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Indoor Air Quality in Hong Kong

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Title: Indoor Air Quality in Hong Kong Author: USER Last modified by: rnhp2 Created Date: 10/26/2003 1:12:34 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indoor Air Quality in Hong Kong


1
?????? HOW TO PREVENT INFLUENZA
?????????? Central Health Education
Unit DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH September 2007
2
What is Influenza?
  • Influenza (flu)
  • is a highly infectious viral disease
  • caused by various types of influenza viral
    strains

3
Seasonal Influenza
In Hong Kong, the disease is more common in
periods from January to March and from July to
August.
?????
??
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?????
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Consultation rate of influenza-like illness and
number of influenza isolates in 2006
4
Influenza Pandemic
  • Pre-requisites for the start of an Influenza
    Pandemic
  • A novel influenza virus subtype emerge or an old
    subtype re-emerge
  • The new virus must be able to replicate in humans
    and cause serious illness
  • The new virus must be efficiently transmitted
    from one human to another

Photo source from CDC
5
Pandemic Influenza vs Seasonal Influenza
  • When compared to localised seasonal influenza
    epidemic, the influenza pandemic
  • Spreads quicker and broader
  • Usually associates with higher severity of
    illness and a higher death toll
  • Has more serious consequences, greater social and
    economic impact

Photo source from CDC
6
The relationship with Avian Influenza
  • The Hong Kong 1997 experience and the recent
    situation in some parts of the world have
    demonstrated the pandemic potential of H5N1
  • The threat of H5N1 to human health is closely
    related to the outbreaks of HPAI (Highly
    Pathogenic Avian Influenza) in poultry
  • The surveillance of potential virus responsible
    for pandemic influenza is an important part of
    contingency preparedness

7

Preparedness Plan for Influenza Pandemic
  • The Government's 3-tier response system for
    handling major infectious disease outbreaks
  • Alert Response Level
  • Serious Response Level
  • Emergency Response Level

8
Alert Response Level
  • Scenarios
  • Confirmation of highly pathogenic avian influenza
    (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry populations outside
    Hong Kong
  • Confirmation of HPAI in Hong Kong in imported
    birds in quarantine, in wild birds, in
    recreational parks, in pet bird shops or in the
    natural environment
  • Confirmation of human case(s) of avian influenza
    outside Hong Kong

9
Actions from Public Alert Level
  • Maintain normal way of life
  • Pay attention to further announcements
  • from the Government

10
Serious Response Level
  • Scenarios
  • Confirmation of HPAI outbreaks in the environment
    of or among poultry population in retail markets,
    wholesale markets, farms in Hong Kong due to a
    strain with known human health impact
  • Confirmation of human case(s) of avian influenza
    in Hong Kong without evidence of efficient
    human-to-human transmission

11
Actions from Public - Serious Level
  • Maintain normal way of life
  • Prepare enough masks for possible
  • exigencies
  • Pay attention to and comply with
  • guidelines issued by the Government

12
Emergency Response Level
  • Scenarios
  • Evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission
    of novel influenza overseas or in Hong Kong
  • Pandemic influenza

13
Actions from Public - Emergency Level
  • Use mask appropriately
  • Pay attention to and comply with
  • guidelines issued by the Government

14
Current level ?
15
How to Prevent
  • Avoid touching live birds and poultry and their
    droppings
  • After contact with live birds and poultry, wash
    hands thoroughly with liquid soap and water
    immediately
  • Poultry and eggs should be thoroughly cooked
    before eating
  • Travellers returning from endemic areas should
    consult doctors promptly if they have symptoms of
    influenza after the trip. Let the doctors know
    the travel history and wear a mask to prevent
    spread of the disease

16
How to Prevent
  • Keep the environment clean
  • - Ensure good ventilation
  • - Avoid visiting crowded places with poor
    ventilation
  • - Prevent the trap from drying, pour half a
    litre of water
  • into each drain outlet once a week
  • - Keep your home clean, wipe furniture and
    toilets with a
  • diluted household bleach solution in the
    ratio of 1 in 99
  • once a day

17
How to Prevent
  • 8 Steps to Protect Yourself
  • Individual preparedness
  • Before the pandemic comes
  • When the pandemic comes

18
Why Should We Prevent Influenza
  • Changeable surface antigens of
    influenza viruses
  • Potential threat
  • Antigenic drift
  • (minor changes)
  • Seasonal influenza


Antigenic shift (major changes)
Emergence of pandemic strain
Influenza pandemic
19
8 Steps To Protect Yourself
Step 1 Be prepared Step 2 Get
vaccinated Step 3 Keep hands clean Step 4
Use mask properly
20
8 Steps To Protect Yourself
Step 5 Know how influenza presents Step 6
Manage fever well Step 7 Practise healthy
lifestyle Step 8 Be resourceful
21
Step 1 Be Prepared
Follow a healthy lifestyle Consult a doctor for influenza vaccination
22
Step 1 Be Prepared
  • Build up good personal hygiene
  • wash hands frequently
  • cover mouth and nose with tissue
  • paper when coughing or sneezing
  • and dispose of soiled tissue paper
  • properly in a lidded rubbish bin
  • avoid touching eyes, mouth or nose
  • wear mask when symptoms of
  • respiratory tract infection develop

23
Step 1 Be Prepared
Keep at home Masks Anti-pyretics for use when necessary Thermometer Liquid soap Tissue paper Be always ready with information of family doctor other useful information
24
Step 2 Get Vaccinated
  • Seasonal peaks Jan - Mar / Jul Aug
  • Influenza vaccination
  • one of the effective means in preventing
    influenza and its complications
  • Influenza vaccination to special groups is
    recommended

25
Step 2 Get Vaccinated
People who should receive influenza vaccination Elderly persons living in residential care homes Long-stay residents of institutions for the disabled Elderly persons aged 65 years or above Persons with chronic illnesses Health care workers Poultry workers Children aged 6 to 23 months Pregnant women Influenza vaccine can be given on the same day as other types of vaccines
26
Step 2 Get Vaccinated
  • People not suitable to
  • receive influenza vaccination
  • Allergic to eggs, neomycin, etc
  • Allergic to previous dose of influenza vaccine
  • With bleeding disorders or on warfarin
  • ? deep subcutaneous injection
  • Suffer from acute febrile illness
  • ? receive when recover

27
Step 2 Get Vaccinated
  • Two weeks after vaccination
  • ? antibodies develop and
  • provide protection
  • Immunity decline over time

28
Step 2 Get Vaccinated
Yearly influenza vaccine is targeted on seasonal influenza only Development of a new vaccine which matches the pandemic viral strain will probably take several months to complete
29
Step 3 Keep Hands Clean
When Should We Wash Our Hands? Before touching eyes, mouth nose When hands are contaminated by respiratory secretion e.g. after coughing / sneezing After touching public installations or equipment e.g. escalator handrails, elevator control panels, door knobs Before handling food or eating After going to toilet
When Should We Wash Our Hands? Before touching eyes, mouth nose When hands are contaminated by respiratory secretion e.g. after coughing / sneezing After touching public installations or equipment e.g. escalator handrails, elevator control panels, door knobs Before handling food or eating After going to toilet
When Should We Wash Our Hands? Before touching eyes, mouth nose When hands are contaminated by respiratory secretion e.g. after coughing / sneezing After touching public installations or equipment e.g. escalator handrails, elevator control panels, door knobs Before handling food or eating After going to toilet
When Should We Wash Our Hands? Before touching eyes, mouth nose When hands are contaminated by respiratory secretion e.g. after coughing / sneezing After touching public installations or equipment e.g. escalator handrails, elevator control panels, door knobs Before handling food or eating After going to toilet
30
Step 3 Keep Hands Clean
Steps to Good Handwashing Wet hands under running water Apply liquid soup and rub hands together to make a soapy lather Massage all the finger tips properly for at least 20 seconds Rinse hands thoroughly under running water
31
Step 3 Keep Hands Clean
Dry hands thoroughly with clean cotton towel / paper towel / hand dryer The tap may be turned off by using the towel wrapping the faucet Note Rub hands with 70-80 alcohol solution to disinfect them when hand washing facilities are not available
32
Step 4 Use Mask Properly
A way to prevent spread of respiratory tract infections Surgical masks ? prevent spread of droplet infections
33
Step 4 Use Mask Properly
People who should wear mask Patients with respiratory infection symptoms Caregivers of patients with respiratory infection symptoms Visitors of clinics or hospitals
34
Step 4 Use Mask Properly
  • Points to note about wearing a surgical mask
  • The mask should fit snugly over the face
  • Try not to touch the mask once it is secured on
    your face. If you must do so, wash your hands
    before and after touching the mask
  • When taking off the mask, avoid touching the
    outside of the mask

35
Step 4 Use Mask Properly
  • Points to note about wearing a surgical mask
  • After taking off the mask, put the mask into a
    plastic or paper bag before putting it into a
    rubbish bin with a lid
  • A surgical mask should be changed at least daily
  • Replace the mask immediately if it is damaged or
    soiled

36
Step 5 Know How Influenza Presents
Incubation period about 1-3 days Signs and symptoms of influenza Fever Headache Muscle ache Cough Sore throat Runny nose
37
Step 6 Manage Fever Well
FEVER - Symptom of underlying illness (should concern about specific illness that causes fever) Normal body temperature 37? / 98.6? can vary 1?- 1.5? normally Readings taken as reference under different methods of measurement Rectal temperature (38?) Oral or tympanic temperature (37.5 ?) Axillary temperature (37.0 ?, less reliable)
38
Step 6 Manage Fever Well
Self-care tips of fever Dressing in lightweight clothing and using light blanket ? facilitate escape of body heat Maintaining good ventilation of indoor areas ? facilitate escape of body heat Drink adequate amount of water Consume nutritious and easily digestible food Have adequate rest
Self-care tips of fever Dressing in lightweight clothing and using light blanket ? facilitate escape of body heat Maintaining good ventilation of indoor areas ? facilitate escape of body heat Drink adequate amount of water Consume nutritious and easily digestible food Have adequate rest
Self-care tips of fever Dressing in lightweight clothing and using light blanket ? facilitate escape of body heat Maintaining good ventilation of indoor areas ? facilitate escape of body heat Drink adequate amount of water Consume nutritious and easily digestible food Have adequate rest
Self-care tips of fever Dressing in lightweight clothing and using light blanket ? facilitate escape of body heat Maintaining good ventilation of indoor areas ? facilitate escape of body heat Drink adequate amount of water Consume nutritious and easily digestible food Have adequate rest
39
Step 6 Manage Fever Well
Self-care tips of fever Check body temperature regularly When taking antipyretics, one should follow the instructions on the package of the medication or follow the doctors advice Consult a doctor especially if symptoms are persistent, severe or getting worse Note General households should maintain about one weeks supply of antipyretics for use when necessary
Self-care tips of fever Check body temperature regularly When taking antipyretics, one should follow the instructions on the package of the medication or follow the doctors advice Consult a doctor especially if symptoms are persistent, severe or getting worse Note General households should maintain about one weeks supply of antipyretics for use when necessary
Self-care tips of fever Check body temperature regularly When taking antipyretics, one should follow the instructions on the package of the medication or follow the doctors advice Consult a doctor especially if symptoms are persistent, severe or getting worse Note General households should maintain about one weeks supply of antipyretics for use when necessary
Self-care tips of fever Check body temperature regularly When taking antipyretics, one should follow the instructions on the package of the medication or follow the doctors advice Consult a doctor especially if symptoms are persistent, severe or getting worse Note General households should maintain about one weeks supply of antipyretics for use when necessary
40
Step 7 Practise Healthy Lifestyle
  • Is one of the most effective ways to prevent
    communicable diseases
  • Consisting
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Get regular exercise
  • Do not smoke
  • Have adequate rest
  • ? build up body resistance

41
Step 7 Practise Healthy Lifestyle
  • Major components of
  • a balanced diet
  • A variety of food
  • Whole grains as the major component of each meal
  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables
  • Adequate amounts of fluids

42
Step 7 Practise Healthy Lifestyle
  • Eat adequate amount of lean meat or beans, and
    reduced fat dairy products
  • Avoid processed or preserved food and food that
    is rich in fat, cholesterol, salt and sugar
  • Have regular meals

43
Step 7 Practise Healthy Lifestyle
  • Regular exercise
  • 30 minutes every day /
  • accumulate exercise time in multiple sessions
    not less than 10 minutes each
  • Physical activity of moderate intensity
  • ? build up cardiovascular endurance
  • ? enhance heart and lung functions
  • ? improve health

44
Step 8 Be Resourceful
Useful websites Department of Health www.dh.gov.hk Centre for Health Protection www.chp.gov.hk Medical organization hotlines 24-Hour Health Education Hotline of the DH 2833 0111 Influenza Pandemic Hotline of the DH 2125 1111 Tel nos. of hospitals under the HA having 24-hour emergency services Tel nos. of private hospitals having 24- hour emergency services
45
Knowledge can alleviate fear
  • Before crisis comes Go through Influenza
    Pandemic Preparedness Kit
  • During the pandemic Information government
    advice available through pamphlets, posters,
    websites, hotlines the media

46
  • Take Preventive Actions in
  • Peace Time
  • Understand Influenza
  • Work Together
  • Prevent the PANDEMIC


47
?? THANK YOU
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