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Chapter 31: World War II

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Title: Chapter 31: World War II & Its Aftermath Author: Jeffrey Weinell Last modified by: Adam Created Date: 3/1/2005 12:02:14 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 31: World War II


1
Chapter 31World War II Its Aftermath
  • Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Section 4 Toward Victory
  • Section 5 From World War To Cold War

2
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • In the 1930s, Italy, Germany, and Japan wanted to
    build new empires
  • The three nations formed an alliance known as the
    Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (or Axis Powers)
  • They agreed to let each other attack and take
    over new lands

3
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • The League of nations had no power to stop the
    Axis Powers
  • Most other countries avoid conflict out of fear
    of war
  • The world was busy recovering from the Great
    Depression
  • No one tried to halt the acts of aggression that
    led to World War II

4
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • In 1936, civil war broke out in Spain
  • Italy and Germany helped General Franco gain
    control
  • Both sides used new weapons and committed
    horrible acts of violence
  • The brutal showed how much destruction a modern
    war could cause

5
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • German aggression continued
  • Britain and France still tried to keep peace
    through a policy of appeasement, or giving into
    the demand of an aggressor
  • The United States remained neutral

6
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • By 1939, Hitler had taken all of Austria and
    Czechoslovakia
  • It was clear that appeasement had failed
  • Britain and France promised to protect Poland
    from Nazi attack

7
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • In August of 1939, Hitler made a pact with Joseph
    Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union
  • The long-time enemies agreed not to fight each
    other

8
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • One week after signed the non-aggression pact
    with the USSR, German armies invaded Poland
  • Britain and France kept their promise
  • On September 3, 1939, they declared war on
    Germany
  • World War II had begun

9
Stinks to be Poland
10
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • Aggressive Steps Toward World War II

1931 - Japan invades Manchuria
1935 - Italy invades Ethiopia
1936 - Germany sends troops into the Rhineland
1937 - Japan takes over much of eastern China
1938 - Germany makes Austria part of its empire
1938 - Germany takes Sudetenland
1938 - Germany takes over Czechoslovakia
1939 - Italy takes over Albania
1939 - Germany invades Poland
1939 - Britain and France declare war
11
Section 1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War
  • The Big Idea
  • During the 1930s, dictators undermined peace by
    committing acts of aggression and taking foreign
    lands
  • Throughout the 1930s, nothing stopped the acts of
    aggression that finally led to war

12
Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • During World War II, the Axis powers of Germany,
    Italy and Japan were on one side
  • Allied powers of France and Britain were on the
    other
  • The Allies were soon joined by the Soviet Union,
    China, and the Unites States

13
Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • Axis powers wanted to conquer Europe
  • The Germans used a type of warfare called
    Blitzkrieg, or lightning war
  • Planes, and new, faster tanks swiftly took Poland

14
Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • The blitzkrieg overran much of Europe
  • France fell in June 1940
  • Britain stood alone against the Axis

15
Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • In September 1940, Hitler began a bombing, or
    blitz, of London
  • The British Royal Air Force used newly developed
    radar that detected approaching aircraft
  • They held off the Germans

16
Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • The British, led by Prime Minister Winston
    Churchill, would not give up
  • In June 1941, Hitler ended the bombing

17
Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • Then, with Britain still a threat, Hitler
    attacked the Soviet Union
  • Germany was seeking access to the Soviet Unions
    vast mineral resources
  • The Soviets fought back, but were defeated again
    and again throughout 1941
  • But the fiercest winter in over a century stalled
    the German attack and gave the Soviets time to
    recover
  • In the meantime, Britain and the USSR became
    allies

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Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • The Japanese wanted control of the Pacific but
    felt that United States stood in their way
  • On December 7th, 1941, Japanese planes bombed a
    naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  • The next day the United States declared war on
    Japan
  • Three days later Germany and Italy declared war
    on the United States

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Section 2 The Global Conflict Axis Advances
Modern Tanks
Walke Talkies
Modern Submarines
Machine Guns
Modern Warfare Of World War II
Radar
Sonar
Modern Airplanes
Deadlier Bombs
Medical Advances
Aircraft Carriers
22
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Germany and Japan wanted to establish total
    control of the people they conquered
  • The Germans robbed occupied lands of art and
    resources

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Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Hitler planned to kill all the people he thought
    were racially inferior
  • Nazi racism was aimed most directly at the Jews

25
  • Nazi propaganda repeatedly stressed the notion
    that Jews were enemies of the German people
  • Jews were created as the anti-symbol
  • They were viewed as the embodiment of evil
  • To illustrate the culpability of Jews, the Nazis
    placed emphasis on the criminality of Jews and
    the conspiracy of foreign Jews against Germany.

26
  • The notion that Jews outside of Germany
    threatened a conspiracy against Germany was
    stressed during Kristallnacht (The Night of
    Broken Glass or the November Pogrom) in November
    1938
  • The Nazis directed their anti-Semitic propaganda
    at both domestic and foreign audiences

27
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • The Nazis built concentration camps, or detention
    centers for civilians, where Jews were starved,
    shot, or gassed to death
  • By 1945, over six million Jews had died in what
    became known as the Holocaust
  • Gypsies, Slavs, and the mentally ill were victims
    too

28
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied
SuccessesConcentration Camps
29
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • The Japanese were also brutal rulers
  • They killed and tortured prisoners
  • They stole food crops and forced conquered people
    into slave labor

30
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Up until 1942, it looked like the Axis was
    winning the war
  • However, the Allied nations began to wage total
    war
  • Factories made tanks instead of cars
  • The Allies rationed goods to supply their troops
  • Women replaced men in jobs, served in the armed
    forces, and joined resistance groups

31
Wartime factory production
32
Rationing
33
Women in the Workforce
34
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Even democratic nations limited civil rights
    during wartime
  • A fear of spies led the United States to force
    many Japanese Americans to in in relocation camps

35
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • By 1942, Allied victories turned the tide of the
    war
  • The first turning points came in North Africa,
    Italy, and the Soviet Union

36
Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Battle of El Alamein (1942)

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Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Battle of Stalingrad

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Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Invasion of Italy

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Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • Battle of Midway

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Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
  • On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), Allied soldiers landed
    at Normandy in France
  • They broke through the German lines and freed
    Paris
  • By the end of September 1944, all of France was
    free

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Section 3 The Global Conflict Allied Successes
Battle of El Alamein (1942) -British drive back
Germans -Germans surrender African lands
Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43) -Soviet troops
defend Stalingrad, eventually forcing a German
surrender
Turning Points in WWII
Invasion of Normandy (1944) -Allied troops land
on the beaches of Normandy -They go on to free
France from German control
Invasion of Italy (1943) -British American
forces land in Sicily -Italian government
surrenders -Hitler sends in German troops and
fighting continues until the end of the war
64
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • After their attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese
    won battle after battle.
  • However, the tide of war turned in 1942
  • In the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway Island,
    American victories stopped the Japanese advance

65
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • Successful attacks moved the United States forces
    closer to Japan
  • By 1944, their planes were bombing Japanese
    cities
  • Still, Japan would not surrender, or give up

66
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • In Europe, Hitler fought to stop the Allied
    invasion of Germany
  • The bloody Battle of the Bulge in Belgium was the
    last real German effort
  • Air attacks pounded Germany day and night

67
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • Early in 1945, the Soviets moved in from the
    east, while the other Allied forces closed in
    from the west
  • As Soviet troops fought their way into Berlin,
    Hitler committed suicide
  • Berlin fell on May 2, 1945
  • On May 7th, Germany surrendered

68
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • The Allies still had to defeat Japan
  • United States scientists had created a bomb, more
    powerful than any yet known
  • President Harry Truman decided the bomb would
    bring the quickest end to the war
  • Truman warned the Japanese, but they would not
    surrender

69
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • On August 6, 1945, a United States plane dropped
    an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japanstill Japan
    did not give up!
  • Three days later, a second bomb hit the city of
    Nagasaki
  • On August 10, the Japanese asked for peace
  • World War II was over

70
Section 4 Toward Victory
  • Problem Should the United States use the atomic
    bomb?

Reasons for -It would save American lives -It
would bring a quick end to the war -It would show
the power of the U.S. to future enemies
Reasons Against -Massive destruction -Once used,
it would be more likely to be used again -It
would release radiation
Decision Truman orders use of bombs on Hiroshima
and Nagasaki
Results -More than 110,000 die -Japan surrenders
71
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • As the Allies celebrated victory, the cost of the
    war became clear
  • Although the exact totals may never be known, at
    least 75,000,000 people died
  • The Soviet Union suffered more than 22,000,000
    dead (from May 1941-April 1945 an average of
    18,000 deaths a day)
  • The entire Vietnam war saw only just over 58,000
    American dead
  • Surviving Nazi war leaders were placed on trial
    at Nuremburg

72
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • Cities were in ruins
  • Survivors faced hunger and disease
  • To keep the peace 50 countries set up the United
    Nations (UN)
  • The UN aimed to stop war, guard rights, and
    improve health and education

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Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • After World War II, the United States and the
    Soviet Union created the strongest military
    forces on Earth
  • Many Eastern European countries and part of
    Germany came under Soviet domination

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Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • The Soviet leader Stalin wanted to spread
    Communism and create a buffer zone to prevent
    attacks from the West
  • The United States and other democratic countries
    opposed Stalins plan
  • Tension between the two powers led to the Cold
    War, a state of conflict without armed battle

80
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • The Iron Curtain that separated Eastern Europe
    and free nations in the West became a symbol of
    the Cold War

81
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • The United States took steps to stop the spread
    of communism
  • In 1949, the free nations of the West set the
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

82
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • To counter NATO, the Soviet Union formed the
    Warsaw Pact, joining the Soviet Union and its
    satellite nations in Eastern Europe

83
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • U.S. program to stop the spread of communism
  • Offered to poor nations likely to fall to
    communism
  • States that the U.S. would give military and
    economic aid to any country fighting communism
  • Aid given to Greece and Turkey

84
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • Marshall Plan (1947)
  • Gave U.S. financial aid to rebuild Europe
  • Gave over 17 Billion in aid, including food,
    machinery, and raw materials
  • Welcomed by all nations of Europe except the
    Soviet Union and its Communist allies

85
Section 5 From World War To Cold War
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • Joined U.S., Britain, Canada, France, Italy, and
    six smaller nations in a military alliance
  • Formed to stop Communist takeovers in Europe
  • Maintained troops, military equipment, and
    weapons
  • Considered an attack against one member as an
    attack against all members
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