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Children With Down Syndrome

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Title: Children With Down Syndrome Author: Owner Last modified by: OWNER Created Date: 3/3/2005 3:32:39 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Children With Down Syndrome


1
Children With Down Syndrome

2
Creed of Babies With Down Syndrome
  • My face may be different
  • But my feelings the same
  • I laugh and I cry
  • And I take pride in my gains
  • I was sent here among you
  • To teach you to love
  • As God in the heavens
  • Looks down from above
  • To Him Im no different
  • His love knows no bounds
  • Its those here among you
  • In cities and towns
  • That judge me by standards
  • That man has imparted
  • But this family Ive chosen
  • Will help me get started
  • For Im one of the children
  • So special and few

3
What is Down Syndrome? (Definition)

(Paasche , p.87)
4
Causes
http//k-idshealth.org/parent/medical/genetic/down
_syndrome.html
5
Behavioral Characteristics
http//kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/birth_de
fect/down_syndrome_p2.html
6
Physical Characteristics
7
Treatment Options
http//www.ncbi.hlm.hih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd
retreievedbpubmeddopt.html
8
Possible Implications in the Classroom
  • May have difficulty remaining seated
  • Excessive climbing and running
  • Difficulty playing quietly
  • Fidgets
  • Blurts out (if verbal)
  • Interrupts, intrudes
  • Cant wait their turn
  • Impedes academic achievement
  • Nature and educational implications is rarely
    part of teacher training
  • Teachers are still expected to help these
    students learn and achieve academically

9
Specific Accommodations
  • Physical Arrangement of Class
  • The classroom should provide adequate space for
    children with Down Syndrome, to move around
    freely , if any tantrums should occur.
  • There should be a quiet area, such as the carpet
    area where the children can go to soothe and
    relax themselves, when feeling upset, frustrated
    and sometimes aggressive.
  • There must be a lot of open space, in means of
    having equipment pushed to the outside of the
    classroom, as well as having the doorway clear at
    all times, for children with Down Syndrome love
    to run and have habits of running around and out
    of the classroom.

10
Adapting Furniture
  • The furniture within the classroom should be
    appropriately sized for the age of the children
    within the classroom
  • The furniture must be free of any sharp or rough
    edges, as the children love to explore their
    surroundings and the objects around them
  • The furniture within the classroom should also
    have extra padding , such as having pillows or
    padding at the carpet area, as the children have
    tendencies to bang their heads or throw
    themselves down to the floor

11
Teacher supported or instructional activities
  • An educational assistant should be available
    for the child at all times, to help them complete
    hands on activities, and work such as writing,
    arts and crafts, cutting and pasting
  • Depending on the level of the child, some may
    need assistance when eating, as they tend to put
    too much in their mouths which can cause choking
  • Teacher must be by their side in times of
    transitions, or outdoor play, as they need
    guidance and tend to take off or run away when
    not accompanied by someone
  • There should be visuals in the classroom
    indicating schedules, routines, instructions,
    which may include short, common or familiar
    terminology, again depending on the level of the
    child as some may be more independent then others

12
Maximizing independence in routines
  • The teacher within the classroom should always
    promote and encourage independency among children
    with exceptionalities, as most children like to
    do things on their own
  • During activities, child should be given things
    they can work on, on their own and at their own
    pace
  • Examples can be shown to show child how things
    are done such as showing them how to cut, giving
    them scissors, and then letting them try on their
    own
  • With eating, teacher does not have sit with the
    child at all times, rather show the child how to
    eat by picking up a piece of food, putting it in
    their mouth and then letting the child try for
    themselves on their own. If assistance is needed,
    teacher should know when to move in

13
  • Visuals can be posted in the classroom to show
    children what will come next for the day, so they
    do not need to be told constantly, they can
    become aware of transitions, and they can then
    have something to look forward to which builds a
    sense of routine for the child
  • When walking, or outdoors, teacher should always
    be in view of the child, but allow the child to
    freely move around on their own, as it would not
    be fair for the child to hold their hand and keep
    them close by.
  • In times of tantrums, the teacher should allow
    the child to be on their own by allowing space
    for the child, to which they know they can turn
    to when they want to be on their own. Teacher
    should be available, though, to help guide and
    soothe the child , and be aware of the
    restrictions of the child or when the child may
    need them

14
Building social interactions with peer group
  • Providing an inclusive environment is extremely
    important
  • During circle time, activities, or class
    lessons, the child should be included as part of
    the group ratio, in means of being a part of the
    group in terms of participating.
  • Back at the desks, the child should be included
    with the arrangement of group of desks, so the
    child has the opportunity to engage in
    interaction with the other children in the
    classroom, and other children can get to know
    them

15
  • From time to time, the arrangement of desks
    may change, therefore, the child should also be
    included in the change of arrangement so they can
    move around the classroom and get to know each of
    the other children
  • Including the child as part of the change, can
    help the child grasp the concept of transitions,
    change, and become more familiar to it, which
    will allow it to be easier for them as time
    passes them by.

16
Other classroom strategies
  • Give immediate feedback
  • Avoid multi-task assignments
  • Use positive feedback when student has complied
    and whenever possible
  • Use praise and reward for desired behavior
  • Simplify the more complex tasks
  • Use structured materials, direct instruction and
    programmed learning
  • Use preferential seating
  • Try to teach more difficult subjects which
    require more thinking in the mornings such as
    math or spelling

17
  • Be flexible and modify classroom expectations
    when necessary
  • Avoid power struggles
  • Space short work periods with breaks
  • Provide additional time to complete work
  • Allow extra time for homework completion
  • Inform student with several reminders, several
    minutes apart, before changing from one activity
    to the next
  • Give alternatives
  • Number and sequence steps in a task
  • Provide outlines
  • Allow oral administration of test

18
Assessment Techniques
  • Tests
  • Provide a quiet setting for test taking
  • Allow tests to be scribed and allow for oral
    responses
  • Divide testing into small sections
  • Grade spelling separately from content
  • Allow necessary time to complete
  • Avoid time test
  • Permit retaking the test
  • Provide monitored breaks from test

19
  • Personal Observation
  • Anecdotal records
  • Record academic related behaviors
  • Teacher made checklists
  • Student-Centered Assessment Strategies
  • Think aloud techniques, self evaluation,
    interviews and student journals or learning logs

20
  • Working With Families/Parents
  • Encourage parents to bring in things from home
    into the classroom so that the child can easily
    recognize/relate
  • (link home to school from day one)
  • Meet with parents before the school year starts
  • Make promises that can be kept
  • Consistency throughout the year both inside and
    outside the classroom (on a daily basis)
  • Consistent communication between parent/class
    teacher/administration and school staff (keep a
    daily log/journal)
  • Teachers should reassure parents that they will
    gain knowledge and develop a strong understanding
    of the childs exceptionalities so that they are
    better able to integrate and include child into
    the classroom
  • Encourage peer interactions both inside and
    outside the classroom

21
  • Discuss re-enforcement programs such as peer
    buddies whether they support it
  • Develop/create visual schedules with parents
  • Discuss various techniques and strategies that
    work best for the child as well as, implement
    new ones and share them with the parent
  • Send home activities/work that has been completed
    during class so that child learns to link home
    and school (repetition and consistency)
  • Notify parents which peers their child is
    strongly connected to, so that it encourages
    communication among peers outside the classroom
  • Important to create connections with the child
  • Important to learn and gain knowledge, awareness
    of the exceptionality, as well, to get involved

22
  • Work with the parents
  • Communication between home, staff,
    administration,
  • teams success
  • Do the same things as with every other child,
    while also doing some things differently
    (depending)
  • Communication boards, visuals, gestures
  • Raise awareness within the classroom among
    students, as well as, outside the classroom among
    parents, guardians, etc. (allows individuals to
    seek ways in which they can help or get involved)
  • Be patient and understanding
  • Be helpful but not TOO helpful encourage
    independence (know when to intervene)
  • Provide resources from within the school for
    parents (make them available)

23
  • Be open to learn new things
  • Dont be afraid to ask when you dont know
    (parents/other teachers/principals)
  • Be sensitive to students needs (including that of
    the siblings of the child with exceptionalities)
  • Needs of a child ALWAYS come first
  • Be aware that some parents do not have any other
    resources but their child
  • Do not talk about the child as if they are not
    there, include them in any discussion you deem
    appropriate

24
The story of J(5 yrs old)
25
Initial Observations
  • Follows routines well
  • Accommodates change easily
  • Non-verbal
  • Points to things he wants or needs
  • Plays well, interacts nicely with other children
  • Can color, though attention span is limited
  • Imitates sound well, can repeat sounds
  • Works independently
  • Knows his colors, distinguishes shapes
  • Traces straight lines, problems with curves/zig
    zags
  • Favors left when cutting, but right when
    coloring, tracing
  • Sits well, independently, but not for long
    periods of time
  • Bangs head on floor or walls when does not get
    what he wants
  • Runs quickly and slowly
  • Walks on his own
  • Climbs chairs, tables, desks
  • At times, does not focus nor pay attention
  • Puts on, takes off jacket, grabs his own bag

26
Goals
  • - expand attention span
  • help prevent child from becoming frustrated which
    would then prevent banging of the head
  • Enhance fine motor skills ( tracing lines of all
    shapes)
  • Encourage development of language skills
  • Maintain social skills
  • Guide child in writing letters and numbers
  • Word recognition
  • - enhance gross motor skills
  • - Comprehension of when to run and when to walk,
    what he can climb

27
Activities Created
  • Expand attention span finger plays, listening
    activities/sound pictures, story telling
  • Gross motor skills balance beam/ bouncing ball
  • Fine motor skills- repetition of tracing shapes
    with dotted lines, string beads, picking up small
    objects such as rice/pasta, hole puncher, writing
    with a thicker pencil to start
  • Receptive pictures with corresponding words/
    sound, having child point to objects to test word
    recognition then showing picture, repeating
    simple words so child can become more familiar of
    the sound it makes
  • Visuals schedules, daily routines, tasks for the
    day such as washing hands, washroom, etc.
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