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Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management


Title: Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management Author: Withrow Last modified by: Thomas Davidson Created Date: 3/8/2011 9:51:38 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management

Criminal Justice Organizations Administration
and Management
  • Chapter Eight Personnel Evaluation and

Learning Objectives
  • Understand the difficulty in arriving at goal
    consensus within criminal justice agencies.
  • Comprehend the importance of organizational
    structure to employee supervision.
  • Know the differences between the human-service
    approach to employee supervision and the
    traditional model of employee supervision.
  • Understand the difficulty in implementing a human
    service model of employee supervision within
    criminal justice organizations.
  • Explain the guidelines for performance evaluation
    and supervision.

Criminal Justice Administration The Search for
Goal Consensus
  • Criminal justice organizations are expected to
    provide multiple services to the community.
  • Components of the criminal justice system have
    multiple goals and functions.
  • In some cases these goals and functions
    contradict one another.
  • Fragmentation and diversity within the criminal
    justice system exacerbate this conflict.
  • Attempts to reorganize components of the criminal
    justice system (monolithically) to reduce goal
    conflict often fail.

Organizational Structure Employee Evaluation and
  • Organizational structure influences employee
    evaluation and supervision.
  • Differences exist because of organizational size,
    complexity, and mission.
  • Organizational diversity forces administrators to
    develop creative ways to evaluate and supervise
  • Evaluation and supervision are also affected by
    budgets, differing goals, and the level of

Organizational Structure Employee Evaluation and
  • Poor evaluation and supervision systems are
    characterized by
  • Lack of clearly communicated rules, policies and
  • Inconsistent application of policies and
  • Failure to address problems and concerns,
  • Untimely professional feedback and disingenuous
  • Inadequate supporting evidence and lack of
  • Inadequate training and lack of employee
    development, and
  • The tone set by management in the workplace.

Models of Employee Supervision
  • Models of employee supervision have increased in
    recent years.
  • Public agencies actively seek improvement in
    employee supervision models by attempting to
    implement ideas from the private sector.
  • Some models have been developed within the
    criminal justice system.
  • Supervision models are highly influenced by
    motivation and job design.

Models of Employee Supervision The Traditional
  • Stresses a high degrees of centralization,
    formalization, complexity.
  • Includes the following elements
  • A hierarchy that includes
  • An identifiable span of control
  • A precise unity of command, and
  • A clear delegation of authority
  • Rulification, and
  • Specialization.

Models of Employee Supervision The Traditional
  • Key elements
  • Span of control the appropriate number of
    employees a supervisor can supervise.
  • Unity of command one person in charge of a
    situation and employee.
  • Delegation of authority clearly defined tasks
    and responsibilities to maintain organizational
  • Rulification emphasizes the importance of rules
    and regulations.
  • Specialization the division of labor within the

Models of Employee Supervision The Human Service
  • Views supervision within the context of both
    individual and organizational goals.
  • Attempts to integrate employee goals into
    organizational goals.
  • First step is to determine what employees want.
  • Consistently, employees report wanting
  • To accomplish job tasks, and
  • To feel fulfilled with their roles.

Models of Employee Supervision The Human Service
  • Key elements
  • Employee ownership when employees have more say
    in how the organization is managed.
  • Sharing of power allows employees to delegate
  • Controversy
  • Human service activities make the officers job
    richer, more rewarding, and less stressful.
  • Criminal justice managers do not have the
    authority to share power with their employees.
    Somebody has to be in charge.

The Human Service Model Possible in Criminal
Justice Organizations?
  • Regardless of their approach to supervision,
    criminal justice agencies are evaluated on the
    basis of their overall performance.
  • Conflicting goals, constraints and finite
    resources tend to force criminal justice
    agencies into the traditional model of
  • Accountability, equity, fiscal integrity and
    efficiency are possible obstacles to innovation
    in public agencies.

Performance Evaluation and Supervision Guidelines
  • Methods for evaluating employee performance have
    been, are, and will always be controversial.
  • No single method works in all situations and
    organizational environments.
  • Instead, key issues and concepts can assist
    criminal justice administrators with the
    performance evaluation process.

Performance Evaluation and Supervision Guidelines
  • Yukls (1981) guidelines include
  • Defining job responsibilities
  • Assigning work, and
  • Setting performance goals.
  • Oettmeier and Wycoffs (1998) model offers three
    levels of evaluation.
  • Individual performance
  • Team level
  • The organizations ability to address problems

Performance Evaluation and Supervision Guidelines
  • 360 Evaluations
  • Recognizes the importance of multiple
    perspectives of employee performance.
  • Encourages input from all those (stakeholders)
    affected by an employees actions.
  • Sacramento PD uses four sources of information.
  • Other programs use as many as nine perspectives.
  • Comprehensive evaluations of officer performance
    enable insight into how successful the officer is
    at achieving organizational or unit goals.

Performance Evaluation and Supervision Guidelines
  • Supervision models are just as diverse.
  • Here again, there is no one best way.
  • Most supervisors organize work into four
  • Traditional management
  • Communication
  • Human resource management
  • Networking

Performance Evaluation and Supervision Guidelines
  • Engel (2004) identified four styles of
    supervision among police supervisors.
  • Traditional supervisors who expect measurable
    outcomes from subordinates
  • Innovative - supervisors who encourage officers
    to be problem solvers
  • Supportive supervisors who act as a buffer
    between officers and management
  • Active supervisors who work actively with
    subordinate employees

Performance Evaluation and Supervision Guidelines
  • Robbins and Judge (2007) identify three skill
    sets of effective supervision.
  • Technical skills specialized knowledge or
  • Human skills the ability to work with and
    motivate people
  • Conceptual skills the ability to analyze and
    diagnose complex situations

Chapter Summary
  • Criminal justice organizations have many goals
    and often these goals contradict and conflict
    with one another.
  • This makes goal consensus difficult.
  • Organizational structure plays a major role in
    how employee evaluation and supervision will
  • The two primary models of employee supervision
    within criminal justice organizations are the
    traditional and human service models of employee
  • Criminal justice administrators face multiple
    challenges when attempting to implement a human
    service model of employee supervision
    (conflicting goals, competing interests and
    fiscal/organizational constraints).

Chapter Summary
  • Guidelines do exist for effective employee
    supervision within criminal justice
  • These guidelines must fit the needs, goals, and
    structures of these organizations.
  • Research identifies the primary work functions of
    criminal justice managers and the work roles of
  • Criminal justice managers use multiple styles of
    supervision and no single style is effective in
    all situations.
  • The effectiveness of a supervision style depends
    on the types of organizational goals pursued by
    the organization.

Thinking Point and Question
  • Captain Jones has just been assigned to command
    the Administrative Division of a large urban
    police department.
  • This division contains a diverse array of line
    and staff functions including
  • Crime records
  • Crime laboratory
  • Special investigations (e.g. internal affairs,
    public integrity unit)
  • Training
  • Human resources

Thinking Point and Question
  • In some units (e.g. crime records) employee
    performance is quantifiable. In others, (e.g.
    internal affairs) it is more difficult to measure
    employee performance.
  • The City Council has just approved a new employee
    merit pay system. Employees who perform
    meritoriously are eligible for up to a five
    percent pay raise.
  • Department policy requires that all employees are
    eligible for merit pay.

Thinking Point and Question
  • Using what you have learned about employee
    performance evaluation systems, develop a system
    that Captain Jones can use to make merit pay
    decisions for his diverse employees. This system
    should insure that
  • Only meritorious employees receive raises, and
  • All employees are eligible regardless of their
    work assignment.