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Grade 9 Health

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Title: Grade 9 Health Drugs and Alcohol Author: Pam Last modified by: OCDSB User Created Date: 10/23/2007 11:21:53 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Grade 9 Health


1
Grade 9 Health Drugs and Alcohol
2
Drug Statistics
  • Alcohol and drugs are the leading cause of death
    for youth 16-24.
  • 45-60 of all fatal traffic accidents involve
    alcohol.
  • 80 of all attempted suicides and 60 of
    completed suicides are related to alcohol, drug
    use.
  • For youth, the time required to move from initial
    use to serious, chronic abuse of alcohol is 15
    years.

3
Drug Stats contd
  • Drug, alcohol dependence develops 10-15 times
    faster in youth.
  • Alcohol and/or drugs play a role in
  • 70 out of 100 murders
  • 50 out of 100 arrests
  • 50 out of 100 drownings

4
Note What is a drug?
  • A drug is anything other than food or water that
    when put into the body changes the way the body
    or mind works. This definition includes
    medicines, over-the-counter drugs, illegal drugs,
    alcohol, nicotine, food preservatives, many
    industrial chemicals and pollutants.

5
Note Common Methods of Taking Drugs
  • There are many different kinds of drugs which can
    be taken into the body in a number of ways
  • INGEST to take orally eg)pills
  • INHALE to breathe in through the nose/mouth
  • eg) nicotine
  • INJECT to insert into the bloodstream (the most
    direct eg) insulin
  • ABSORB to take in through tissue walls eg)
    ointment

6
Methods of taking drugs
Inhaling
Snorting
Injection
7
Note Dependence/Tolerance
  • Physical Dependence
  • When a drug users body becomes accustomed to a
    drug that it can only function normally if the
    drug is present. ( suffers withdrawal symptoms if
    drug not present)
  • Psychological Dependence
  • When a drug is so central to a persons thoughts,
    emotions, etc, that it is extremely difficult to
    stop using it (intense craving for the drug and
    its effects)
  • Tolerance
  • A user needs more and more of the drug to get the
    same effect over time. (increases physical health
    hazards because amount increases)

8
Note Drugs
  • Drug Misuse
  • For most medical drugs there is a proper use.
  • Misuse occurs when the drug is taken
  • - for the wrong reason
  • -in the wrong amount
  • - at an inappropriate time
  • -in an inappropriate place

9
Note Drugs
  • Drug Abuse
  • A person who spends a great deal of time thinking
    about and using drugs.
  • May cause problems such as missing school, having
    accidents, etc.
  • Overdose
  • A dose that can cause serious and sudden physical
    or mental damage.
  • May or may not be fatal depending on drug.

10
Dear Abby
  • Dear Abby I recently read the following item,
    comparing the top seven problems past and
    present confronting our schools, and thought
    you might like to print it.
  • Top Problems in 1949
  • Talking
  • Chewing gum
  • Making noise
  • Running in the halls
  • Getting out of line
  • Wearing improper clothing
  • Not putting paper in the wastebaskets

11
Top Problems Today
  1. Drug abuse
  2. Alcohol abuse
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Suicide
  5. Rape
  6. Robbery
  7. Assault

12
Note 3 Categories of Drugs
  • Stimulants
  • Speed up nervous system
  • Feel more alert and active
  • Increase heart rate, blood pressure and
    respiration rate
  • Includes caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine

13
Stimulants
Caffeine
Cocaine
Nicotine
14
Note Depressants
  • Depressants
  • Sedative
  • Slow body functions
  • Relax muscles, relieves stress
  • Slows heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
  • Includes alcohol, LSD, cannabis, opioids

15
Depressants
LSD
Alcohol
Amphetamines
16
Note Hallucinogens
  • Hallucinogens
  • Drugs that produce imaginary visions
  • Includes LSD, cannabis, PCP. Magic mushrooms

Cannabis
LSD
17
Note The Effects of a Drug Problem on a Persons
Life
1 2 3
HEALTH FAMILY WORK
-malnourished -overweight -vitamin deficiency -liver or heart disease -General physical ill health -arguments, fighting -lack of affection -neglect -broken home -late -absent -sloppiness -accidents
4 5 6
SOCIAL MONEY LEGAL
-loss of friends Using drugs alone at home -using money for drugs instead of food/clothes, debts -driving while under the influence of drugs -being drunk in a public place -fighting, vandalism
18
Reasons for Using and Not Using Drugs
  • Brainstorm with a partner

19
Reasons for Using Drugs
  • To increase pleasure
  • Because they like the way they taste
  • They like the way they feel after using drugs
  • Curiosity
  • Celebration
  • Forget problems
  • Family custom
  • To socialize
  • Friends use drugs
  • Boredom

20
Reasons for Not Using Drugs
  • Because they think using drugs is wrong
  • Religion forbids use
  • Dont like taste
  • Believe drugs will damage health
  • Cost
  • Dont like the feeling drugs give them
  • Positive peer pressure
  • Family norms
  • Community norms

21
Note Date Rape Drugs
Rohypnol
  • What are date rape drugs?
  • These are drugs that are sometimes used to assist
    a sexual assault. These drugs often have no
    colour or smell.
  • What do the drugs look like?
  • Rohypnol is a pill and dissolves in liquids. New
    pills turn blue when added to liquids. However,
    the old pills have no colour and are still
    available. GHB is a clear, colourless liquid.

22
  • What effects do these drugs have on the body?
  • Memory loss
  • Low blood pressure
  • Sleepiness
  • Less muscle control
  • Drunk feeling

GHB
23
  • How can I protect myself from being a victim?
  • Never leave your drink unattended
  • Dont share drinks
  • Have a non-drinking friend with you
  • Dont accept drinks from anyone
  • Use a bottle instead of a glass

24
Test Your Smoking IQ
  1. The nicotine in cigarettes causes cancer. ___
  2. The tar in ciagarettes causes addiction. ___
  3. Cigarette smoking can lead to heart disease. ___
  4. Over 1000 people die each day from smoking. ___
  5. It is safe to smoke filtered cigarettes.___
  6. Chewing tobacco contains less nicotine than
    cigarettes.___
  7. Being in a smoke filled room for one hour is the
    same as smoking one cigarette. ___

25
  • 8. Being in a smoke filled room for one hour is
    the same as smoking one cigarette. ___
  • 9. A woman who smokes during pregnancy can harm
    the fetus. ___
  • 10. Polonium is a radioactive element found in
    cigarette smoke. ___
  • 11. Smoking pipes can cigars is a great deal less
    dangerous then smoking cigarettes. ___

26
Whats in a cigarette
27
Did you know?
  • Smoking increases by grade from 1 in 7th gr to
    17 in 12th graders
  • It is illegal to give or sell tobacco to anyone
    under 19
  • Tobacco is responsible for about 1/3rd of cancers
  • 5 of Ottawa students smoked their first
    cigarette in Gr 7 or 8
  • Another 12 smoked their first one in high school
  • Remaining 83 have never smoked

28
Handout Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking
  • Within 20 minutes of last cigarette
  • Bp may drop to normal levels
  • Pulse rate drops to normal rate
  • Body temp of hands, feet increases to normal
  • 8 hours
  • Carbon monoxide level in blood drops
  • Oxygen level in blood increases
  • 24 hours
  • Nerve endings may re-grow
  • Ability to smell and taste enhanced
  • 72 hours
  • Bronchial tubes relax, if undamaged make
    breathing easier
  • Lung capacity increases

29
  • 2 weeks to 3 months
  • Circulation improves
  • Walking becomes easier
  • Lung function may increase up to 20
  • 1 month to 9 months
  • Coughing, sinus congestion, fatigue, shortness of
    breath may decrease markedly over a number of
    weeks
  • Potential for cilia to re-grow in lungs,
    increasing ability to handle mucous, clean the
    lungs and reduce infection
  • 1 Year
  • The risk of heart disease is reduced by half.
    After 15 years, the risk is similar to that of
    persons who have never smoked.

30
  • 2 Years
  • Cervical cancer risk reduced compared to
    continuing smokers
  • Bladder cancer risk halved to continuing smokers
  • 5 Years
  • Lung cancer death rate average smoker (one pack a
    day) decreases from 137 per 100 000 to 72 per 100
    000.
  • 5 to 15 years after quitting, stroke risk is
    reduced to that of someone who has never smoked.
  • 10 Years and Longer
  • Precancerous cells are replaced
  • Risk of other cancers decrease
  • After long term quitting the risk of death from
    lung disease is reduced compared to someone who
    continues to smoke.

31
Cancer of the lung
32
Note Drug Use Continuum
  • There is no automatic progression from stage to
    stage
  • Patterns of use can be influenced by many
    environmental factors (eg. Family, peers, media,
    and peer influence)

33
Note Non-use
  • Never used a particular drug

34
Note Experimental Use
  • Has tried a substance once or several times. Use
    is motivated by curiosity about the drug effect,
    and peer influence.

35
Note Occasional Use
  • Use is infrequent and irregular, usually confined
    to special occasions (holidays, birthdays, etc)
    or when opportunities present themselves
    directly. Availability, accessibility and
    affordability influence use.

36
Note Regular Use
  • Use has a predictable pattern, which may entail
    frequent or infrequent use. The user actively
    seeks to experience the drug effect, or to
    participate in the drug-taking activities of the
    peer group. Usually he/she feels in control of
    the drug use.

37
Note Dependence Use
  • Use is regular and predictable and usually
    frequent. The user experiences a physiological
    and/or psychological need for the drug. He or she
    feels out of control about its use and will
    continue to use despite adverse consequences.
    Drugs are often used alone and daily activities
    may be planned around drug use.

38
Trevors Story
  • Read the article Trevors Story and answer the
    following questions on a separate piece of paper.

39
Cannabis
  • Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug
    among Ottawa youth
  • More students report trying cannabis (23) than
    cigarettes (18) at least once in the past year.
  • Cannabis smoke contains more tar and more of some
    cancer-causing chemicals than tobacco smoke
  • Early use increases the risk of schizophrenia as
    young brains are still developing and more
    susceptible.
  • Results show Cannabis is used by ¼ of Ottawa youth

40
Cannabis
DESCRIPTION -dried leaves, stems and seeds of cannabis plant -smoked in piped or joints
COMMON NAMES -marijuana, hashish, hash, pot, mary jane, weed, grass
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -get a high feeling, become relaxed and more talkative -hr, bp rise, eyes blood shot, sleepy, memory and concentration impaired, hallucinate
LONG TERM EFFECTS -lose interest in activities, ability to learn new things decreased, get infections more often
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -buying, selling, using illegal unless special permission from court for medical use.
41
Cannabis
42
Alcohol
  • Alcohol is the most commonly used drug
  • About 24 of Ottawa students report binge
    drinking (5 or more drinks on one occasion) in
    the past month
  • 12 of drivers in high school drove within an
    hour of consuming 2 or more alcoholic drinks at
    least once during the past year.
  • 30 of students were passengers with an
    intoxicated driver in the past year and knowingly
    got in the car.

43
Alcohol
DESCRIPTION -most common drug, depressant that slows down CNS, made through fermenting fruit/grains
COMMON NAMES -beer, wine, spirits, booze, brew
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -at first relaxed and actions inhibited, cant think clearly, reflexes slow, mood changes, concerns of binge drinking or alcohol poisoning
LONG TERM EFFECTS -inflamed stomach, liver problems, cancers, heart disease, brain and nerve damage, FES in pregnant women
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -legal in ontario if over 19
44
Alcohol
45
Tobacco
DESCRIPTION Crushed, dried leaves of tobacco plant -second most popular drug
COMMON NAMES Cigarettes, smokes, sticks, butts
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -hr and bp rise, skin cooler, stomach acid rises, appetite decreases, less capable of vigorous activity
LONG TERM EFFECTS -blood vessels narrow, respiratory problems, cancers, stomach ulcers, risk of infections rise
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -no penalty for smoking under 19, illegal to sell to someone if under 19, illegal on school property
46
Tobacco
47
Opiates
DESCRIPTION -natural substances -used for the relief of pain -heroin is morphine that has been manipulated
COMMON NAMES -junk, horse, smack, meth, percs, juice
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -initial surge of pleasure, restlesness, nausea, vomiting, in an out of consciousness, pupils contract, skin cold, respiratory problems, high risk of overdose
LONG TERM EFFECTS -infections, respiratory problems, dependence
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -some legal with a prescription for medical reasons only, all other uses illegal
48
Opiates
49
Solvents/Aerosoles
DESCRIPTION -substances never intended to be drugs -made by chemical industries to be used in products such as gas, shoe polish, hairspray, removers
COMMON NAMES -glue, gas, sniff
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -feelings of euphoria, lightheaded, nausea, drooling, loss of co-ordination, brain damage, death
LONG TERM EFFECTS -pallor, weight loss, sores, liver and kidney impairment, mental confusion, depression, paranoia, brain damage
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -possession is legal
50
Solvents/Aerosoles
51
Caffeine
DESCRIPTION -comes from plants, includes coffee, tea, cocoa
COMMON NAMES -none
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -elevates mood, reduces fatigue, large doses cause irritability, restless, nervous, insomnia, increases hr, bp, urine production
LONG TERM EFFECTS -large doses may cause insomnia, restlessness, muscle twitching, irregular heart beat
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES Legal -restricted under IOC considered performance enhancing drug
52
Caffeine
53
Cocaine
DESCRIPTION -stimulates CNS -can be snorted, sniffed, injected, smoked -crack freebase form of drug that is smoked -cocaine is a fine white powder
COMMON NAMES C, coke, flake, snow, blow, rock, ice
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -decreased appetite, more energy, not tired, hr and bp increase, breathing increases, great risk of stroke, heart attack, pupils enlarge, bizarre behaviour, paranoia
LONG TERM EFFECTS -nose tissue damage, undernourished, tolerance increases, risk of HIV, infections, paranoia
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -illegal
54
Cocaine
55
Rohypnol
DESCRIPTION -sedative, date rape drug, tablets that dissolve in liquid
COMMON NAMES -date rape drug, roofies, roachies, forget pill, ropes
SHORT TERM EFFECTS -depends on amount taken, relaxed, drowsy, clumsy, slurred speech, weak, confusion, periods of blackout for 8-24 hours
LONG TERM EFFECTS -long term use can cause dependence
LEGAL STATUS/ CONSEQUENCES -no legal in Canada
56
Rohypnol
57
Magic Mushrooms
  • COMMON NAMES
  • -shrooms
  • SHORT TERM EFFECTS
  • -decreased appetite, cold in extremities,
    increased hr and bp, nausea, hallucinations
  • LONG TERM EFFECTS
  • -not toxic but a bad trip can cause severe
    emotional and psychological distress
  • LEGAL STATUS
  • Illegal for recreational use

58
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59
Methamphetamine
  • DESCRIPTION
  • - Looks like pieces of broken glass or white
    powder
  • COMMON NAMES
  • -crystal meth, speed, chalk
  • SHORT TERM EFFECTS
  • -euphoria, increased energy, nausea, sweating,
    loss of appetite, insomnia, agitation
  • LONG TERM EFFECTS
  • -long term use can cause dependence, weight loss,
    tooth decay, brain damage, insects on skin
    (compulsive picking at skin)
  • LEGAL STATUS
  • Illegal

60
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61
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62
Problem Solving Approach I.D.E.A.L
  • I Identify the real problem
  • D Describe or list all the possible solutions
    (every problem involves many situations)
  • E Evaluate the consequences of each solution
    would it be good or bad?
  • A Act on a plan, choose one solution for
    yourself to try
  • L Learn Did that solution or idea help? Why
    not? What might work better next time?

63
Case Study Use IDEAL
  • The principal of your high school speaks to your
    class regarding a classmate who has been
    hospitalized for a near-fatal overdose. The
    school staff and the class mates parents are
    worried that if the person trafficking the drugs
    isnt caught , someone else could suffer the same
    fate. It is suggested that all the information
    can be reported anonymously. You are aware of a
    classmate with whom you are friends, who sells
    these drugs. What should you do?

64
IDEAL contd
  • I
  • D a)
  • b)
  • c)
  • Pro Con
  • E a)
  • b)
  • c)
  • A
  • L -

65
Note Comparison of Assertive, Aggressive,
Non-Assertive Communication
ASSERTIVE AGGRESSIVE NON-ASSERTIVE
Strong steady voice Loud explosive voice Soft, uncertain voice
Good eye contact Intimidating looks Downcast eyes
Strong body language Intimidating body language Shifting weight back forth
Aware of other feelings Insensitive Doesnt feel comfortable talking about how he/she feels
Confident Demanding Nervous
In control Cannot control temper Uncertain
This is what I think This is what I want My thoughts arent impt
I statements Youd better If you dont then look out I guess, maybe
66
Types of Pressure - Note
  • Peer Pressure
  • Persuasive strategies commonly used to pressure
    individuals into doing something they really
    dont want to do.

67
Note
  • Subtle/Indirect Pressure
  • Seeing others use substances (i.e. friends,
    family, TV) creates subtle pressure. If its
    okay for them, it must be okay for me
  • Eg) Your friend is talking on the phone,
    organizing a party. You hear her say, Oh, buy
    some beer for Jen as well, Im sure shell be
    drinking too

68
Note
  • Direct Pressure
  • Being offered a substance or being asked if you
    would like to use a substance.
  • Eg) You are standing by your locker, about to go
    to your next class. Your best friend tells you,
    Grab your stuff and lets go! Were skipping!

69
Note
  • Internal Pressure
  • Your thoughts, values, and perceived societal
    expectations which may affect behaviour
  • External Pressure
  • Pressures from your external environment,
    including friends, family, media, work, etc.
    which may affect your behaviour.

70
Handout Refusal Techniques
  • There are many different ways to say no to peer
    pressure. Some of these techniques are

71
Refusal Techniques-handout
  1. No Thanks technique
  2. Give a reason or excuse
  3. Broken Record
  4. Walk away
  5. Avoid the situation
  6. Cold Shoulder
  7. Change the subject
  8. Strength in numbers
  9. Humour
  10. State a health problem
  11. Reverse the pressure
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