CHAPTER 6 : WRITING PROCESS PHASE 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WRITING PROCESS PHASE 2 Research, Organize and Compose Presented by Business students at John Molson School of Business, Concordia: Nina Ansermino, Eliyah Assedou ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Research, Organize and Compose

Presented by Business students at John Molson
School of Business, Concordia Nina Ansermino,
Eliyah Assedou, and Stewart Sullivan
PHASE 2 of Mary Ellen Guffeys 3-X-3 Writing
Three Simple Steps to Writing
  • Research data on your topic
  • Organize text elements
  • Compose a coherent article

First Step to Writing
  • Research

First Step to Writing
  • Before writing a message, collect all the
    information that you will need for your message
  • This information will help shape the message that
    you are trying to convey to the reader

First Step to Writing
  • To avoid an inaccurate message, gather
    information that answers these primary questions
  • What does the receiver need to know about this
  • What is the receiver to do?
  • How is the receiver to do it?
  • When must the receiver do it?
  • What will happen if the receiver doesnt do it?

First Step to Writing
  • When you are conducting your research, be sure to
    follow the right research method
  • Formal Research Method
  • Informal Research Method

First Step to Writing
  • Formal Research
  • Long reports and complex business problems

First Step to Writing
  • Ways of conducting formal research
  • Access electronically websites, databases,
    CDs, public records and organizations
  • Search manually through the library, book,
    magazine, news papers
  • Investigate primary sources interview, survey
  • Experiment scientifically

First Step to Writing
  • Informal Research
  • Used to find information for most routine tasks
    emails, memos, letters and reports
  • Ways of conducing Informal Research
  • Look in files find previous documents to help
    you with content and format
  • Talk with your boss
  • Interview a target audience
  • Conduct an informal survey conduct phone
    surveys or questionnaires

First Step to Writing
  • Once you have gathered all the information you
    need through research, you can start finding
    other ways to generate ideas

First Step to Writing
  • Brainstorming Creating a Cluster Diagram
  • In the centre, write your topic name and circle
  • Around the circle record any topic ideas that
    come to mind
  • Circle each separate idea
  • Avoid censoring ideas, record everything
  • If ideas seem related, join them with lines

First Step to Writing
  • Example of a Cluster Diagram

First Step to Writing
  • Ideas for productive group brainstorming
  • Define problem and create an agenda that outline
    the topics to be covered
  • Establish time limits, short sessions are best
  • Set a quota of ideas, quantity not quality
  • Encourage out of the box thinking

First Step to Writing
  • Write ideas on flip charts or on sheets of paper
    hung around the room
  • Require each participant to contribute, accept
    and improve their ideas and the ideas of others
  • Organize and classify the ideas, searching for
    the best

Second Step to Writing
  • Organize

Second Step to Writing
  • To ensure that your message is well organized
  • Group similar items together
  • Ideas should follow a sequence
  • Unorganized messages can leave the reader
    confused and will not emphasize the important

Second Step to Writing
  • Organizing Ideas From a Cluster Diagram
  • Analyze the previous ideas
  • Cross out irrelevant ideas
  • Add new ideas that seem appropriate
  • Study these ideas for similarities
  • Group similar ideas into classifications
  • For further visualization, make sub-cluster
    circles around each classification

Second Step to Writing
  • There are two other simple techniques that will
    also help you organize your data
  • The scratch list
  • An outline

Second Step to Writing
  • When developing your message, make a scratch list
    of the topic that want to cover
  • Possibly make scratch list in margins of letter
    or memo that you are responding to
  • Then, compose a message at you computer from your
    scratch list

Second Step to Writing
  • Use an outline to organize and group ideas to
    make a plan of what you want to write
  • Examples
  • Alphanumeric Outline
  • Decimal Outline

Second Step to Writing
  • Format for Alphanumeric Outline
  • Title Major Idea, Purpose
  • I. First Major Component
  • A. First subpoint
  • 1. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • B. Second subpoint
  • 1. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • II. Second Major Component
  • A. First subpoint

Second Step to Writing
  • 1. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • B. Second subpoint
  • 1. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • III. Third Major Component
  • A. First subpoint
  • 1. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • B. Second subpoint
  • 1. Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2. Detail, illustration, evidence

Second Step to Writing
  • Formal for Decimal Outline
  • Title Major Idea, Purpose
  • 1.0 First Major Component
  • 1.1 First Subpoint
  • 1.1.1 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 1.1.2 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 1.2 Second Subpoint
  • 1.2.1 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 1.2.2 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2.0 Second Major Component
  • 2.1 First Subpoint

Second Step to Writing
  • 2.1.1 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2.1.2 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2.2 Second subpoint
  • 2.2.1 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 2.2.2 Detail, Illustration, evidence
  • 3.0 Third Major Component
  • 3.1 First Subpoint
  • 3.1.1 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 3.1.2 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 3.2 Second Subpoint
  • 3.2.1 Detail, illustration, evidence
  • 3.2.2 Detail, illustration, evidence

Second Step to Writing
  • Each major category is divided into two or more
  • Subcategories should consist of examples,
    details, statists, case histories and other data
  • Each sub-point should be more subdivided into
    more specific illustrations and details depending
    on the audience

Second Step to Writing
  • Tips for Making Outlines
  • define the main topic in the title
  • divide the main topic into major components of
    classifications (three-five)
  • break components into sub-points
  • strive to make each component exclusive
  • use details, illustrations and evidence to
    support sub-points

Second Step to Writing
  • Typical Major Components to Business Outlines
  • Letter or Memo
  • I. Opening
  • II. Body
  • III. Close
  • Informational Report
  • I. Introduction
  • II. Facts
  • III. Summary

Second Step to Writing
  • Procedure
  • I. Step 1
  • II. Step 2
  • II. Step 3
  • IV. Step 4
  • Analytical Report
  • I. Introductions
  • II. Facts / Findings
  • III. Conclusions
  • IV. Recommendations (if requested)

Second Step to Writing
  • Proposal
  • I. Introduction
  • II. Proposed Solution
  • III. Staffing
  • IV. Schedule, cost
  • V. Authorization

Second Step to Writing
  • Organizing Ideas into Patterns
  • There are two organizational patterns which
    provide a plan of action for typical business
  • Direct Pattern
  • Indirect Pattern

Second Step to Writing
  • Direct Pattern for Receptive Audiences
  • When deciding on the message that you wish to
    convey, you need to anticipate the audiences
  • Make sure you put the purpose of your message in
    the first or second sentence
  • Explanations and details should follow the opening

Second Step to Writing
  • Direct Method is also called front-loading and
    has some benefits
  • Saves the readers time messages that take too
    long may lose the reader along the way
  • Sets a proper frame of mind learning purpose
    upfront helps reader put details into perspective
  • Prevents frustration poorly organized messages
    create negative impression of writer

Second Step to Writing
  • Works best with audiences that are likely to be
  • Typical business messages that follow the direct
    pattern routine requests and responses, orders
    and acknowledgements, non-sensitive moms, email
    messages, information reports and informational
    oral presentations
  • None have a sensitive subject matter

Second Step to Writing
  • Indirect Pattern for Unreceptive Audiences
  • A most suitable approach of writing if you wish
    to leave the audience displeased or even hostile
  • Only expose the message after you have delivered
    explanation and evidence
  • Works well with bad news, persuasion and
    sensitive messages

Second Step to Writing
  • Typical business messages that use this method
    letters / memos that refuse requests, deny claims
    and disapprove credit, persuasive requests, sales
    letters, and sensitive messages

Second Step to Writing
  • This method also has many advantages
  • Respects the feelings of the audience bad news
    is painful but this way they will be prepared for
  • Encourages a fair hearing if main idea is read
    at the beginning, reader might not listen anymore
  • Minimizes a negative reaction negative reaction
    will be improved is news is delivered gently

Third Step to Writing
  • Compose

Third Step to Writing
  • After all of the researching and organization, it
    is time to begin composing your message
  • Composing is made easier as you have all of your
    ideas organized and ready to work with
  • It is made easier if you have a quiet working

Third Step to Writing
  • As you begin, keep in mind that this is a first
    draft, not your final copy
  • Get your thoughts down on paper and go back and
    edit at the end
  • If you cant think of the right word, insert a
    substitute or type find word later
  • If you handwrite, make sure to double space that
    you have room for change

Third Step to Writing
  • Effective Sentences some basic sentence
  • Complete Sentences
  • Include subjects and verbs
  • They must make sense
  • Example - Your essay was very creative.

Third Step to Writing
  • Clauses and Phrases
  • Key building blocks to sentences
  • Clauses have subjects and verbs
  • Phrases do not
  • Example of clauses - Because she can sing, they
    want her to be in the choir.
  • Example of phrases - The manager of Gap Inc. sent
    an email to the staff.

Third Step to Writing
  • Independent and Dependent Clauses
  • Dependent clauses rely on independent clauses for
    their meaning to make sense
  • Independent clauses can stand on their own as
    they are grammatically correct
  • Example - Because you have all learned how to
    write well, I think you should write an essay.

Third Step to Writing
  • In order for sentences to be as effective as
    possible, they must be short and concise
  • Limit them to about 20 words or less
  • Break up complex sentences with periods
  • However, make sure to still have a balance
    between long and short sentences to keep the
    reader interested

Third Step to Writing
  • Emphasizing Important Ideas
  • Make use of bold, italics and underscore
  • Use vivid words reader can picture ideas
  • Label the main idea

Third Step to Writing
  • Place the important idea first or last in the
    sentence that way the ideas will have less
    competition with surrounding words
  • Place the important idea in a simple sentence or
    in an independent clause
  • Make sure the important idea is the sentence

Third Step to Writing
  • Active-Voice
  • Sentences with active-voice verbs has the doer of
    the action as the subject
  • We use active-voice for most business writing
  • Used to make a blunt announcement
  • Example Tyler made a major error in the estimate

Third Step to Writing
  • Passive-Voice
  • In passive-voice sentences, the subject is acted
  • Use to emphasize an action or recipient of the
  • Use to de-emphasize negative news
  • Use to conceal the doer of an action
  • Example A major error was made in the estimate

Third Step to Writing
  • To tell if a verb is active or passive, identify
    the subject of the sentence
  • Then decide whether the subject is doing the
    acting or if it is being acted upon
  • Another clue to identifying passive-voice verbs
    is that they usually include a to be helping
    verb such as is, are, was, were, being or been

Third Step to Writing
  • Drafting Meaningful Paragraphs
  • Discuss only one topic and connect other ideas
  • Construct sentences and make into a paragraph
  • Main sentence primary idea of paragraph
  • Supporting sentence provides evidence to
    support main idea
  • Limiting sentence acts as an opposition to main
    idea but suggesting contrasting ideas

Third Step to Writing
  • Direct Paragraph Plan
  • Most business message use this paragraph plan
    because it clarifies the subject immediately
  • Useful when you must define, classify,
    illustrate, describe
  • I. Main Sentence
  • II. Supporting Sentences

Third Step to Writing
  • Can alter direct plan by adding a limiting
  • I. Main Sentence
  • II. Limiting Sentence
  • III. Supporting Sentences

Third Step to Writing
  • Pivoting Paragraph Plan
  • I. Limiting Sentence (offers a contrasting or
    negative idea and can be two sentences)
  • II. Main Sentence
  • II. Supporting Sentence
  • Useful for comparing and contrasting
  • Use but or how to show a turn in direction

Third Step to Writing
  • Indirect Paragraph Plan
  • I. Supporting Sentence
  • II. Main Sentence
  • Allows you to build a foundation of reasons
    before revealing the big idea to the audience
  • Explain your reasoning and then at the end draw
    your conclusion
  • Appropriate when delivering bad news
  • Works well for describing cause followed by effect

Third Step to Writing
  • Link Ideas to Build Coherence
  • Sustaining the key idea repeating a key
    expression or a similar one
  • Using pronouns (we, they, she, he) to build
    continuity by confirming to the audience that the
    same thing under discussion is still being

Third Step to Writing
  • Dovetailing sentence when an idea at the end of
    one sentence connects with an idea at the
    beginning of the next sentence
  • Helpful with dense, difficult topics
  • Should NOT be over used

Third Step to Writing
  • Transitional Expressions
  • Helps reader anticipate whats coming next,
    reducing uncertainty and speed comprehension
  • Non-verbal road signs to readers and listeners
  • They can add or strengthen a though, show time or
    order, clarify ideas, show causes and effect,
    contradict thoughts and contrast ideas

Third Step to Writing
  • Transitional Expressions To Build Coherence

To add or Strengthen To show time or order To Clarify To show cause and effect To Contradict To Contrast
additionally after for example accordingly actually as opposed to
again before for instance as a result but at the same time
also earlier I mean consequently however by contrast
besides finally in other words for this reason in fact conversely
likewise first that is so instead on the contrary
moreover meanwhile this means therefore rather on the other hand
Third Step to Writing
  • Compose Short Paragraphs for Readability
  • Business writers recognize the vale of short
  • Paragraphs with eight or fewer lines look
    inviting and readable
  • If a topic cannot be covered in eight or fewer
    lines, consider breaking it up into smaller

Links to External Information
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