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Philosophy

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Philosophy & Religion in China Chinese Folk Religion Taoism Confucianism By Laura Ellen Shulman Chinese Folk Religion Belief in spirits Reverence for ancestors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Philosophy


1
Philosophy Religion in China
  • Chinese Folk Religion
  • Taoism
  • Confucianism

By Laura Ellen Shulman
2
Chinese Folk Religion
  • Belief in spirits
  • Reverence for ancestors
  • Priests perform blessing rituals
  • purifying space
  • Exorcising evil spirits (hungry ghosts)
  • Astrology
  • Divination

3
Chinese metaphysics is about
  • Energy
  • Change
  • Balance
  • Harmony
  • Inter-relationships

4
Chinese Metaphysics
Movement of cosmic energies Rising Falling
Expanding Contracting Rotating
Represented by and expressed in the five
elements of nature
5
The Five Elements
Productive cycle
6
The Five Elements
X
Destructive cycle
X
X
X
X
7
Chinese MetaphysicsConcepts
  • Chi life force, life energy (ultimate)
  • Yin-Yang harmony of opposites
  • Yin passive state of energy
  • Yang active state of energy

  • Tao the way of the cosmos, of nature
  • Heaven (tien) and Earth
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Practical applications I-Ching and Feng Shui

8
The I-ChingBook of Changes
  • Ancient divination technique (at least 3000 years
    old)
  • Intended to guide humans in decision making
  • Based on combinations of lines representing the
    ever changing relationship between passive (yin)
    and active (yang) energy flow of heaven, human,
    and earth

yin
yang
9
The Tri-gramsEight combinations of three lines
each
heaven
wind / wood
lake
Fire
water
mountain
thunder
earth
10
Using the I-Ching Tool
  • Symbolism of the lines
  • Upper line energy state of heaven
  • Middle line energy state of human
  • Lower line energy state of earth
  • Two sets of trigrams are divined to create a
    hexagram
  • Use coins or sticks to divine one of 64 hexagrams
  • Use I-Ching text to discern meaning of the
    hexagram and any additional meaning for changing
    lines (energies on the verge of changing)
  • A skilled interpreter is needed to apply the
    generic meaning of the hexagram

31
11
Feng Shui
  • The Chinese art of placement (geomancy)
  • Means wind water symbolically, the constant
    flow of wind and water that creates constant
    change in the world also affects us
  • Uses the five elements and the eight directions
    of the I-Ching as the Bagua tool
  • Seeks to maintain constant and balanced flow of
    energies (chi) in a space for improved flow of
    energy in the people who use the space

12
Learn more on the Web
  • Learn more about Yin-Yang and the Five Elements
    http//www.wisdommedia.com/data/library/html/feng_
    shui_yinyang.asp
  • I-ching sites
  • I-Ching Resources includes history of the I-Ching
    and details about the trigrams
    http//www.onlineclarity.co.uk/I_Ching_resources
  • How to use the I-ching http//littlestcat.com/ich
    ing/
  • Feng Shui sites
  • Series of pages on Feng Shui theory and
    application http//www.wisdommedia.com/data/libra
    ry/html/feng_shui_what_is.asp
  • Feng Shui products and tips from MJG Designs
    http//shop.store.yahoo.com/mjgdesigns/designtips.
    html

13
TaoismThe Way of Harmony with Nature
  • A philosophy
  • Profound and paradoxical
  • A way of life
  • Playful and practical
  • A religion
  • Originating in 6th century BCE China
  • Nature knows best

14
TaoismOrigins and Texts
  • Legendary founder Lao Tzu (6th century BCE)
  • Primary text Tao Te Ching (the Book of the Way
    and the Power)
  • 81 short chapters containing the basic
    philosophy of living in harmony and balance
  • Chuang Tzu (4th century BCE)
  • Author of companion text The Chuang Tzu
  • Collection of stories exemplifying the wisdom and
    nature of the Taoist sage

15
Philosophical Taoism
  • The Tao (path or way)
  • The nameless
  • The Mother of tenthousand things
  • The uncarved block
  • All pervading within and beyond nature
  • Te (power or virtue)
  • Ones natural ability brought to peak potential
    through following the way
  • The Taoist Sage learns from observing the way of
    nature (flowing water, wind) and letting nature
    guide his way through life

16
More Taoist Concepts
  • Wei-wu-wei (active non-action)
  • Passive non-resistance to the natural forces of
    life
  • Natural way to get things done with least effort
    and greatest success
  • Go with the flow, yield to the natural way of
    things
  • Applied in all walks of life
  • Relativity good and bad as a matter of
    perspective
  • The Taoist sage is non-judgmental

17
Taoism as a Way of Living
  • Seeking Health and Longevity through diet,
    meditation, exercise, and a stress-free life
  • Alchemy seeking the chemical elixir of lifeto
    achieve immortality
  • Meditation Inner Alchemy Meditation seeking
    spiritual rather than chemical transformation
  • Natural/holistic healing herbal medicine,
    acupressure, acupuncture, exercise
  • Tai-Chi-Chuan (grand ultimate boxing)
  • A slow, graceful martial art stressing movement
    in balance

18
Religious Taoism
  • Deification of Lao Tzu
  • The Jade Emperor and the eight Immortals
  • Taoist temples with images of Lao Tzu and other
    immortals
  • Taoist Priests combine Taoist meditation with
    purification rites of folk religion exorcism
    practices
  • Taoist sects develop beginning in 1st century,
    additional teachers and texts

19
Confucianism
  • A political and social philosophy seeking social
    harmony on all levels
  • Within the self
  • the family
  • the community
  • ...the state
  • the nation
  • the world
  • the cosmos
  • Learning from the past to improve the future

20
Confucianism - Origins
  • Kung-Fu-tzu (Confucius) Master Kung
  • 551 - 479 BCE
  • Embraces the values of the past
  • Political aspirations unfulfilled
  • The greatest teacher who ever lived
  • Rejected in his own day, but the model for
    Chinese culture for over 2000 years
  • Meng-Tzu (Mencius) (4th century) continues to
    develop teachings of Confucius

21
Confucianism - Texts
  • The Five Classics (of the past)
  • I-Ching
  • The Book of History (Shu Ching)
  • The Book of Poems (Shih Ching)
  • The Spring and Autumn Annals (Chun Chiu)
  • The Book of Rituals (Li Chi)
  • The Four Books (Confucian)
  • Analects (Lun Yu)
  • Doctrine of the Mean
  • The Great Learning
  • The Book of Mencius (Meng-Tzu)

22
Goal of Confucianism
  • To develop ones Jen Human Heartedness - the
    innate goodness of humanity
  • Thus becoming a Chun Tzu the Great Man or
    Gentle Man
  • Jen is developed through intentional living by
    Confucian virtues

23
Confucian Virtues
  • Filial Piety (Hsiao) - respect for the five
    constant relationships
  • Parent and child
  • Husband wife
  • Older younger sibling
  • Older younger friend
  • Ruler subject
  • Human-heartedness is developed only within the
    context of human relationships

24
More Confucian Virtues
  • Rectification of names a person or thing should
    be true to its name
  • Recipricity (shu) the Golden Rule
  • Do not do to others what you would not want
    others to do to you
  • Li (rites, ritual) the inherent pattern in
    things
  • For Confucius, Li is especially significant in a
    social context propriety or etiquette, the
    pattern of humane behavior

25
Neo-Confucianism
  • Develops 11th 16th century by Various Confucian
    philosophers
  • A metaphysical foundation for Confucian social
    ethics
  • Two main schools
  • School of Reason (more scientific) through the
    investigation of things one can discover the
    underlying pattern (li) principle behind all
    reality (patterns and principles are manifest
    only within the material world)
  • School of Mind (more mystical)
    microcosmic-macrocosmic parallel between the
    human mind and the universe, reflecting an
    essential unity of all that is

26
Confucianism as a Religion
  • Deification of Confucius - statues
  • Confucian Temples honoring Confucius
  • Veneration of the ancestors
  • Rituals within
  • the household
  • the village
  • the state
  • the nation

27
Explore more on the Web
  • Taoist sites
  • The True Tao Homepage a pleasant place to visit
    and learn more http//www.taoism.net/html.html
  • Taoism and the Philosophy of Tai Chi Chuan
    informative on both origins and religious Taoism
    http//www.chebucto.ns.ca/Philosophy/Taichi/taoism
    .html
  • About the Tao http//www.thetao.info/tao/index.ht
    m
  • Confucian sites
  • http//www.friesian.com/confuci.htm an academic
    review of basic Confucian teachings
  • The Lun Yu (Analects), an English translation
    online http//www.confucius.org/lunyu/lange.htm
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