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Making a Difference Culturally

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Title: Making a Difference Culturally


1
Making a Difference Culturally
Linguistically Responsive Practices in Early
Childhood Education
  • Susan M. Moore,JD, CCC-SLP, Clinical Professor
  • University of Colorado at Boulder
  • Slide design pictures courtesy of
  • Hilton Early Head Start

2
Learning Outcomes
  • Participants will
  • Learn about research in bilingualism 2nd
    language acquisition and current models of
    practice and how they provide a framework to
    address the educational needs of all children
    including those children who are culturally,
    linguistically, and ability diverse
  • The evidence-base regarding 2nd language
    acquisition and bilingualism and implications for
    practice within the preschool classroom
  • Factors that influence family engagement and what
    supports for families are needed

3
Key Questions to Frame Our Conversations
  • Why a multi-tiered model of ECE?
  • Population Trends in ECE How does this apply in
    our current context or a changing world ?
  • What information do families need about learning
    of languages? L1 L2 Development
  • How do we build relationships with families from
    cultures different from our own?

4
What is the Multi-tiered Model?
  • Response to Intervention (RTI) is a multi-tier
    system developed primarily for use with
    school-age children that is gaining widespread
    acceptance in schools throughout the country. RTI
    systems help teachers organize the way in which
    they gather information and deliver instruction
    to respond to childrens learning difficulties.
    Recently, there has been a growing interest in
    the use of RTI with younger children (three to
    five-year-olds), largely because some young
    children show signs that they may not be learning
    in an expected manner, even before they begin
    kindergarten. However, RTI within the context of
    early childhood (e.g., Head Start, child care,
    public and private pre-kindergarten programs) is
    considered an emerging practice.
  • (DEC Communicator , August 1, 2007, Vol13
    Buyesse et al)

5
One Example Multi-tiered Model
6
Rationale for Multi-tiered Framework in EC
  • Why wait for a label?Why not intervene as soon
    as we see a child struggling to learn? (Buysse,
    2007)
  • Key Components
  • Systematic screening and progress monitoring
  • Multiple tiers of increasingly intense
    research-based interventions to address
    individual learning
  • Collaborative problem solving process linking
    assessment to intervention

7
Focus Points
  • We can teach children with diverse cultural,
    linguistic, and learning characteristics
  • Intervene early
  • ECE practices that are family-centered,
    culturally competent, and individualized
  • Use research and evidence-based interventions
    based upon intervention hierarchy or tiered
    approach
  • Assessment includes gathering information from
    multiple sources, ongoing progress monitoring,
    and use of assessment data to inform instruction

8
Foundational Level
  • Universal Level of Supports for ALL Children
    includes
  • Administration
  • Staff with qualifications,
  • Physical environment, including materials and
    classroom design, health, and safety
  • Curriculum
  • Instruction
  • Assessment process for each and every child
    including dual language learners
  • Program Standards and Guidelines
  • Quality Standards for Early Childhood Care and
    Education Services
  • ECEA/IDEA

9
Key Question
  • How does this apply in our current
  • context or a changing world ?

10
Our Changing World
  • The rate of growth of dual language learners
    in the school systems has been dramatic over the
    past decade, with some Southern states
    experiencing 300 to 400 percent increases. In
    some parts of the country, more than 50 percent
    of the preschool population comes from
    non-English-speaking homes.
  • Linda M. Espinosa, 2009.

11
Our Changing World
  • Although many children are immigrating from
    different countries, children of immigrants and
    who are also U.S. citizens, are the fastest
    growing component of the child population.
    www.futureofthechildren.org
  • In the United States it is estimated that one of
    every five school children will be a recent
    immigrant and speak a language other than English
    at home by 2010 (U.S. Bureau of the Census.,
    2000). Home languages include Cantonese, Hmong,
    Russian, Spanish, Somali and Vietnamese as well
    as more than a hundred other languages. Kohnert
    et al, 2009

12
Change
  • Percentage of U.S. children ages 017 by race and
    Hispanic origin, 19802009 and projected
    20102050
  • Racial and ethnic diversity has grown in the
    United States, and the population is projected to
    become even more diverse in the decades to come.
    In 2023, less than half of all children are
    projected to be White, non-Hispanic. By 2050, 39
    percent of U.S. children are projected to be
    Hispanic (up from 22 percent in 2009), and 38
    percent are projected to be White, non-Hispanic
    (down from 55 percent in 2009).

13
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14
Who are these children?
  • Students who immigrated before kindergarten
  • U.S.-born children of immigrants (native-born)
  • 76 of DLLs in grades K-8
  • 56 of DLLs in grades 9-12
  • (Batalova, Fix, and Murray, 2007)
  • By 2015, second generation children of
    immigrants are expected to be 30 of the
    school-aged population.

15
Dual Language Learners
IOWA
16
Projected Growth
Iowa
17
Most Common Languages
18
Implications
  • The rapid growth of populations challenges our
    present support system for meeting the needs of
    children learning English as a second language,
    especially those in need of special education, in
    Head Start and other Pre-K programs
  • (23rd Annual Report to Congress).

19
Paradigm Shift
  • Deficit Model closing the achievement gap
    children at risk
  • students who are failing drop outs
  • Versus
  • Strengths-Based Paradigm Shift Children who come
    to school rich in cultural legacy competent
    learners
  • G. Gay, 2005

20
Shift to Prevention
  • Waiting to fail versus recognition of learning
    challenge with responses that may ameliorate or
    prevent the occurrence of failure
  • RtI/RR in Pre-K makes sense! How do we implement
    in a family centered, culturally responsive way?

21
Implications
  • Would you agree?
  • Parents and families benefit from
  • Respectful and trusting relationships with
    teachers and providers
  • Meaningful engagement in all aspects of the
    assessment process and educational planning for
    their children

22
Implications
  • Families from cultures different from our own
    also need information
  • Educators and specialists who understand patterns
    of 2nd language acquisition, influencing factors
    and who can distinguish language differences from
    disorders and teachers who share information
    regarding current research about bilingualism
  • Educators and specialists who adopt non-biased or
    anti-biased assessment practices
  • Educators and specialists who link authentic
    assessments to intervention as needed yet also
    provide information about community resources and
    parent education and support

23
Key Question
  • What do families need to become more engaged
    in their childs education?

24
Families Need Information
  • About Second Language Acquisition and Benefits
    of Bilingualism

25
2nd Language Acquisition and Bilingualism
  • I now know how I can support my child to
    learn both languagesIt is what we wantfor our
    children to know our cultureto be able to talk
    with their grandparentsyet still succeed in
    school
  • A Parent from El Grupo

26
Myths Realities
  • MYTH 1 Learning two languages during the early
    childhood years will overwhelm, confuse, and/or
    delay a childs acquisition of English.
  • MYTH 2 Total English immersion from
    Prekindergarten through Third Grade is the best
    way for a young English Language Learner to
    acquire English.
  •  

27
Myths Realities
  • MYTH 3 Because schools dont have the capacity
    to provide instruction in all of the languages
    represented by the children, they should provide
    English-only instruction.
  • MYTH 4 Native English speakers will experience
    academic and language delays if they are enrolled
    in dual language programs.
  • MYTH 5 Spanish-speaking Latinos show social as
    well as academic delays when entering
    Kindergarten.

28
Myths Realities
  • MYTH 3 Because schools dont have the capacity
    to provide instruction in all of the languages
    represented by the children, they should provide
    English-only instruction.
  • MYTH 4 Native English speakers will experience
    academic and language delays if they are enrolled
    in dual language programs.
  • MYTH 5 Spanish-speaking Latinos show social as
    well as academic delays when entering
    Kindergarten.

29
Conclusions
  • All children are capable of learning two
    languages
  • Young DLLs require systematic support for
    continued development of their home language
  • Loss of home language has negative long term
    impacts

30
Conclusions
  • Teachers and programs can adopt effective
    strategies to support home language even when
    teachers arte monolingual English speakers
  • Dual language programs are effective

31
Research Base 2nd Language Acquisition and
Bilingualism
  • Cognitive Advantage Educators should consider
    the cognitive advantage that can accrue from
    knowing and using two languages instead of
    considering only the possibility of
    disadvantages, this has been the case
    traditionally when consulting with parents about
    the pros and cons of bilingualism (Genesee et
    al, 2004)
  • Academic Advantage Research clearly shows that
    students in bilingual programs can develop
    academic skills on a par with, or superior to,
    the skills of comparison groups of their peers
    educated in English only classrooms
  • (Genesee et al, 2004 Lindholm-Leary, 2004-05)

32
Research Results
  • Educational Advantage Research findings even
    show that highly bilingual students reach higher
    levels of academic and cognitive functioning than
    do monolingual students or students with poor
    bilingual skills
  • (Hakuta and Garcia, 1989)
  • Economic Advantage In addition, students who
    are bilingual will have skills that enable them
    to take advantage of more career opportunities.
    (August Hakuta,1997)

33
Updates on Research
  • Bialystok,(2009) Bilingualism The good, the bad,
    and the indifferent
  • Results indicate increase in executive function,
    and cognitive reserve, but the effect on
    linguistic proficiency
  • (control of smaller vocabulary than
    monolingual peers) complex pattern

34
More Research
  • Morton Harper (2007) What did Simon say?
    Revisiting the bilingual advantage, Developmental
    Science, 10-6
  • Call for better control in differences in SES
    and ethnicity as an influencing factor

35
Myths Realities
  • One of the most widespread and harmful myths in
    our society is that very young children will
    learn a second language automatically, quickly
    and easily- with no special attention to their
    needs for an optimal learning environment.
  • Catherine Snow

36
Continuum
  • Bilingual children present with a wide range of
    language proficiencies that are dynamic and
    change over time, this makes studying bilinguals
    more difficult than studying monolinguals.
  • (Silva-Corvalan, 1991 Figueroa 1994 Genesee,
    Paradis, Crago, 2004 Grosjean, 1998 Kayser
    Guiberson, 2008)

37
Heterogeneity
  • Some variables adding to heterogeneity
  • Type of Acquisition Age of exposure and
    interaction
  • Language exposure and usage
  • Internal/Individual factors
  • Socio-cultural context for bilingualism

38
Types
  • Simultaneous Bilingual
  • Simultaneous acquisition occurs when a child is
    exposed to both languages simultaneously from
    birth or a very early age
  • Sequential Bilingual
  • Sequential acquisition occurs when a child
    becomes
  • exposed to and begins to learn L2 after
    developing his/her L1

39
Type of Acquisition
  • Type of acquisition results in different
    developmental patterns and language behaviors
    (Arnberg, 1987 Cook, 1997 Harley Wang, 1997
    Krashen, 1982 Tabors, 1997).
  • Sequential bilinguals demonstrate a great deal of
    variability in rates and stages of language
    acquisition (Roseberry-McKibben 2003Kayser,
    2002 Genesee, Paradis, Crago, 2004).

40
Internal and External Factors
  • Language aptitude, motivation, and strength of
    first language may all influence rate of learning
    L2
  • Exposure or input is critical in learning a new
    language as well as maintaining language
    proficiency

41
Language Exposure and Usage (Patterson, Zuerer,
Pearson, 2004)
  • Child Variables
  • External Variables
  • Adult language practices in the home
  • Sibling language usage
  • Language of Instruction in
  • Access to languages (language community)
  • Exposure to languages through media
  • Age of exposure
  • of usage in L1 and L2
  • Language use with siblings, and other family
    members
  • Language of play
  • General language ability

42
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
  • Silent Receptive/ Comprehension
  • Early Production
  • Speech Emergence
  • Intermediate Fluency
  • Advanced Fluency
  • Krashen, S.D.,1986

43
Childrens First Exposure to the Second Language
(Tabors 1997)
  • Stages of L2 Development 2 year study of
    observed stages By Tabors
  • Home Language Use (Typically quite short)
  • Non-verbal Period (Varies in length)
  • Telegraphic or Formulaic use (Whats up? I
    dont know)
  • Productive Language (Shift to novel utterances
    beyond formula)

44
Typical Bilingual Processes
  • Silent period
  • Language Loss can be transitional
    period/inter-language wherein students may
    demonstrate
  • semi-lingualism
  • Reduced Exposure
  • Codeswitching Code mixing
  • Cross-linguistic Influence transfer
  • Schiff Meyers,1992Kayser,1993Roseberry-
    McKibbin, 1994 Genesee, Paradis and Crago,
    2004

45
Why Is This Information Important in Assessment?
  • José is a 3 year-old whose first language is
    other than English. His participation in
    preschool is his first exposure to English. He
    withdraws from where other children are playing.
    However, you notice he is observing other
    children. Sometimes he will imitate their
    gestures in group activities.
  • Based on 2nd language learning patterns,
  • what additional information do you want
  • to observe and collect before you
  • interpret this behavior?

46
Another Example
  • Amos is a very bright 4 year old child who
    immigrated to this country 2 years ago and has
    had a great deal of exposure to English but
    continues to code mix and his parents want to
    hold him back from entering kindergarten until he
    learns better English what information do you
    need in order to help this family make a
    decision.

47
BICS and CALP The iceberg analogy
  • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills /
    Conversational Proficiency
  • on the surface can lead one to think youre
    bilingual !
  • Cognitive/Academic/ Language Proficiency (CALP)
    is fully developed for learning Cummins, 1976

48
Academic English
  • Academic language is the linguistic glue that
    holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school
    together (Zwiers, 2005) The set of words and
    phrases that
  • Describe content-area knowledge saturation
  • Express complex thinking processes and abstract
    concepts compare and contrast, similarly
    justify and support
  • Create cohesion clarity in written and oral
    discourse as a result of, as evidenced by

49
Additional Variables
  • Socio-Cultural Factors
  • Disproportionate representation of minority
    students in Special Education
  • Family Perspectives
  • Additive and Subtractive Perspectives

50
More Than Just Overrepresentation
Artiles, Rueda, Salazar, Higareda, 2005
Artiles, Trent, Palmer, 2004 Meyer Patton,
2001 Gersten, Woodward, 1994 Artiles
Trent,1994
51
Attitudes
  • Additive Bilingualism
  • Contexts where there is substantial support for
    continued L1 development and maintenance as the
    child acquires L2.
  • Subtractive Bilingualism
  • Contexts where the use of L2 is required and
    thought to replace the childs L1.
  • (Genesee, Paradis, Crago, 2004)

52
Subtractive Bilingualism and Language Loss
  • Can lead to the phenomena of language loss, or
    loss of skills in the childs L1
  • Children experiencing language loss fail to gain
    proficiency in L1 as expected, and eventually
    stop speaking and understanding their L1
    (Sharwood Smith van Buren, 1991).
  • Language loss can result in compromised
    parent-child attachment, less child directed
    speech, and decreased family cohesion (Luo
    Wisemann, 2000 Sridhar, 1988).

53
Language Loss More Than Language
  • Families from numerous cultural and linguistic
    backgrounds reported that as their children lost
    L1 skill, they also lost their cultural identity,
    values, and beliefs. Most importantly they lost
    their connection to home, and ability to
    communicate with family. Wong Fillmore attributed
    this to society that did not value
    multiculturalism.
  • (Wong Fillmore, 1991

54
Families Need More information
  • Especially if Children Have Diverse Abilities or
    Learning Characteristics

55
Impact of Disability
  • This is huge because her fathers side of
    the family doesnt speak English
  • Joyce Rochester Parent
  • We know that in appropriate circumstances,
    children, even those with language impairment,
    have the capacity to learn two languages.
    Professionals and parents need to assess whether
    the circumstances that a given child is in are
    conducive to dual language learning. They should
    never automatically assume that having two
    languages is the exclusive domain of children
    with typical development. Genesee et al., 2004

56
The Danger of Assumptions It is too
confusing?
  • Just because a child has a challenge or
    disability, it does not mean he or she cannot
    learn two languages multiple container theory
    (Tabors, 1997)
  • The research shows that children with SLI will be
    challenged in learning two languages, just as
    they are challenged in learning one language
  • (Genesee et al., 2004)

57
Disability?
58
Key Question
  • How do we build relationships with families from
    cultures different from our own?

59
Effective Strategies include
  • Cultural Mediators, Interpreters Translators
  • www.landlockedfilms Beyond Words Working with
    Families Part III
  • Ethnographic Interviews Westby,1990
  • Individualized Person Planning Pathways A
    Childs Journey
  • Parent Education Support
  • El grupo de familias

60
Understanding Families
  • Consider
  • Families prior negative experience
  • Impacts of disproportionate representation in
    special education
  • Moving beyond stereotypes about family
    participation
  • Cultural conflicts based on expectation
    discrepancies and experience
  • Familys fear of discrimination and prejudice

61
Understanding Families
  • There exists no generic entity which may be
    dubbed the Southeast Asian family, the Native
    American familyeach of these categories
    encompasses numerous cultures, their individual
    members may share tendencies in some areas and
    not in others. Individuals and families will be
    found to lie along different points of their
    cultural continuum ( from traditional, for
    example to fully bicultural). These are valid
    cultural distinctions only in the very broadest
    sense of the term.
  • Anderson Fenichel, 1989, Zero to Three

62
Individual Consideration
  • All families, in fact, vary greatly in the
    degree in which their beliefs and practices are
    representative of a particular culture, language
    group, religious group, or country of origin.
  • Eva Thorp, 1997

63
A Home Visit
  • Preparing for school means open communication in
    the language the family is most comfortable
    withoften a cultural mediator can bridge the
    gap.
  • Families need to know what to expect and we need
    to provide information about their rights and
    responsibilities as well as collect and share
    pertinent information in order to engage if the
    process
  • Beyond Words Effective Use of
    Translators, Interpreters
    and Cultural Mediators Part III

64
Learn About
  • Cultural and family values
  • Dreams for their child
  • Family priorities
  • Language use and exposure

65
Trust - Information - Choice
  • Families develop the ability to interact with
    professionals and advocate for their children
    only when they
  • trust in the responsiveness of the system of
    supports and services,
  • are knowledgeable about how this system works,
    and
  • have enough information to select the
    appropriate choices for their child and family

66
What Can You Do?
  • Adopt ethnographic Interviewing (Westby,1990
    Westby et al., 2003)
  • Listen to Family Stories home visits as key to
    preparing for assessments
  • (S. Sanchez,1999)
  • Focus on Individual Consideration (Thorp, 1997)
    Move beyond stereotypes and recognize individual
    differences
  • Use Parent Education and Support programs,
    networks, PTIs, etc
  • Outreach with information to traditionally
    under-represented families
  • Prepare and provide information and legitimate
    choices

67
Develop Skilled Dialogue
  • To address and resolve cultural conflicts when
    they occur with families
  • From anchored understanding to reframing and
    going to the 3rd space
  • Barrera Corso, 2003
  • Beyond Words Cultural Differences Dilemmas
    Caught Between Two Cultures Part II
    www.landlockedfilms.org

68
Helpful Position Statements
  • Where We Stand on the screening and assessment of
    young children learning English as a second
    language www.naeyc.org
  • Screening and Assessment of Young English
    Language Learners www.naeyc.org adopted 2005
  • Responsiveness to ALL Children, Families, and
    Professionals Integrating Cultural and
    Linguistic Diversity into Policy and Practice
    www.dec-sped.org September 2010

69
Key Question
  • How does this apply to multi-tiered framework
    and assessment practices?

70
Assessment Tier I
  • Purposes
  • For all Children including DLLs
  • To determine current developmental levels and
    abilities universal screening
  • To inform individualized programs
  • To document changes over time (progress
    monitoring)

71
Tier I
  • All children receive quality instruction in a
    well planned environment through a
    developmentally sound research-based assessment
    and curriculum approach involving universal
    periodic screening to determine whether most
    children are learning in an expected manner and
    identify children who may need additional
    supports. (e.g. Colorado Results Matter)

72
Classroom Assessment
  • Teacher and team observations of behaviors
  • Reference what you know about 2nd language
    stages and multilingual behaviors ( handout)

73
DK
74
Dual Language Learning Social Development
  • He was born in the United States he is currently
    2 years 5 months
  • He lives with his mom and dad and older sister
  • His home language is Korean, and he is in the CLC
    Toddler Group learning English.
  • He enjoys playing with balls and trains and
    airplanes. He loves readings books and dancing to
    music.

75
Strengths
  • Gross motor and fine motor skills
  • Attention
  • Receptive language in Korean and English
  • Empathetic
  • Emergent literacy skills

76
DL Loves Books
DK was referred for speech language services by
his pediatrician. He is currently receiving an
hour a week of therapy with an SLP at
home. Areas for growth from his parents
perspective include expressive language in
Korean and English and social interaction with
peers
77
More Information
  • His mother has observed a growth in language
    production in the past 2-3 months.
  • She reports he is producing 4-5 word utterances
    using simple sentence structure in Korean
  • In English, his utterances are 2-3 words.
  • Using mama as a carrier phrase
  • Labeling using nouns and adjectives
  • Repeats/imitates common phrases and new
    words

78
Other Observations
  • Associates words in books to classroom objects
  • Follows directions and routines
  • Supplementary use of signs

79
What do you think?
  • Which stage of ELA is DK ?
  • Language disorder or
  • language difference?
  • Does he need individual therapy for a language
    disorder?

80
Other Supports?
  • Mother expressed concern about DKs social
    interactions. Mother hopes for DK to initiate
    play with peers.

81
Observations of DLLs
  • Rarely protesting being taken advantage of
  • Seeking out an adult to mediate peer interaction
  • Less involved in group play
  • Misunderstood
  • Double-bind To learn the new language, the
    child must be socially accepted by those who
    speak the language but to be socially accepted
    he must already have some proficiency in the new
    language Communicative competence and social
    competence are inextricably interrelated (p.
    34).

  • Tabors (2008)

82
Benefits of Support
  • Systematic support for the home language
    through the preschool years ultimately increases
    academic achievement and proficiency in the
    majority language for TD children.
  • (Kohnert et al., 2005)

83
Strengthening Home Language
  • When home language is not established, there
    is a greater risk of
  • academic delay compared to monolingual peers
  • backsliding or incomplete acquisition of 1st
    language
  • placing additional burdens on the social,
    emotional, and academic development of these
    children

84
DK
  • Expressive language
  • No longer a primary concern
  • Social interaction
  • Friend Book
  • Redirection when asking for help
  • Cooperative learning
  • Supporting home language
  • Picture book reading with interaction techniques
  • Supporting the home language in the classroom
  • Routines poster in both languages

85
Any Questions?
86
Tier II
  • Progress monitoring enables teachers to adapt
    strategies used and target specific interventions
    to children who are demonstrating a slower or
    unexpected rate of development. Collaborative
    problem solving with parents and specialists may
    be needed. (e.g. dynamic assessment strategies)

87
Dynamic Assessment
  • Testing the limits Rephrase question, repeat
    question, take away time limits
  • Interviewing How did you do that?
  • Prompting Full model, training scaffolding to
    success
  • No transfer, near transfer, far transfer, etc.
  • Test-Teach-Retest
  • Naturalistic (take easel away! use items in room
    or other manipulatives)

88
Dynamic Assessments (test-teach-retest)
  • (Gutiérrez-Clellan Peña, 2001)
  • Target a specific skill
  • Measure the childs performance (baseline)
  • Select a specific intervention to improve that
    childs performance (Tier II Interventionseek
    evidence-based approaches i.e. What Works
    Clearinghouse)
  • Implement intervention for a specific amount of
    time (allow time for the child to learn!)
  • Use the same measurement as aboveDid the child
    gain the skill with targeted intervention?
  • Problem solve-Was it the intervention, not enough
    time, or is the child struggling?
  • Lets try it!

89
Lets Learn Some New Words
  • Intentional teachingMediated learning
  • Monitor rate, recall, and fluency
  • Will you remember tomorrow after
  • Pre-test
  • Purpose of learning explicitly stated
  • Today we are going to learn some new words we
    can use in the classroom when we are talking with
    each other
  • Models and demonstrations with explicit
    instruction
  • Repetition and Practice
  • - Post-test

90
Targeted Interventions
  • Key Considerations
  • Targeted concern
  • Small group or embedded
  • Rate of learning
  • Effective strategies
  • Documentation

91
Tier III
  • Response at this level involves linking
    assessment data to planning and implementing more
    intensive interventions. The support of special
    education staff expertise is key to this level of
    classroom intervention and may lead to more
    specific assessment of children not already
    receiving services on an IFSP/ IEP

92
Tier III Example
  • Child Find EspanolA brief description of a
    model for eligibility determination that is
    family centered, culturally and linguistically
    responsive to children and families who speak a
    language other than English
  • Assess in both languages as needed

93
Core Components of Assessment
  • Building relationships with families to develop
  • Meaningful engagement with choice
  • Applying current research in bilingualism to
    distinguish language difference from impairment
  • Assessment Issues Strategies include Dynamic
    Assessment Progress Monitoring Formal
    Assessments

94
Information from Multiple Sources
95
Difference and/or Disorder?
  • Given what you now know about 2nd language
    acquisition and bilingual processes. How do we
    differentiate difference from more challenging
    issues? Especially when

96
Masking
  • Linguistic differences may mask, mimic, or be
    confused for symptoms or characteristics of a
    specific disorder (Anderson, 2004 Cheng,
    1991Wong Fillmore, 1990 Schiff-Myers, 1992).
  • Children experiencing language loss have language
    characteristics similar to speech and language
    delays (SLD) (Anderson, 1999a, 2004).

97
Characteristics
  • Characteristics of speech-language disorders can
    vary across languages.
  • What is characteristic of speech-language delays
    in English may not be characteristic of SLI in
    other languages.
  • (Restrepo Gutíerrez-Clellan, 2004 Leonard,
    1998)

98
Predictors
  • Best predictors of SLD in Spanish speaking
    children.
  • -Parental report of Language concerns
  • -Language sample measures
  • -Family History of S/L problems(Restrepo,1998)

99
Kohnert, K et al., (2008)
  • Recent research questions non-linguistic
    processing skills and/or cognitive-linguistic
    interactions such as processing speed, attention
    and perception, etc as potential distinguishing
    characteristics of those children with primary
    language impairments in any language
  • Kohnert Windsor Ebert, 2008, Primary or
    specific language impairment and children
    learning a second language, Brain Language.
    109,101-111.

100
Overall Implications
  • Bilingual input does not cause language delay
  • Learning involves interrelated processes in both
    languages for typical and delayed children
  • Using a childs L1 in intervention results in
    transfer of skills to the childs L2
  • Gutierrez-Clellan (1999)

101
Implications
  • Children with disabilities are quite capable of
    becoming bilingual, and there is substantial
    benefit in encouraging development in the childs
    first language.
  • Subsequent studies validated these findings with
    children with language impairments, developmental
    disabilities, and hearing impairment
  • Kay-Raining Bird, Cleave, Trudeau,
    Thordardottir, Sutton, Thorpe, 2005 Kohnert,
    Yim, Nett, Kan, Duran, 2005 Guiberson, 2005
    Restrepo, 2003 Restrepo Kruth, 2000

102
In sum
  • How will I use this information in my future
    work of children from CLD backgrounds?
  • What will be easy to apply?
  • What will be a challenge?
  • What will be the outcomes?

103
Talking Stick
  • What did we learn?
  • What will we do differently?

104
Selected Resources
  • Gutierrez-Clellan, V.F. Peña, E. (2001).
    Dynamic assessment of diverse children A
    tutorial. Language, Speech, Hearing Services in
    Schools, 32(4), 212-224.
  • Hanako, Y (2008) The Cognitive Consequences of
  • Early Bilingualism. Zero to Three. November,
    26-30.
  • Kohnert, K., Derr, A., Language Intervention
    with Bilingual Children In B. Goldstein (Ed.).
    Bilingual language development and disorders in
    Spanish-English speakers (pp. 315-343).
    Baltimore Brookes., 2004.
  • Kohnert, K., Yim, D., Nett, K., Kan, P. F.,
    Duran, L., Intervention with Linguistically
    diverse preschool children A focus on developing
    home language (s).. Language, Speech, and Hearing
    Services in Schools, 36, 251-263., 2005.

105
Resources
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez, (2005) A Story About El
    Grupo, Boulder, Co Landlocked Films _at_ www.
    landlockedfilms.org
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez (2006), Working with
    linguistically diverse families in early
    Intervention Misconceptions and Missed
    Opportunities, Seminars in Speech and Language,
    27187-198.
  • Moore, S.M., Pérez-Méndez, C. and Boerger,
    K,(2006) Meeting the needs of culturally and
    linguistically diverse families in early language
    and literacy intervention in Justice L., Clinical
    Approaches to Emergent Literacy Intervention, San
    Diego, CA Plural Publishing Co.
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez (2002) Language and
    Culture Respecting Family Choices, Boulder, Co
    Landlocked Films _at_ www.landlockedfilms.org

106
More Resources
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez Beyond Words Effective
    use of Translators, Interpreters and Cultural
    Mediators, Boulder, CO Landlocked Films _at_ www.
    landlockedfilms.org
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez (2007) Full Circle
    Language and Literacy at Home and at School,
    Boulder, Co Landlocked Films _at_
    www.landlockedfilms.org
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez (in press) Teaching
    Dual Language Learners Proven Strategies and
    Instructional Practices. In C.J.Groak (Series
    Editor), Volume II., Early Childhood
    intervention, Santa Barbara, CA ABC-CLIO,
    Praeger.
  • Moore and Pérez-Méndez (in press) Partnerships
    with Families from Diverse Cultures, In C.J.
    Groak (Series Editor), Volume II., Early
    Childhood intervention, Santa Barbara, CA
    ABC-CLIO, Praeger.

107
References Resources
  • Santos, R. M., Cheatham, G., Ostrosky, M. M.
    (2006). Enseñeme Practical strategies for
    supporting the social and emotional development
    of young English language learners. Language
    Learner, 1(3), 5-9, 24.
  • Tabors, P.O. (2004) One child two languages, 2nd
    edition. Baltimore Paul H. Brookes Publishing
  • Zentella, A.C (Ed.) (2005) Building on Strength
    Language and Literacy in Latino Families and
    Communities. New York Teachers College Press

108
Human Resources
  • Susan M. Moore
  • susan.moore_at_colorado.edu
  • University of Colorado at Boulder
  • Thank you for joining us!
  • Puentes Culturales
  • www.puentesculturales.com
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