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Teaching, learning and assessment

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Teaching, learning and assessment Raimonda Markeviciene With compliments to Dr. Helen Cameron Student workload issue to consider (input: Give me time to think, U ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching, learning and assessment


1
Teaching, learning and assessment
  • Raimonda Markeviciene
  • With compliments to Dr. Helen Cameron

2
  • The adoption of a learning outcomes approach
    represents more than simply expressing learning
    in terms of outcomes. It entails much more due to
    their significant implications for all aspects of
    curriculum design, delivery, expression,
    assessement and standards.
  • Adam S, 2004

3
What do we mean by assessment?
  • A range of synonyms in English
  • Examinations, Evaluations, Appraisal, Judgements,
    Measurement, Review, Opinion, Consideration,
    Estimation
  • Practically
  • Taken to mean any formal review of performance
    or ability exams at any time, in-course
    assignments, practicals etc.

4
The purpose of assessment
5
Types of Assessment?
  • Summative assessment
  • Formative assessment
  • Primary purposes
  • Assessment of learning
  • Records achievement
  • Informs decisions about readiness to progress
  • Reassures clients, public, taxpayers, employers
  • Accumulative assessment
  • Primary purposes
  • Assessment for learning
  • Promotes appropriate learning
  • Feedback
  • Lifelong learning
  • Diagnostic assessment

Continuous assessment A combination of summative
and formative assessment. Usually involves
repeated summative assessments. Marks recorded.
6
Simple suggestions?....
  1. Clearly define the learning outcomes.
  2. Select teaching and learning methods that are
    likely to ensure that the learning outcomes are
    achieved.
  3. Choose a technique or techniques to assess the
    achievement of the learning outcomes.
  4. Assess the learning outcomes and check to see how
    well they match with what was intended

7
Tuning Links Learning to Assessment
First, needs analysis students required
performance This informs the intended assessment.
Write LOs to tell students and staff what is
intended. Use LOs to write new assessments / exams
ACHIEVED Learning Outcomes
INTENDED Learning Outcomes
STUDENTS Learning Behaviours
Achievements - INTENDED Assessment
THE Assessment
8
Assessment Design Must Match Learning
Constructive Alignment .
Learning Outcomes
Learning Behaviours
Assessment formative summative sampling format
setting timing/frequency compensation/hurdles
Adapted from John Biggs 1996
9
Constructive alignment
  • Constructive alignment is the deliberate linking
    within curricula of aims, learning outcomes,
    learning and teaching activities and assessment.
  • Learning Outcomes state what is to be achieved in
    fulfilment of the aims.
  • Learning activities should be organised so that
    students will be likely to achieve those
    outcomes.
  • Assessment must be designed such that students
    are able to demonstrate that they have met the
    learning outcomes.
  • Constructive alignment is just a fancy name for
    joining up the dots.
  • (Morss and
    Murray, 2005)

10
How do we join the dots???
Learning outcomes Module ED2100 Teaching and Learning Activities Assessment 10 credit module Mark 200
Cognitive Recognise and apply the basic principles of classroom management and discipline. Identify the key characteristics of high quality science teaching. Develop a comprehensive portfolio of lesson plans Lectures (12)   Tutorials (6)   Observation of classes (6) of experienced science teacher (mentor) End of module exam.   Portfolio of lesson plans         (100 marks)
Affective Display a willingness to co-operate with members of teaching staff in their assigned school. Participate successfully in Peer Assisted Learning project Participation in mentoring feedback sessions in school (4)   Participation in 3 sessions of UCC Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Programme.   Peer group presentation Report from school mentor       End of project report.     (50 marks)
Psychomotor Demonstrate good classroom presentation skills Perform laboratory practical work in a safe and efficient manner. Teaching practice 6 weeks at 2 hours per week.   Laboratory work Supervision of Teaching Practice     Assessment of teaching skills   (50 marks)
10
11
Cognitive domain Methods of assessment
Knowledge Oral or/and written exam testing, maps of concepts citation of texts, rules, facts by heart
Comprehension Narration, presentation, essay, testing, writing of a diary
Application Practical work, testing
Analysis Essay, project work, testing, maps of cencepts, case analysis
Synthesis Bibliography or literature lists, review of information sources, portfolio methods
Evaluation Eessay, research work, projects, case analysis, protfolio method, presentations
12
Tools of Assessment
  • MCQs
  • SAQs theoretical / applied knowledge
  • Essays
  • Practical exams / Lab / Recital / Clinical /Pres
  • Continuous assessment of performance
  • Continuous assessment of professionalism
  • Multi-source feedback (self and peer feedback)
  • Log books and Portfolios

13
Linking Learning Outcomes, Teaching and Learning
Activities and Assessment
Learning Outcomes Teaching and Learning Activities Assessment
Cognitive (Demonstrate Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation) Affective (Integration of beliefs, ideas and attitudes) Psychomotor (Acquisition of physical skills) Lectures Tutorials Discussions Laboratory work Clinical work Group work Seminar Peer group presentation etc. End of module exam. Multiple choice tests. Essays. Reports on lab work and research project. Interviews/viva. Practical assessment. Poster display. Fieldwork. Clinical examination. Presentation. Portfolio. Performance. Project work. Production of artefact etc.
13
14
The level (quality) of Learning Outcome
achievement?
  • Rubric A grading tool used to describe the
    criteria which are used in grading the
    performance of students.
  • Rubric provides a clear guide as to how students
    work will be assessed.
  • A rubric consists of a set of criteria and marks
    or grade associated with these criteria.

15
Example from Music
16
Linking learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcome Assessment criteria Assessment criteria Assessment criteria Assessment criteria Assessment criteria
Grade 1 Grade 2 1 Grade 2 2 Pass Fail
On successful completion of this module, students should be able to Summarise evidence from the science education literature to support development of a line of argument. Outstanding use of literature showing excellent ability to synthesise evidence in analytical way to formulate clear conclusions. Very good use of literature showing high ability to synthesise evidence in analytical way to formulate clear conclusions. Good use of literature showing good ability to synthesise evidence in analytical way to formulate clear conclusions Limited use of literature showing fair ability to synthesise evidence to formulate conclusions. Poor use of literature showing lack of ability to synthesise evidence to formulate conclusions
17
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18
Assessment strategy and criteria
Assessment strategy Weight in percents Time of assessment Assessment criteria
Work during seminars in the classroom 20 Teaching weeks within semester 2 points actively participates in discussions, answer questions, formulate problems and raises questions, gives critical comments 1 point participates in discussions, answers questions 0 points almost does not participate in discussions, missed more that 1/3 seminars
Written assignment (15 pages) 30 Until December 1. The following aspects of work are evaluated Structure and volume of the work structure clear and logical, shows all necessary parts (introduction, where theme, aims, goals, methods and empirical material are introduced narrative, where analysis of empirical information and its interpretation as well as conclusions are presented), work of necessary length (0,5 points) Analysis and conclusions profound analysis, conclusions based on empirical material 2 points analysis is carried out but not deep, conclusions not always well grounded 1 point, points are not given for poor analysis. Research style and culture appropriate treatment of sources and quotations formulations and style appropriate to scientific work (0,5 points). No written work 0 points
Egzaminas test (could be planned in 2 parts at the middle of the term and the end of the term) 50 January Test consists of 50 open and closed questions (various level of difficulty - from understanding to evaluation), each gives 1 point. Evaluation 5 Excellent knowledge and skills. Evaluation level. 45-50 correct answers. 4 Good knowledge and skills, minor mistakes are possible. Evaluation level 35-44 correct answers. 3 Fair knowledge and skills. There are mistakes. Evaluation level. 25-34 corrects answers. 2 Knowledge and skills are below average. Essential mistakes. Level of knowledge applicability. 15-24 correct answers. 1 Knowledge and skills meet threshold requirements. Many mistakes. Level of knowledge applicability 5-14 correct answers. 0 Minimal requirements are not met. 0-4 correct answers.
2011.05.12/13
19
Steps in writing assessment criteria
20
Planning the assessment 1 - Blueprinting the
Programme LOs -
Programme LOs PLO 1 PLO 2 PLO 3 PLO 4 PLO 5
Course 1 ? ? ?
Course 2 ? ? ?
Course 3 ? ? ?
Course 4 ? ? ?
21
Planning the assessment 2b - Blueprinting
detailed/module LOs -
Programme LOs Programme LO 1 Perform Lab Work Programme LO 1 Perform Lab Work Programme LO 1 Perform Lab Work Programme LO 2 Communicate advances Programme LO 2 Communicate advances Programme LO 2 Communicate advances
Module LOs KU Pract. Skill Professionalism KU Analysis Verbal/written skills
Course 1 ?
Course 2 ? ? ?
Course 4 ? ? ?
22
Planning assessment 3 Blueprinting Assessment
Tools v LOs
PLOs PLO 1 Perform Lab Work PLO 1 Perform Lab Work PLO 1 Perform Lab Work PLO 2 Communicate advances PLO 2 Communicate advances PLO 2 Communicate advances
Module LOs KU Practical Skills Professionalism KU Analysis Verbal/written skills
Course 1 ?
MCQ ?
Course 2 ? ? ?
SAQ ? ? ?
Oral pres ?
Course 4 ? ? ?
Practical ? ?
Peer feedback ?
23
Assessment on module level
Module LO 1 LO 2 LO 3 LO 4 LO 5 LO 6
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Exam
Isnt the fist LO assessed too much? Is there no
need to asses LO2? Do we need to assess LO 1, 3,
4 5 and 6 during the exam? What LO are assessed
during the task 3? Is exam a real tool of
assessment? Why so many LO are assessed in in
the exam when other tasks/methods are also used?
24
Suggestions
  • Avoid too many LOs per course unit. It is
    important when it comes to Assessment
  • It is unreasonable for assessors to have to
    evaluate students against too many LOs in one
    assessment
  • Too many assessments per unit is inefficient

25
Linking LO and activities (Deusto case.
Statistics)
  • The main goal of the course is to provide the
    students with a set of competences for the
    understanding and application of statistical
    concepts and techniques in engineering
    disciplines. These competences can be classified
    as general competences and specific ones
  • Specific competences
  • CE 1. Identify situations with a random behaviour
    and calculate probability of these phenomena.
  • CE 2. Know, identify and classify random
    variables from different sources of information.
  • CE 3.Identify and solve problems in which the
    studied variable follows a known probability
    distribution. To build up and validate suitable
    statistical models for real problems.
  • CE 4. Know the use of estimation and inference in
    order to study the behaviour of a model through a
    sample of the population under study.
  • CE5. Assess the importance of statistics and its
    proper use in specific engineering problems.
  • General competences
  • TIME MANAGEMENT. Distribute time equally
    depending on priorities, taking into account
    personal objectives. Define, organize and plan
    activities.
  • Domain level 2 define and sort objectives and
    plan individual activity over the medium and long
    terms (from various weeks to half a year).

26
TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGY (Deusto case)
  • Classroom activities (69 hours)
  • - Lectures explaining the theoretical material
    40 hours
  • - Resolution of exercises and example problems
    23 hours.
  • - Continuous assessment 3 hours.
  • - Final assessment 3 hours.
  • Out-of-class activities (81 hours)
  • - Individual study of lecture material 32 hours.
  • - Undertaking of proposed exercises and revision
    20 hours.
  • - Undertaking of intermediate mileposts and final
    presentation 11 hours
  • - Preparation for exam 18 hours.

27
ASSESMENT SYSTEM (Deusto case)
  • Exercises to be handed in at the end of each
    subject, accounting for 15 of the final grade.
  • Presentation of a course summary accounting for
    10 of the final grade.
  • Three continuous assessment tests consisting of
    medium difficulty exercises undertaken in the
    classroom during lecture time, accounting for 75
    of the final grade.
  • If a grade of at least 50 is obtained with the
    deliverable exercises, the continuous assessment
    tests and the presentation, it will not be
    necessary to take the final exam and the grade
    will be that obtained up to this time.

28
ASSESMENT SYSTEM (Deusto case)
  • If the student does not obtain at least a 50 of
    the grades, he or she has to
  • do the end-of-term examination consisting of four
    or five problems of medium difficulty, accounting
    for 75 of the final grade.
  • deliver the failed or non-given tasks.
  • present again the course summary.

29
Quality Assurance Process and outcomes
  • Tuning distinguish two types of indicators to
    measure the quality of programmes
  • The process itself for (re)designing, developing,
    implementing, evaluating and enhancing degree
    programmes
  • The outcome of the process the minimum
    requirements should have been met
  • For both purposes Tuning has developed
    checklists
  • 1. Tuning List of Key Questions for Programme
    Design and Programme
  • Delivery, Maintenance and Evaluation in the
    Framework of the Bologna Reform (Annex 1)
  • 2. Tuning Checklist for Curriculum Evaluation

30
Tuning approach for designing study programmes
Approaches to Teaching Learning and Assessment
Academic structure and content (modules and
student workload / ECTS credits)
Identify LA In terms of Generic and Subject
Specific Compentences
Quality Enhancement
Profile
  • Identify needs and necessary resources

Tuning Process
31
  • THE TUNING DYNAMIC QUALITY DEVELOPMENT CIRCLE

Definition of academic and professional profiles
Identification of resources
Programme design definition of learning outcomes
/ competences
Construction of curricula content and structure
balanced ECTS credit allocation
Evaluation and improvement (on the basis of feed
back and feed forward)
Selection of types of assessment
Selection of teaching and learning approaches
32
Programme assesment (W. E. Deming)
Implement changes
Design process components
Analyse data, report, decide on changes
Implement the plan
33
Programme and course unit assessment
  • INDIRECT
  • Alumni survey and meetings
  • Graduating student survey
  • Focus groups interviews
  • Employer survey/ interview
  • Parents survey/ interview
  • DIRECT
  • Assessment that directly measures achievement of
    LO (exams, portfolios, test)
  • Analysis of the study results/marks (module and
    programme levels)
  • Drop out rates
  • Students and teacher opinion

34
Student workload issue to consider (input
Give me time to think, U-ty of Oulu)
  • Preliminary work before contact hours
  • Contact hours
  • Individual work after contact hours. Individual
    work will depend on study methods used.

35
Suggestied proportions of contact and individual
work hours depending on study methods
36
Time allocated for the tasks depends on the type
of the activity/task
  • Written assignment. Time calculation - 100
    words/1 hour.
  • Presentation. 1 hour presentation requires min. 6
    hours of preparation.
  • Reading literature. Students must know whether
    literature is compulsory (for passing the exam)
    or complimentary. The text will be well
    understood after third reading (three staged of
    reading perusal, analitical reading with notes
    repetition)
  • 100 pages of easy text requires 20 hours. 100
    pages of difficult text or text in foreign
    language requires 30 hours.

37
Recommendations for calculation of reading the
text
Complexity of the text Time Necessary for deep reading Time Necessary for deep reading
Complexity of the text Humanitarian text Technical text
Easy 100 word/min 60 word/min
Average difficulty 70 word/min 40 word/min
Difficult 40 word/min 25 word/min
Difficult mathematical equations - 1 equation/min
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