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Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management


Title: Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management Author: Withrow Last modified by: Thomas Davidson Created Date: 3/8/2011 9:51:38 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management

Criminal Justice Organizations Administration
and Management
  • Chapter One Basic Concepts for Understanding
    Criminal Justice Organizations

Learning Objectives
  • Understand the definition of an organization.
  • Comprehend the concept of management.
  • Know the concept of leadership.
  • Comprehend the public context to both management
    and leadership.
  • Define and comprehend open-systems theory.
  • Explain the importance of complex goals to
    criminal justice administration.
  • Know the complex environment of criminal justice
  • Understand complex internal constituencies and
    criminal justice administration.

What is an Organization?
  • Organizations are defined in terms of their
  • Structure,
  • Purpose, and
  • Activity.
  • Weber (1947) distinguished corporate groups from
    other social organizations by
  • Extent to which they limit admission to the
    group, and
  • Whether they include leaders and staffs.

What is an Organization?
  • Barnard (1938)
  • a system of consciously coordinated activities
    of forces of two or more persons.
  • This definition
  • Allows for a variety of structures.
  • Does not limit purpose.
  • Is unclear whether activities are
    organizational or merely collective behavior.

What is an Organization?
  • Organizations
  • Develop cultures,
  • Are political,
  • Serve, and sometimes fail to serve, their
    members personal needs,
  • Actively seek survival,
  • Compete for resources,
  • Are internally complex, and
  • Exist in a complex environment

What is Management?
  • Carlisle (1976)
  • The process by which the elements of a group are
    integrated, coordinated, and/or utilized so as to
    effectively and efficiently achieve
    organizational objectives.
  • Ignores the notion of office or position.
  • Management is not the sole province of managers
    and supervisors.
  • Non-supervisory personnel can perform the
    management function.

What is Leadership?
  • Klotter (1990)
  • refers to a process that helps direct and
    mobilize people and their ideas
  • Dupree (1989)
  • Leadership is tribal in nature and focuses on an
    organizations symbols, rituals and culture.
  • Leaders focus on
  • Motivating employees,
  • Developing organizational culture, and
  • Changing the organization.

Management vs. Leadership
  • Managers
  • Leaders
  • Insure compliance with existing processes
  • Focus on planning and budgeting to achieve short
    term goals
  • Seek to achieve rationality by enforcing rules
  • Concerned about employees doing things right
  • Question existing processes
  • Focus on more long term strategic planning
  • Seek opportunities to change the organization and
    its culture
  • Concerned about employees doing the right thing

Management and Leadership in the Public Sector
  • Criminal justice administrators are constrained
  • Civil service protections, and
  • Obligations and expectations due to their public
    status designation.
  • The legislative process produces inconsistencies
    that further complicate the pubic managers role.
  • Public sector employee unions and associations
    are often quite powerful and influential within
    the organization.

Open-Systems Theory
  • Initially the focus was on the efficiency of
    internal processes (Taylor 1919, 1947).
  • This is a closed-system perspective wherein
    organizations are viewed as
  • Self contained, and
  • Unresponsive to their environments.
  • All elements in a closed-system are connected,
    but only internally.
  • Communication follows the lines of hierarchy.
  • Power and authority are a function of office.

Open-Systems Theory
  • The closed-system model has been largely
    discredited, especially for criminal justice
  • Organizations that exist within open-systems
    influence and are highly influenced by the
    environments in which they exist.
  • Criminal justice examples
  • Community policing
  • The interaction between the police and
  • Legislative changes in criminal statutes and

Complex Goals
  • Criminal justice organizations have both multiple
    and conflicting goals.
  • Simon (1964) first recognized this organizational
  • The pursuit of all goals impinges on the degree
    of goal attainment.
  • Not possible for all goals to be achieved equally.

Complex Goals
  • Complexity caused by goal conflict can result in
  • Conversely, goal conflict may actually be
  • Due process constraints placed on the police by
    the courts insures civil liberty
  • Plea bargaining by prosecutors reserves important
    resources for more serious cases.

Complex Environment
  • Organizations exist within environments that are
    made complex by competing interests and goals.
  • Police departments are particularly vulnerable to
    complex environments.
  • Crime control versus Due process conflict
  • Lack of universal agreement among the public on
    what the police department should do.
  • This results in police departments becoming more
    bureaucratic and paramilitary in order to
    mitigate outside influence.

Complex Environment
  • The environment also determines how pubic
    organizations are evaluated.
  • Clients may not be legitimizers.
  • Prisoners (clients) are not viewed as legitimate
    evaluators of the organization.
  • Mission, not the marketplace, determines value.
  • Law enforcement may be considered more important
    than corrections.

Complex Internal Constitutencies
  • Constituencies within the organization influence
    the organizations structure and function.
  • In most situations these effects are in the form
    of a struggle for power.
  • Employee associations and unions
  • Inmates in prisons and jails
  • Staff employees

Chapter Summary
  • Organizations are structured along three
    dimensions structure, purpose and activity.
  • Organizations are managed through a process but
    management functions are not limited to a
    specific office within the organization.
  • Criminal justice organizations both affect and
    are affected by the key elements of their
  • Unlike closed system theory, which emphasizes key
    operational components of an organization, open
    systems theory hypothesizes that criminal justice
    organizations are malleable and influenced
    differentially by elements of the environment.

Chapter Summary
  • Criminal justice organizations have many goals
    and compete with one another for limited
  • Criminal justice agencies have varied and complex
    environments that make criminal justice
    administration more complex.
  • Criminal justice organizations are evaluated, in
    part, by the perceptions of what various
    environments expect of them.
  • Criminal justice organizations are influenced by
    many internal groups, such as line personnel,
    support staff and others who perform the work.
  • Internal groups are powerful, but their power is
    being challenged due to budgetary concerns.

Thinking Point and Question
  • An intelligence analyst with the Bigton Police
    Department has uncovered convincing evidence of
    an active juvenile gang within the city.
  • The intelligence suggests this gang is active in
    numerous criminal enterprises.
  • Applying the information from this chapter, would
    this juvenile gang fit the definition of an
  • If not, why not?
  • If so, then how would you apply your knowledge of
    organizations to suppressing this gangs criminal