPU)
  • The aim is to bridge the gap between theory and
    practice
  • Research, development, and diffusion (R, D, and
    D)

26
  • Power-coercive strategies
  • Willingness to use sanctions in order to obtain
    compliance from adopters
  • It requires that individuals comply with the
    wishes fo those who are in positions superior to
    theirs
  • In empirical-rational and power coercive
    strategies, organizations are made to change
  • Both empirical-rational and power-coercive
    strategies believe that best ideas are best
    developed outside of the organization and the
    organization is the target of external forces for
    change

27
  • A normative-reeducative strategy
  • Norms of the organizations interaction-influence
    system (culture) can be deliberately shifted to
    more productive norms by collaborative action of
    people who populate the organization
  • The shift from a close climate to a open climate
    (Andrew Halpin)
  • Moving from System 1 management style to System 4
    (Rensis Likert)

28
  • Environmental-Adaptive Strategy
  • Assumption People adapt readily to new
    circumstances
  • Change is based on building a new organization
    and gradually transferring people from the old
    one to the new one.

29
Force-field Analysis (Kurt Lewin)
  • Force field analysis is a management technique
    developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field
    of social sciences, for diagnosing situations.
  • Diagnostic in nature
  • It allows the preparation of plans for specific
    action designed to achieve the changes sought
  • The success of such plans will depend on the
    clarity with which the likely consequences of
    proposed action are perceived
  • For major organizational sub-systems are
  • Task
  • Technology
  • Structure
  • human

30
  • Lewin assumes that in any situation there are
    both driving and restraining forces that
    influence any change that may occur
  • Driving Forces
  • Driving forces are those forces affecting a
    situation that are pushing in a particular
    direction
  • They tend to initiate a change and keep it going
  • Restraining Forces
  • Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain
    or decrease the driving forces
  • Apathy, hostility, and poor maintenance of
    equipment may be examples of restraining forces
    against increased production
  • Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the
    driving forces equals the sum of the restraining
    forces.

31
To carry out a Force Field Analysis
  • State the current situation
  • Describe the ideal situation
  • Identify where the current situation will go if
    no action is taken
  • List all the forces driving change toward your
    ideal situation
  • List all the forces resisting change toward your
    ideal situation
  • Interrogate all of the forces Are they valid?
    Can they be changed? Which are the critical
    forces?
  • Allocate a score to each of the forces using a
    numerical scale e.g. (1) extremely weak (10)
    extremely strong
  • Chart the forces by listing (to strength scale)
    the driving forces on the left and restraining
    forces on the right
  • The viability of the change programme can be
    affected by decreasing the strength of the
    restraining forces or by increasing the strength
    of driving forces.

32
Pressures forOrganizational ChangeLunnerburg
Ornstein, 1996)
  • Government intervention
  • It is top-down hierarchy reforms
  • Societys values
  • Herzbergs hygiene factors such as salary, job
    security, working conditions, supervision,
    organizational policies, and status. The absence
    of these factors results in employee job
    dissatisfaction
  • The quality of work life employee participation
    in the organization
  • The values of equity and efficiency

33
  • Technological change and knowledge explosion
  • Part of it is due to research and development
    efforts within an organization
  • A great deal of development comes from outside
  • Development of new technologies increases the
    accessibility to higher education such as
    continuing education courses, life-long learning
    and etc.
  • ICT, smart schools, collaboration with British
    Aerospace and INTEL, e-book and etc.

34
  • Processes and people
  • Process factors include
  • Communication which is inadequate
  • Poor quality decision making
  • Inappropriate leadership
  • Nonexistent of motivation
  • People factors include
  • Poor performance of teachers and students
  • High absenteeism
  • High dropout rates
  • High teacher turnover
  • Low teacher morale and motivation
  • Poor community relationns

35
Targeting Process ofChange Management
  • Elements of the targeting process
  • Focus of change
  • Level of change
  • Potency of change
  • Impetus of change
  • Focus of change
  • Its tasks from traditional forms of instruction
    to individualized instruction,
  • Its structure decentralization,
    departmentalization, communication channels and
    etc.
  • Its technology introduction of
    computer-assisted instruction and etc.
  • Its people new skills, values, motivation and
    etc

36
  • Level of change
  • Wilfred Brown has identified four levels of an
    organization
  • Manifest organization Portrayed by
    line-and-staff chart that represents the formal
    organization
  • Assumed organization The conventional wisdom
    about how the system actually works
  • Extant organization How the system actually
    works
  • Requisite organization This is an ideal
    organization, the way how an organization should
    function

37
  • Potency of change
  • It refers to the degree which a change requires a
    significant departure from existing condition
  • Level of potency depends on resources, time,
    energy, power, and goodwill that are involved in
    the change initiative
  • Impetus for change
  • Three types of change (Getzels)
  • Enforced change Cultural dimension outside the
    organization brings external pressure on the
    system to which it must respond.
  • Expedient change The mechanism of change is
    reaction
  • Essential change The mechanism of change is
    volunteerism.

38
Resistance to Change(Mark Hanson, 1996)
  • Resistance to change occurs at organizational
    level and at the individual level
  • Organizational level
  • The educational system
  • Centralized vs. decentralized system
  • Bureaucratic organization
  • Formal bureaucratic structure such as
    hierarchical levels, role relationships,
    standardized procedures, control from the top,
    values of disciplined and compliance and etc.
  • Superordinates have rights and subordinates have
    obligations (Abbott)
  • A study by Moeller and Charters found that
    teaches in highly bureaucratic systems had
    significantly higher, not lower, sense of power
    than those in less bureaucratic schools.
  • Bureaucratic may not always be detrimental to
    change

39
  • Accountability
  • If test score are low, teachers are blamed.
    This will lead to the wrong focus for initiating
    change
  • Goal displacement
  • Goal displacement refers to a situation when
    following the rules becomes the goal of the
    individual functionary or even of the
    organization itself (Robert Merton)
  • Domesticated organization
  • The domestication of schools builds in layers of
    protective insulation (can be penetrated but not
    easily)

40
  • Costs Time, energy, money
  • In educational organizations, it is rather
    difficult to obtain accurate measures of benefits
    as they relate to costs
  • Sunk costs also act as forces resistant to
    change
  • Resistance cycle
  • Four-stage cycle (Goodwin Watson)
  • Stage one resistance appears massive
  • Stage two The pro and con forces become visible
  • Stage three The battle between the pro and con
    is on
  • Stage four The supporters of change is
    victorious.

41
  • Resistance to change at individual level
  • Vested interests
  • Vested interests come in social (dissolve of
    inform group, social status), political (lost of
    power), economic (source of income) and
    psychological forms (insecure).
  • Mobility expectations
  • Three career motivational patterns (Presthus)
  • Up-ward mobile
  • Indifferent
  • ambivalent

42
  • Search behavior
  • There is evidence that the present procedures
    are not working well and results in anxiety
  • Psychological systems
  • Psychological forces that generate forces
    towards change (Goodwin Watson)
  • Habit
  • Primary (success from completing a task)
  • Selective perception and retention
  • Dependence
  • Insecurity and regression

43
  • Rejection stages
  • Ignorance/lack of dissemination (The infor is
    not easily available)
  • Suspended judgment/data not logically compelling
    (I want to wait and see how good it is before I
    try)
  • Situational/data not materially compelling (It
    costs too much to use in time and money)
  • Personal/data not psychologically compelling (I
    dont know if I can operate the equipment)
  • Experimental/present or past trials (I tried
    them once and they arent any good)

44
  • Resistance from the lowerarchy
  • The power in the lowerarchy can generate forces
    that resist change
  • Lack of experimental ethic

45
Conditions for Successful ChangeTo Happen (Mark
Hanson)
  • Anxiety, difficulties, and uncertainty are
    intrinsic to all successful change
  • Change is a journey where learning and adjustment
    must take place
  • Education change is a problem-solving process
  • Change requires resources training, materials,
    new space, personnel, and etc.)
  • Change in education needs an integrated source of
    power to direct it. Therefore the management of
    change is better when it is carried out by a
    cross-role group
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